(ذُو ٱلْجَلَٟلِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامِ)

Ar'Reh'maan: the Proper Name of Allah the Exalted


: Ar'Reh'maan: This unique, rarest of the rare Personal Name of Allah the Exalted has widely been discussed by scholars, Muslims, Jews and Christians included, for determining its meanings by considering it as an exclusive Attribute of the Sustainer Lord of the Universes. George Sale had translated it as "the most merciful" and John Medows Rodwell as "compassionate". The other translators in timeline have merely copied them and likewise translated it as an adjectival with synonyms or synonymous words like "most gracious"; "the beneficent"; "the All-merciful". No translator and exegete, to the best of my knowledge and study, considered it as Proper Name.

Grand Qur’ān is perhaps the only book about which scholars, both believing and non-believing, quite often opt not to adhere to otherwise well accepted norms of behaviour - academic discipline of transferring a book of one language to another language. Just one example suffices to prove this unusual practice. One of the basic obligations of a Translator, who has self-assigned the task of translating a book into another language, is that he should firstly thoroughly study it to locate the Proper Nouns and identify them whether it is name of a person/sentient, place, or organization. We have in academics means and methods to distinguish a Proper Noun - Personal Name in a lengthy text. None seems to have cared to resolve whether Ar'Reh'maan is the Proper Noun - Name of Allah the Exalted, despite the fact that it finds mention for fifty-seven times in the text of Grand Qur’ān; fully declinable in all cases, nominative, accusative and genitive.

With regard to nouns, the basic distinction in languages is common noun and proper noun. The perception of the contents of source text may be distorted extensively if it is not resolved about a noun as to whether it is a common noun or proper noun, and whether it is descriptive or non-descriptive.

Proper noun is the name of a particular, individual person, place, community, or thing who/which is usually unique; it has a singular reference. A common noun on the other hand is a name in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

 "a name is a word or group of words used to refer to an individual entity (real or imaginary)" (vol.24, p.733).

The name is the code that gives basic cognition of existence and presence of a thing and person. Hence, name is the introduction for apparent/initial cognition of a thing and person. Cognition of the code/name of a thing or person is the first step in gaining knowledge about the thing or person. Name of a thing or person gives it or him a vivid distinction from all other things and persons and makes it or him distinguished, identified, definite and isolated [معرفة]; and grants ability to others to identify, and describe/remember/recall and/or mention-refer it or him to others. The name/code serves as a basis/foundation for others to enquire and study about it to gain further knowledge.

In Arabic the equivalent of name, code, noun is: that stems from Root: س م و. The basic perception infolded in it is of eminence, elevation, ascension, transcendence, and loftiness of a thing spread and overshadowing another thing.

Attributive names/adjectival descriptions - epithets give further information, insight and knowledge about the thing or person introduced by a Personal Name-Proper Noun. These are complimentary in nature and help acquaint others about the inner-self [بَاطِن] of the named entity - object or person/being. Every person and thing/object has two aspects; the one evidently apparent [ظَاهر] notwithstanding whether or not it is in the range of focus of someone, and the other is the inner-self, hidden, infolded, not apparent but invisibly embedded therein: بَاطِن.

The evidently apparent [ظَاهر] is the reflection of the fact of existence, and its cognition and reference is by the Name. The pursuit-journey of knowledge is from cognition of existence/Name towards knowing and perceiving the inner-self [بَاطِن] of that which exists and its relationships and equations with all that exists. We cannot have the absolute knowledge of anything and person/being unless we know its/his inner-self [بَاطِن] after its cognition, introductory knowledge of its Name.

Once we know the inner-self, all that is secreted, hidden and its relationships with everything else, we know and recognize that thing and Person in near absolute sense. Thereupon, it or He becomes more visible and apparent than the shining Sun in a bright  day, even without being in visual sightthe [ظَاهر] aspect of Him. Therefore, we know Him/him with such conviction, which is the absolute-exalted end of the knowledge. This type of knowledge, with reference to personalities, can be attained only about two,  Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted; and Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salamthe mercy Personified, since theبَاطِن of both is quite extensively visible to us all around, and that of the Spokesperson - the elevated Messenger through the courtesy of Grand Qur’ān.

Personal names are not translated in any language of the world. Proper names must be transcribed in the alphabet of other languages in the manner that a non-native produces the same - as-near-sound as is in the original language. Who could be a better Translator than Allah the Exalted and setter of norms and manners of translation? He the Exalted has translated perspectives of many people of various lands and languages into Arabic which are incorporated in the  text of Qur’ān. He the Exalted never translated the Personal Names by meanings but spelled them in Arabic to produce near-equal sound of the name as was in foreign-to-Arabic language.

We know that the Exalted Personalities have cognition by their Proper Name; and they are called or addressed by Title and/or personal Name for seeking their attention. Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam is the guide lord for humanity, he is advised to tell us:

 

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] instruct them; "You people are directed to call-address your Sustainer Lord as Allah the Exalted, or interchangeably call-address by personal name Ar'Reh'maan

  • At whatever point in time should you wish to seek attention, you should address with attribution since the names attributing the sublime connotation of exacting balance/ proportioned/ equilibrium/ virtue/ admirable/ grandeur/ just/majesty/absoluteness/beauty are appropriate and exclusive for Him (Ar'Reh'maan) the Exalted.

