Beginning is with Allah's personal name Ar'Reh'maan Who is The Fountain of Infinite Mercy.

In Grand Qur'aan other Roots with first two letters   س م

1.س م د

2. س م ر

3.س م ع

4.س م ك

5.س م م

6.س م ن

It is interesting that some glimpse of the perception infolded in this Root is also reflected by the above mentioned Roots having first two common consonants   س م


Classical Lexicons

Lane Lexicon

























































































































































































Root: س م و

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur'aan:

a) Total occurrences: 381

b) No of constructions: 33

Nouns denoting names: 19 Recurrence: 63; Verbs Form-II: 6 Recurrence: 8;

 Nouns demoting Sky/skies:: 8 Recurrence: 310

Classical Lexicons stated its basic perception as:

سمو (مقاييس اللغة)

السين والميم والواو أصلٌ يدل على العُلُوِّ

سما (لسان العرب)
السُّمُوُّ: الارْتِفاعُ والعُلُو

That the basic perception infolded in the Root is of eminence, elevation, ascension, transcendence, and loftiness of a thing spread and overshadowing another thing.

This causes the thing to become conspicuous and prominent and renders its existence conveniently recognizable enabling acknowledgment by everyone. The elevated, fully spread and prominent Sky roofing the entire Earth is: . The eminence and other visual peculiarities of the Sky reflect the perception infolded in the Root. The contrast pairing of:  is : the Earth. The "gender" of both is however feminine.

The specific name grants distinction and cognition and eminence and thus makes it conspicuous and prominent. It elevates the thing from others. And this Root has been used to name a thing which has the reflection of the perception and its effect, i.e. the Sky. The English word "heaven" is interchangeably used to describe "Paradise" as well as the Sky as seen from the Earth. But the Arabic word: has nothing to do with the "Paradise" since Paradise is located at an upper place beyond the "doors" of the Skies as mentioned in 7:40.

This Root is the source of  the word: , which means name, or code of a thing or being/person. The name of a thing or of a person/being yields the same effect that is the basic perception infolded in the Root. The name gives the basic cognition of existence and presence of a thing and person. Hence, name is the introduction for cognition of a thing and person. Cognition of the code/name of a thing or person is the elementary/first step in gaining knowledge about the thing or person. Name of a thing or person gives it or him a vivid distinction from all other things and persons/makes it or him distinguished/ identified/definite/isolated/prominent/popularized [معرفة] and grants an ability to others to identify and describe/remember/recall/mention it or him. The name/code serves as a basis/foundation for others to enquire and study about it to gain knowledge.

The beginning is with the code/name. This eternal truth/fact is the first information given in the Grand Qur'aan: "beginning is with the name/code".

The physical presence of a thing before the eyes does not yield knowledge, if you do not know their names, since it does not give you the ability to describe them individually because of lack of fundamental, prerequisite/first stage of knowledge i.e. cognition of the code/name. Nothing can preserve/save in the memory [of humans as well the computer] without knowing or assigning a code/name to it. The second occurrence of this Root with its original perception has further unfolded the importance of name/code of things and persons in quite lucid manner.





  • Be informed: He the Exalted taught Adam [alai'his'slaam] the Names of things, all of them.

  • Afterwards, He the Exalted caused those things put at view before the Angels.

  • Thereupon, He asked them, "You tell Me the names of these things put at your view;

  • Relate it f you people were expressing the truth-authentic statement"  [2:31]

  • They said: "We always repetitively narrate that the focus of Sublime glorification and all effort is aimed alone for You the Exalted.

  • Knowledge of all sorts is not exhibited-within the reach for us; except that which You the Exalted have taught us.

  • Certainly, You the Exalted are intrinsically the Fountain and Setter of knowledge - science of visible and invisible domains; and the Infinitely Just Supreme Administrator of the created realms." [2:32]

The Angels had given their opinion/observation with regard to human's future conduct on the information that Adam-Humanity will enjoy freedom of will and decision on Earth. It was merely an opinion/presumption not based on complete knowledge. After making Adam know the names of all things the same were presented before the Angels and were asked to name them to prove that whatever they had opined was based on comprehensive knowledge. One earns the title of truthful only when he makes a statement based on complete knowledge. A statement based on incomplete information/data does not rise to the level of truth; it is merely an opinion not worthy of consideration/treatment as truth at the given point in time. However, at the same time it is not a lie since it is an expression on the strength of some data/information and is not merely an imaginative assertion. The opinion would prove either correct or wrong only at a point in time later than point in time of its expression when further data/information/conduct becomes visible. That is why scientists do not lie, they opine whereas philosophers do lie when they base study on a presumption/imagination/myth. Scientists never waste the time of humanity; philosophers and pseudo intellectuals do.