  • Moreover, you individual should neither perform aloud your Salat: Time bound protocol of servitude and allegiance nor should you reduce it to sub-vocal/zero audibility. Instead, find a way out in between two extremes." [17:110]

We formally call/address persons by the status, or position held by him or informally calling by his personal name. In between: and is: which means "or, alternate-interchangeable-appositively, either"; and thus it is reflected that both are the exclusive distinct Names of the same Being Who is The Only Iela'aha: Sovereign Lord of the peoples.

Important to note and remember:  The Personal Name: is unique; exclusive; no dual, no plural, no feminine equivalent Personal Name that introduce and grant cognition of an existing personality, unlike attributive-adjectival names-descriptions, never have duality and plurality. Neither there is any process/phenomenon/rule in the Arabic language for  “feminization” or "masculinisation" of proper nouns/names. Moreover, first two letters in the Proper Names: and should never be considered and equated with Definite Article: since it is the intrinsic and inherent part of the Names.

This name is unprecedented, this has no parallel:

  • "O Zakaria! Indeed Our Majesty are conveying you good news of a son, his name is Yahya

  • Our Majesty have not declared in aforetimes this cognition of name to anyone for his sake." [19:07]

 : It is a  Noun; quasi passive participle; and signifies assigning a name to a person:

  • [reverting from parenthetic, she had further said] "And I have named her Maryem [Refer 3:36]

About the unique name: Ar'Reh'maan a question is asked to answer in yes or no that none other has this name:

  • Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is the Sustainer Lord of the Skies and the Earth and whatever exists between the two

  • Therefore, you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] do continue calling/inviting people to be subservient-allegiant to Him: Ar'Reh'maan and remain steadfast in demonstrating servitude for Him

  • Do you know any parallel of Personal Name for Him the Exalted?" [19:65]

Without the code/name, existence of a thing is not acceptable, it is non-existent. Equally, without existence of a thing/matter or person in actual reality, any name/code assigned for such imaginative thing/existence is of no significance and is merely meaningless utterances of the mouth [In Arabic: أَفْوَاهِهِمْ].

  • Other than Him the Exalted, those you people worship/owe allegiance are nothing but merely names which you people and your forefathers have coined/innovated

  • Allah the Exalted has not at all sent any affirmation/authority for it. [Refer 12:40]

 

In our attempt to resolve the issue we will rely upon the Grand Qur’ān to let us know whether it is the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, or could it be stretched and considered as an Adjectival Name attributing a qualitative trait. We will study its use by reference to collocation context for its recognition-classification, as to whether it is Proper Noun or an adjective. A habitual word-combination is called collocation.

We will study under the following sub-headings:

 

Rules of Arabic language signify it only as Personal Name.

The nouns in Arabic, whether Proper Nouns or Common Nouns, in their default state are always "Nominative"; in Arabic مرفوع : its visual recognition is the presence of vowel sign  ـُ  on the last consonant of the noun. 

A peculiar and distinguishing feature of Arabic language is that; unlike other languages, say English and Urdu in which the adjective comes first-prioritized than the described one, the مُوْصُوف/the one being described/portrayed is always mentioned first followed by the صِفَة/Adjective. Arabic, the language of our guide lord Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, is a language of truth and absolute fact. The one  being described/portrayed; in Arabic: منعوت  or مُوْصُوف, is mentioned first since it/he is First in Existence, and it is always the مُوْصُوف who has either inherently and intrinsically the mentioned صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, or has acquired/adopted it. Hence, Proper Noun/Personal Name NEVER find a place at a secondary place as an adjective in the Adjectival Phrases.

Personal Names are also not the first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases [الاضافة]. They are always second noun [مضاف اليه] in possessive phrases. One will never find: : the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted as first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases.

The fundamental simple features and grammar of Arabic language vividly reflect that: has no other denotative and connotative ascription except that of the Proper Name. The Grand Qur’ān unambiguously explains in various references and contexts that this is but Unique and Exclusively the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of all that exists.

Though no further argument is needed in support of it being Proper Noun, but finding that almost all the translations and exegeses have erroneously rendered it adjectival, we will further study its use by reference to collocating context for its recognition-classification as Proper Noun and NOT as adjective. A habitual word combination is called collocation.

(1) Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is to be recognized as: .

The recognition of Ar'Reh'maan or Allah the Exalted is: such Lord who maintains Aloneness. It is interesting that this recognition is firstly mentioned in accompaniment to the Personal Name: Ar'Reh'maan and then for Allah:

  • Remain mindful; The Iiela'aha: Sovereign Sustainer Lord of you people is characteristically such Sustainer Lord Who maintains Aloneness

  • Realize it about miscellany of iela'aha: deities that are uncritically admired, adorned and worshipped; none of them is alive; none of them organizes, administers or sustains others except He the Alone Sustainer Lord

  • He (the Solitary Living Sovereign Sustainer Lord of you people) is Ar'Reh'maan, the Fountain of Infinite Mercy. [2:163]


  • And you people should not say advocating the concept: "Allah is one in the Trinity".

  • You people are directed to stop-leave propagating this. If you abide: it will be far better for you.

  • [as your earliest forefathers accepted and declared 2:133] Undoubtedly Allah the Exalted is characteristically such Lord Who maintains Aloneness.  [Refer 4:171]


  • And explore, from the record/history incorporated in Qur’ān whom Our Majesty sent foretimes before you from amongst Our Messengers

  • As to whether other than Ar'Reh'maan, did Our Majesty ever declare others as various iela'aha: godheads to be worshipped? [43:45]


  • He is Allah the Exalted, the One about Whom the fact is: in the miscellany of iela'aha: deities that are uncritically admired, adorned and worshipped; none of them is alive; none of them organizes, administers or sustains others except He the Alone Sustainer Lord

  • He the Exalted is the Knower of what is invisible/non perceivable and visible/perceivable for the creatures

  • He [Allah, , the All Knower] is Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted Who is the Fountain of Infinite Mercy. [59:22]

There is an interesting and apparent contradiction in the psyche of those who, instead of accepting as being the: , associate other hand made/sculpted statues by assigning them conjectural/imaginative names and declaring to their under-influence people as their various iela'aha- the Gods, but they have never pronounced these imaginative iela'aha as: Sustainer Lordof the people. The first people of dominance, in the society and their coteries pseudo intellectuals, who innovated the concept and idea of various imaginative iela'aha,: godheads were "intelligent" enough not to proclaim publicly that these so called various iela'aha had any feature of acting as sustaining lord. Had they done it their deception could not last long.

(2) Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is to be recognized as the Sustainer Lord of peoples and of all in the physical realm.

The recognition of Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted:   the Sustainer Lord of the universes - all that exists.

  • The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally and exclusively for Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of the Known-Multiple universes-All that exists[1:02] [Recurrence: (1)1:02(2)6:45(3)10:10(4)37:182(5)39:75(6)40:65=6]

In the possessive phrase: the first noun expresses a relation based on love, care, caring, and cherishing combined with authority and mastery of holding the subjects accountable. "Lord" is less expressive word, therefore, it is better to render it as the Sustainer Lord. Few Ayahs are reproduced below that indicate that the Sustainer Lord is mentioned by Proper Nouns: Allah and Ar'Reh'maan:

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is my Sustainer-Lord and the Sustainer Lord of you people. Therefore, be subservient and allegiant to Him alone.

  • This exclusive servitude and allegiance is the High Road: that leads safely and stably to the destination of peace and tranquillity:" [3:51]


  • Remember the aforesaid about Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Sovereign Lord of you people.

  • Realize it about miscellany of iela'aha: deities that are uncritically admired, adorned and worshipped; none of them is alive; none of them organizes, administers or sustains others except He the Alone Sustainer Lord.

  • He the Exalted is the Creator-Primal Originator of entire physical realm

  • Therefore, you people be subservient-allegiant-subjects to Him exclusively.

  • Know it; He the Exalted is the Guardian-Protector-Disposer of Affairs of physical realm. [6:102]


  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] tell them: "Do you expect me to search for someone other than Allah, as a lord while  the fact is that He the Exalted is the Sustainer Lord of all that exists?  [Refer 6:164]


  • Indeed the Sustainer Lord of you people is Allah the Exalted Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe] [Refer 7:54; 10:03]


  • Do you people call "Ba'alan" and you people leave/renounce allegiance to the The Best Creator? [37:125]

  • (The Best Creator is) Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of you people and the Sustainer Lord of your earlier forefathers." [37:126]


Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is the Sustainer Lord:

  • Thus We have sent you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] in the people before whom many generations have passed: [without Book given to them]

  • So that you may recite to them, syllable by syllable and word by word, the Grand Qur’ān which Our Majesty has verbally communicated to you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]

  • In an atmosphere where they refuse to recognize/acknowledge Ar'Reh'maan as the Only Iela'aha: Sustainer Lord

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce, "He the Exalted, Ar'Reh'maan, is my Sustainer Lord.

  • Realize it about miscellany of iela'aha: deities that are uncritically admired, adorned and worshipped; none of them is alive; none of them organizes, administers or sustains others except He the Alone Sustainer Lord.

  • I honestly, diligently and sincerely place reliance and dependence upon Him the Exalted; and my resort, turning direction in timeline is towards Him the Exalted." [13:30]


  • [And as for their other excuse] Know it, certainly Haroon [alai'his'slaam] had earlier told them:

  • "O my nation! You are indeed put into liquefying trial by it (crafting of calf-effigy) and their assertion about it

  • And the fact is that the Sustainer Lord of you people is Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted

  • Therefore, follow me in letter and spirit

  • And you people wholeheartedly accept my command." [20:90]


  • He prayed, "O my Sustainer Lord! You the Exalted do judge on the basis of absolute fact."

  • And he said to people, "Our Sustainer Lord is Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted Who is the Resort - Recourse for what you people are conjecturing."  [21:112]


  • Your Sustainer Lord, the Sustainer Lord of the Skies and the Earth and whatever exists in between them, is Ar'Reh'maan, the Exalted.

  • They do not have authority from Him the Exalted for address. [78:37]

(3) Creator of things is identified and referred by Proper Name, be it an individual person or a company, organization.

We do not usually refer a creator by an adjective because a listener can immediately ask as to who is being referred since adjectival traits can be shared by many at a time. The complete perusal of Grand Qur’ān reveals that the Names, Allah the Exalted and  Ar’Rehmaan refer the Creator of everything that exists:

 

  • Remember the aforesaid about Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Sovereign Lord of you people.

  • Realize it about miscellany of iela'aha: deities that are uncritically admired, adorned and worshipped; none of them is alive; none of them organizes, administers or sustains others except He the Alone Sustainer Lord.

  • He the Exalted is the Creator-Primal Originator of entire physical realm

  • Therefore, you people be subservient-allegiant-subjects to Him exclusively.

  • Know it; He the Exalted is the Guardian-Protector-Disposer of Affairs of physical realm. [6:102]


  • Allah the Exalted is the Creator - Primal Originator of all that exists.

  • Know it; He the Exalted is the Guardian-Protector-Disposer of Affairs of physical realm. [39:62]


  • Be informed; Ar'Reh'maan, He the Exalted has taught the Qur’ān to the elevated Messenger (Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam) [55:01-2]

  • آگاہ ہو جاؤ)الرّحمن عز و جل نے رسول کریم محمد (ﷺ)کوقرآنِ مجیدکی تعلیم دی ہے۔ (الرحمٰن۔۱۔۲)

  • He (Ar'Reh'maan) the Exalted has created the Man [55:03]

  • (انہوں (الرّحمن عز و جل)نے ا نسان کو تخلیق فرمایا ہے۔(الرحمٰن۔۳


  • He the Exalted is the One Who created seven skies, vertically layered one above another  in harmony/adjoining one above another.

  • You will not see any incongruity/lack of proportion/rift in the creation of Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted

  • Thereby, to verify, you focus the vision. Do you see any gap - rift? [67:03]


(4) The Subject [عَبْد plural عباد] is identified only by the Proper Name of his Lord Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. The complete perusal of Grand Qur’ān reveals that Slaves-Servants-Allegiants-Subjects are declared only with reference to proper Names, Allah the Exalted and  Ar’Rehmaan:

 
  • The Slave/Subject/Allegiant of Allah the Exalted. [refer 19:30]

  • The Slaves/Subjects/Allegiants of Allah the Exalted. [refer 37:40]

  • The Slaves/Subjects/Allegiants of Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted [refer 25:63;43:19]

 

 

In the days of gradual revelation of Grand Qur’ān the rational people paid more attention to the substance and avoided indulging in discourses and discussions about grammar and morphology etc. Moreover, such things are of interest and necessity for a non-native/non Arab. In addition, the claim in the Grand Qur’ān is that it is easy for comprehension and understanding of humanity irrespective of language barrier. It is thus evident that even without knowing the depth and niceties of language, grammar etc one can grasp the substance and essence of the message merely by acquaintance of Arabic. Therefore, without delving deep into the debate spread over thousand of pages, we plainly keep asking the Grand Qur’ān to make us understand whether: is the Personal Name of our Sustainer Lord or is it His Attributive Name reflecting His infinite mercifulness.

It is our common perception and approach that whenever we introduce or mention a slave/servant or subject we do not say, "he-so and so is slave or subject of "merciful ", "powerful " etc. On the contrary, we refer the Personal Name of his master/Lord. Similarly, the relationship between the Person and the thing is that of Creator and the created. Creator is the Lord [] of the created things and the created things are the slaves [] of their Creator. Both the words reflect a two-way relationship.

In the like manner of our perception and practice, Allah never referred about His slaves/created living persons [] with relation to His attributes. He the Exalted always calls them as: by Personal Name.

Grand Qur’ān is a discourse of Proven Facts; the First : allegiant mentioned in the Grand Qur’ān is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam. About 550-600 years before his corporeal appearance, Easa alai'his'slaam had informed about him as the Only Messenger to appear after his natural death and mentioned at that point in time: "His name is Ahmad" [61:06]. Beginning is with the Personal name: of Allah the Exalted and immediately after beginning/creation is: "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah"; and for the one who praises someone intensively and extensively it is said that his name is .

  •  You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "If there had been a son for Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted

  • Thereby, I [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, being first to know about it] would have been the First of the allegiants[43:81]

Grand Qur’ān is in absolute chronological sequence exposing facts relating to temporal and pre-temporal era. The perception and concept of: is not something that could exist in isolation. It can emerge only when there is an Object for it and another person of will and intellect to act as doer/subject of performing it. There has to be the Praised One and the Praiser/Admirer when: the Praise, the Admiration will become a reality. The First -the Slave-the Allegiant-the One at the service of Allah is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the great creation.

The words: - can never appear as the first noun of possessive phrase - أَلإضَافَةُ ٱلْحَقِيقِيَّةُ with second noun which is adjective/descriptive word. That will be invalid phrase in Arabic. This fact also reconfirms that: Ar’Rehmaan is the Proper Noun.

(5) Prostration-obeisance is before and for the Person, and not for his traits.

One pays obeisance, and gesture of extreme adoration and submission is made before and for the Person or object referred by Proper Noun, and not by adjectival names/traits. The concept of Obeisance and Prostration is embedded in Arabic Root: س ج د . The original meanings are the feel of lowliness, humility, submissiveness by one for someone else, which is manifested by lowering of one's head in the state chin moving towards chest along with eyes going downwards, or bending oneself down. The basic perception unfolds that this is a relational word-it happens or takes existence only when there are two entities. Moreover, evidently it is not an abstract or theoretical proposition but a physical act; something expressed, conveyed, and submitted through body language instead of verbal expression.  This act signifies and demonstratively portrays-parallels one's thought of surrender and submission reflecting acceptance of his relative humble state and position as against the exalted, honoured, elevated stature, and glory of other. This gives us its initial perception and meanings as obeisance, homage, respectful, saluting  gesture and behaviour towards/for someone else.

The relational aspect, physical nature and the reflection of the relativity in stature, position and elevation of the subject and the one for whom this act is done is explained at first instance of use of this Root in the Qur’ān:

  • Know the history, when Our Majesty had issued command for the Angles, "You people pay obeisance for Aa'dam".

  • Thereby, they (Angels) paid obeisance to him.

  • However, Ieb'lees (in response to the command given to him separately-7:12) did not pay obeisance

  • He (Ieb'lees) considered it not worthy of his dignity and ego

  • While he (Ieb'lees) Self obsessed-puffed with delusion of grandeur and superiority aspired aggrandisement.

  • And thus became the first/leader who refuse to acknowledge paying obeisance to those given exaltation by Allah the Exalted. [2:34]

The relational aspect is conspicuously evident, that one is the performer and the other is the one for or before whom the act is performed. The sincere feel and passion, paralleled by the physical gesture of body parts bowing, reflects wilful and affectionate acknowledgement of the greatness, grandeur and superiority of the one for or before whom one demonstrates it. The essence, or the inherent consideration for the performance of this act, at one's own inclination, before or for someone is to seek his attention, acknowledgement, and thereby become nearer to the exalted.

The act of Ieb'lees and his state of mind, when he demurred to comply with the command, further reflects the denotation of the act signified by this verb. He was obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority. What impression and message is conveyed, and is gathered by onlookers watching this physical gesture, body language? It is quite vividly disclosed by quoting the plea/so called logic of  Ieb'lees for holding himself back in paying obeisance for Adam alahissalam:

  • He the Exalted enquired, "What is that which restrained-held you (Ieb'lees) back that you pay obeisance despite that I directed you for this?"

  • He (Ieb'lees) replied: "I am superior than him

  • Because You have created me from fire And You created him from clay." [7:12]

 Notwithstanding that Ieb'lees is perhaps the first pseudo-intellectual; his understanding of exposure and manifestation, which is caused by: "you pay obeisance", discloses the essence embedded in this bodily act-gesture-body language. It is visibly concrete exposure of feel and acceptance of relative humility, smallness, less importance, and inferiority in state, position and honour than the one whom obeisance is paid. He, in his own assessment, weighed himself as superior/better than the one whom he was asked to pay obeisance. Therefore, he did not find it befitting to pay obeisance to the one whom he thought inferior to his self. His support argument and "logic" for presuming himself superior, indicating that rather he is more deserving to be paid obeisance, was the base material of their respective creation. He did not become a reverent for the one whom Allah the Exalted dignified and honoured upon him. This is reflective of his act: "he made his own self obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority".

It thus conspicuously reveals that it signifies the state of mind, i.e. the feel precedes the gesture - its expression by body language. The Root has been used at other occurrences also where the relational field restricts its meanings to its basic-initial signification, i.e. feel of humbleness with head down on chin in humility posture.

The Root and the Word; on entering in the relational field when the Revered is the Only One-The Absolute-The Only Independent-The Self Subsisting-The Creator-The Supreme Exalted-Sovereign Sustainer Lord of the Universes, and the Reverent are all objects and living-all that exists in the created realm, denote meanings from beginning to its exhaustive-absolute limit. Beginning is the recognition of elevated stature, grandeur, honour, glory, that serves as stimuli for someone to submit in humility and praise, compelling him to compromise his self esteem by bending downwards for or before another Entity. The intensity of the recognition and feel will get reflected from respectful and submissive posture of lowering the head with chin going towards chest to the last exhaustive limit of bending, lowering and surrender reflected by the forehead placed for and before someone on Earth. Moreover, it reflects acceptance of one's limitations/limitedness as against the self-feel of grandeur and self-sufficiency.

Since this is a physical act, therefore, the cause or the feel, which is its stimuli, can either be sincere, affectionate, reverence oriented, or because of compulsion of coercive circumstances forcing one to surrender and bend in humility:

  • Be aware; whoever is living-exists in the Skies and the Earth submits humbly in surrender; and will acknowledge and submit humbly in surrender for Allah the Exalted; in states arising on wilful acceptance-acknowledgement with reverence, and will do so under compulsion of coercive circumstances.

  • However, their shadows make themselves in prostrate posture for Allah the Exalted, at occasion of the mornings and the evenings. [13:15]  [Note: Prostration Ayah; please prostrate-it gets man nearer to Allah the Exalted-96:19]


  • Have you not given a thought that in fact Allah the Exalted is the only One for Whom whoever is living - existing in the Skies and in the Earth makes his self acknowledge and submit humbly in surrender, and will make himself acknowledge and submit humbly in surrender, [in a state of wilful and affectionate acceptance with  reverence, and so under compulsion of coercive circumstances [13:15]

  • Moreover, the Sun, and the Moon, and the Stars

  • And the Mountains, and the Plants, and the Animals make themselves humbly submissive for Allah the Exalted

  • Moreover, many from amongst human beings make themselves humbly submit and prostrate for Allah the Exalted.

  • Be mindful that, many of the human beings are those, the corporal punishment has become incumbent upon them.

  • Mind it that in case Allah the Exalted declares someone as degraded, thereupon, there is none who bestow dignity and honour to revive for him his grading.

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is Innovative Performer of whatever He intends-desires-decides. [22:18] [please prostrate, it helps getting near to Allah]

If we skim the Divine Discourse we will not find that the prostration collocates with any adjectival - epithetical word. Apart from Proper Noun Allah the Exalted, it is stated to prostrate for: :

  • When the Aa'ya'at: verbal passages of the Book of Ar'Reh'maan were recited upon them they kneeled down prostrating, and eyes overflowing with tears. [Refer 19:58]  [Please prostrate-it helps getting nearer to Allah the Exalted]


  • And when it was said to them: "you people prostrate exclusively for Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted"

  • They [sarcastically] replied, "Ar'Reh'maan! What?

  • Should we prostrate exclusively what you are commanding us?"

  • And it increased them, with regard to their aversion to Monotheism. [25:60] [Please prostrate]

(6)  One is mentioned by Personal Name who adorns the Throne/Seat of Sovereignty; and not by adjectives.

It is our common perception and a well-known practice that we mention the Name of the person who takes over and adorns the seat of power-sovereignty/throne. We do not mention him by adjectival traits and attributive names. Likewise, in Grand Qur’ān only the Proper Name, Allah and Ar'Reh'maan is mentioned with regard to adorning the Sublime Seat of Authority-Sovereignty Who is its Sustainer Lord. Moreover, it is beyond limits of seven skies of our Universe. This is above water.

  • Allah the Exalted is He Who has raised high the Skies. This elevation is circumstantially with supports other than pillars. You people are seeing them elevated as such without pillars.

  • Thereafter, He the Exalted ascended to the Supreme Sovereign Seat/Throne [beyond Skies of universe] [Refer 13:2]


  • Allah the Exalted is the One and only Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe]

  • Thereafter, He the Exalted ascended to the Supreme Sovereign Seat/Throne [beyond Skies of universe]


  • It (Qur’ān) has been sent gradually and successively by Him the Exalted Who had created the Earth and the upper-higher Skies: six above Sky of Earth [20:04]

  • Ar'Reh'maan, He the Exalted ascended to the Supreme Sovereign Seat - Throne [beyond Skies of universe] [20:05]


  • He Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe]

  • Thereafter, He the Exalted ascended to the Supreme Sovereign Seat- Throne [beyond Skies of universe]

  • He is Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. If you need further information, enquire by it (Grand Qur’ān), it is fully informative. [25:59]


 

(7) A person makes a promise. Promise-maker finds mention by title or personal name.

A promise, commitment, undertaking, and obligation are that of a person/being. The Title or Personal Name always refers him with reference to the promise made by him. We never refer a promise by the adjectival trait/attributive names of the undertaker of that promise and commitment.
  • Allah the Exalted has promised. (ref 4:95; 5:9; 9:68;9:72;24:55;48:29;57:10)

  • Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted has promised (refer 19:61;36:52)

  • your Sustainer Lord promised (refer 7:44)

  • The promise of Allah the Exalted. (ref 4:122; 10:4;10:55;13:31;18:21;28:13;30:6;30:60;31:9[31:33;35:5;39:20;40:55;40:77;45:22;46:17)

 

 

(8)  An agreement, contract, covenant, pact is with reference to party's Title or Personal Name.

A contract, bond, covenant, in legal parlance, creates an obligation which is binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are the parties who have legal capacity to make a contract reflecting mutual assent. In general, contract may be oral or written. It is thus evident that the contracting parties shall find mention by respective Title or Personal Name. Its very nature prohibits that the reference of the parties shall not be by adjective/attributive names. In Arabic, the equivalent word is .

The attributive names of Allah the Exalted never find mention in the Divine Discourse with reference to semantic field of this word denoting something enjoined, solemn pledge, contract, obligation, binding commitment, covenant. Its mention is in relation only to Proper Nouns: and .

  • They [the Aberrant ] are those who violate - breach the Contract with Allah the Exalted, after it is consented as Covenant [refer 2:27; and 13:25]


  • Have you then noticed/come across him who has refused accepting Aa'ya'at: Verbal Passages of Our Book

  • And confidently said: "Certainly, I will be given wealth and children." [19:77]

  • [why he is so sure] Has he peeped into the unseen domain?

  • Or has he obtained a commitment from Ar'Reh'maan? [19:78]


  • Know it, Our Majesty will order on the Day of Requital to bring towards Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted; with protocol of a delegation coming to call upon the Sovereign Lord, those who sincerely endeavour to attain salvation; [19:85]

  • And Our Majesty will order to drive the Convicts towards Hell-Prison, in the manner thirsty cattle are driven towards water place. [19:86]

  • They do not hold the authority for intercession. The exception to this negation of authority for intercession is only for the One who had obtained the prior Permission and Authority from the Grace of Ar'Reh'maan, the Exalted as a commitment. [19:87]

(9) Mention of Permission, Authorization, and Proclamation is always by the Name of the authority.

The grant of permission, authorization and a notification, proclamation is by a person in authority. The permission, authorization, notification and proclamation find mention in writing only by reference to the Proper Name of the concerned authority. The semantic domain for permission, authorization, approval, announcement, declaration, proclamation the Root is " ء ذ ن" , words like , .

With the explicit permission/consent/authorization of Allah the Exalted.

  • And there are many of the Angels in the Skies the recommendation of whom does not avail anything

  • Except after Allah the Exalted may have granted permission for the one whom He willed and whom He may approve. [53:26]


  • The Day Gib'raa'eil and other Angels will present themselves in a row

Root: ر و ح

  • They will consciously restrain themselves from speaking except the one for whom Ar'Reh'maan, the Exalted granted permission

  • And he stated the already established fact. [78:38]

(10) People relate a son [very as well adopted] with Personal Name of the one with whom they relate a son.

We relate a son to a Proper Name and not describe this relationship by adjectives/traits of person with whom we relate a son. It is common practice in all languages. Since Allah and Ar'Reh'maan are Proper Nouns, conjectural fabrication of a son is mentioned by these proper nouns:

  • Be aware; they [Elders of earlier Jews] had said; "Allah has purposely adopted Uzair [9:30] as a son."

  • He the Exalted is above such needs-support-weakness; Infinite Glory is for Him-His pleasure is the focus of all effort.

  • No, they lie; the fact is that whatever exists in the Skies and whatever exists in the Earth are subservient-dependant-subjects for Him the Exalted.

  • Each one of the objects is in humble attendance exclusively for Him the Exalted. [2:116]


  • Be aware that they [Elders of earlier Jews and Christians] had said; "Allah has consciously and purposely adopted so and so as a son".

  • He the Exalted is above such needs-support-weakness; Infinite Glory is for Him-His pleasure is the focus of all effort.

  • He the Exalted is eternally the Absolutely Independent.

  • The fact is that whatever exists in the Skies and whatever exists in the Earth are subservient-dependant-subjects for Him the Exalted.

  • [Ask them] "Produce it, if any concrete evidence/argument is lying with you people to substantiate your assertion

  • Do you people ascribe to Allah the Exalted that about which you people have no knowledge?"  [10:68]


  • And you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce, "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally and exclusively for Allah the Exalted. He the Exalted has never adopted anyone as a son.

  • And never ever there was a partner-associate for Him the Exalted to share the dominion and sovereign power.

  • And never ever there was a companion, protector for Him, needed for overcoming weakness."

  • And you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] intensively glorify Him, emphatically expressing the Sublime Greatness. [17:111]


  • And that he may admonish those who said, "Allah has adopted so and so as a son". [18:04]


  • [who argues in support of his act of adopting others] "If Allah the Exalted had decided adopting someone as a son certainly He would have chosen whomever He willed out of what He the Exalted creates.".

  • Infinite Glory is for Him/His pleasure is the focus of all effort; He is above such needs/support/ weakness.

  • He is Allah, The Only One Who is The Irresistible. [39:04]


And this most erroneous palaver is also associated with the Personal Name Ar'Reh'maan

  • Take note, They (Elders-Religious elite of earlier people) said; "Ar'Reh'maan has purposely adopted so and so as son". [19:88]

  • You the Messenger admonish them [18:04] "Indeed you people have put forth - conjectured an abominable commotional proposition. [19:89]

  • The Skies are almost nearing to self asunder for the first time by its effect

  • And the Earth cleaves herself; and the mountains fall with devastating bang [19:90]

  • That they have proclaimed for Ar'Reh'maan a son. [19:91]

  • And that adopting someone as a son is not befitting for Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. [19:92]

  • Whoever is in the Skies and the Earth comes to Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted as but a bondman-subject. [19:93]


  • Take note, They (the Elders-Religious elite of earlier people) said; "Ar'Reh'maan has purposely adopted so and so as a son".

  • He the Exalted is above such needs-support-weakness; Infinite Glory is for Him-His pleasure is the focus of all effort.

  • They lie, the fact is that they whom they ascribe as adopted son are sincere allegiant subjects, rendered as honoured and dignified. [21:26]


  •  You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "If there had been a son for Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted

  • Thereby, I [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, being first to know about it] would have been the First of the allegiants[43:81]

  • Infinitely Glorious and Elevated and above such needs/support/weakness is the Sustainer Lord of the Skies and the Earth; and the Sustainer Lord of Throne of Absolute Sovereigntyof all that they people conjecturally attribute". [43:82]

(11) The Unitary Verbal Passages and other signs are related to Allah and Ar'Reh'maan, the Exalted; not by adjectival noun - epithet.

  • These are the Aa'ya'at of Allah the Exalted: Verbal constituent passages of Grand Qur'aan

  • Our Majesty are reciting them distinctly, word by word, upon you the Messenger [Mohammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] conveying the infallible fact - for determined purpose of transcription by you to humanity.

 

  • And people should know, indeed you (Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]) are certainly the Last and Universal in the galaxy of those appointed and sent as the Messengers. [2:252]


  • When the Aa'ya'at: verbal passages of the Book of Ar'Reh'maan were recited upon them they kneeled down prostrating, and eyes overflowing with tears. [19:58]  [Please prostrate-it helps getting nearer to Allah the Exalted] [Refer 19:58]

(12) Awe is associated with Allah the Exalted as well with other proper name: Ar'Reh'maan.

 

  • They (Mutta'qeen) are the people who experience awe of Omnipresence of their Sustainer Lord despite being not in their sight

  • While they are alert - self-conscious about the Appointed Moment. [21:49]


  • Know about those people who experience awe of their Sustainer Lordthey behave with alertness, gentleness, subtlety, delicacy, compassion and sympathy[23:57]


  • Indeed those people who experience awe of Omnipresence of their Sustainer Lord despite being not in their sight

  • Forgiveness and magnificent reward is guaranteed for them. [67:12] [Read also 21:49;35:18;36:11]


  • Be aware, whoever willingly and affectionately accepts the Word of Allah the Exalted and His Messenger [contained and relayed by him from Grand Qur’ān];

  • And experiences awe for Allah the Exalted, and would endeavour to attain protection of Him the Exalted

  • Thereby, they are truly the people who have achieved status. [24:52]


  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] can and will succeed in reviving-admonishing only that person who diligently pursued for the Message in the timeline

  • And he felt awe of Omnipresence of Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted, without being in his sight.

  • Thereby, you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] congratulate him with good news and guarantee forgiveness and magnificent reward. [36:11]


  • It is he who felt awe of Omnipresence of Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted, without being in his sight

  • And he came with a dedicated heart. [50:33]


The Root of verb: is خ ش ى. The Root is used for two converging meanings, awe and dread. Emotion of awe is a mixture of wonder and fear - feeling of amazement and respect mixed with fear that is coupled with feeling of personal insignificance or powerlessness.

The optical faculty is the source for the people to experience awe by the awe-inducing nature scenes all around them reflecting the Divine providence and Will evidently. It is positive feeling of being in the presence of something vast that transcends our understanding of the world. Experiencing awe is fundamental emotional response of those who mindfully observes the environment and the universe they live in.

Every particle in the universe is awesome that transcends us to the perception of the existence of its Creator, Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. This gives us the feeling of "small-self"; not in relation to awesome manifestations in nature, but in relation to our Mighty and Sublime Sustainer Lord, Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted.

Some other references:

  • Thereupon, eat fresh dates, drink water and be tranquil, by looking [at your son]

  • Thereby, henceforth in case you come across with any known person

  • Thereat, you say, "I have vowed to exercise refrain/restraint exclusively for Ar'Reh'maan,  therefore, I will not converse with any person today." [19:26]


  • And they produced his shirt having stains of artificial blood upon it.

  • He said: "No, that is not the truth, in fact your inner-selves have instigated the matter for you

  • Thereat, the hopefulness-steadfastness lies in dignified perseverance

  • And Allah the Exalted is the Resort - Recourse for what you people are conjecturing." [12:18]


  • He prayed, "O my Sustainer Lord! You the Exalted do judge on the basis of absolute fact."

  • And he said to people, "Our Sustainer Lord is Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted Who is the Resort - Recourse for what you people are conjecturing."  [21:112]


We have noticed that the Divine Discourse is explicitly explicative. It was the lapse of exegetes who blindly followed and copied the erroneous thought of their forerunners, pseudo-scholars George Sale and John Rodwell, by rendering a Proper Noun in the very first Ayah of Divine Discourse as adjective.