Despite the dimensions of the things were manifestly evident to their eyes they expressed their lack of knowledge about the same. The only reason is that they did not have the cognition of the code of those things and therefore were unable to distinguish and describe them individually. This reflects that mere presence/visibility of things does not constitute "knowledge". If one does not know the code/name of the thing its visibility is meaningless for him. "Knowledge" is that when one knows the code of the thing, which is within the reach of his visibility/focus/vision. Anything coming into vision is capable of saving in memory only if it is assigned a name/code. The name/code is for the faculty of listening and the appearance/shape/dimensions of the things is for vision. Listening and vision constitute a "pair" for knowledge. A code of a thing enables a man to perceive the thing in his vision [in metaphorical meanings of بصر]. In Qur'aan, the faculty of listening is first in mention than the faculty of visualization-observation, which is also the ground reality that on birth man hears/listens first and observes afterwards. Without the code/name, the existence of anything and concept cannot be accepted, it is non existing.  Moreover, without existence of a thing/matter or person in actual reality any name/code assigned for such imaginative thing/existence is of no significance and is merely meaningless utterances of the mouth, described by Arabic phrase: أَفْوَاهِهِمْ.

The code/name and physical presence/existence of the things are bits of information/data. If only one thing comes into the vision of a human being then can it get printed/saved in his memory? For answering this simple question we need not be specialists in psychology, nerves and brain. The answer is in negative. The saving/retention of information about the dimensions and code of a thing in the memory is possible only and is obliged to existence of more than one thing enabling comparative study/observation of those. The comparative study and the information about the variations, differences, measures, and relationships is the primary reason which enables their saving and preservation in the memory. The variation, difference, and relationship are at least between the two.

  • And observe the fact that Our Majesty has created coupling - complementary pairing - binary composition with regard to every unit thing-element that exists.

  • The objective of couplings - binary composition of all the created units-elements is that you people might at your own conveniently comprehend, save in memory, recall and relate. [51:49]

Let us reflect for a second, that had everything of the universe not been in pairs, was it possible for us, what to say of gaining knowledge and admonishment, even to talk and narrate?

Reverting to perhaps the most knowledge giving dramatic scene of Adam and the Angels, is the visibility and knowing the code of a thing constitute that what we name “knowledge”? The second constituent element and indication of knowledge about anything is the capability to narrate it verbally. Things should not be let remain in a state where one could speculate negatively or get into some confusion. The clarification of the point was through this demonstration,

  • He said: "O Adam! tell them: Angels making them aware-knowledgeable about the names of these things".

  • In compliance, when he had told them the names of those things, [Refer 2:33]

This indicates that identification of the things constitutes knowledge. The identification is in fact the ability of [تميز] segregating and making a distinction from others and narrating it by its specific code/name.

Allah, the Knowledgeable au fait of all niceties and delicacies/subtlety/refinements gave to the Last Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]

  • Moreover, the fact remains that Our Majesty did give you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] Seven distinctly elaborative Aa'ya'at: Unitary Verbal Passages selected-excepted from the Binary-Symmetrical-analogous Miscellany.

  • Furthermore, it also remains a certain fact that We have given the Grand Qur'aan to you the Messenger [ Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam].  [15:87]

: It begins with: i.e. "beginning is with the name/code" and: begins with: showing that beginning of the book is with letters and signs of the language and subtly reflects that creation of everything and recording of its details in the book were simultaneous, one single moment. Creation and coding go side by side. Those who keep trying to find the roots/origin of Arabic Language will have to cover the distance up to the first moment of creation.

Nouns denoting name


 Noun: indefinite; Broken Plural; feminine; Genitive. (1)7:71=1

                                                                                                                            اسم: مجرو-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Noun; Plural;  Plural; feminine; Accusative. (1)12:40=1   اسم: منصوب-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Noun; indefinite; Plural; feminine; Nominative.(1)53:23=1 اسم: مرفوع-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Possessive Phrase: Noun; Definite; Broken Plural; masculine; genitive + Attached possessive pronoun: Third Person; Singular; Masculine, in genitive state.(1)7:180=1         الإِضَافَةُ-اسم:مجرور-جمع مكسرمذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرغائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

"The names of Him"


  Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; Accusative. (1)5:04(2)6:138(3)22:28(4)22:34(5)22:36(6)73:08(7)76:25(8)87:01(9)87:15=9                                                        اسم :منصوب-واحد مذكر



 Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; Nominative.  (1)6:118(2)6:119(3)6:121(4)22:40(5)55:78=5                                                                                                        اسم :مرفوع-واحد مذكر



 Possessive Phrase: Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; Nominative + Attached Possessive pronoun; Third person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)2:114(2)19:07(3)24:36=3

                           الإِضَافَةُ-اسم :مرفوع-واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد  مذكر غائب في محل جر -مضاف إليه



Possessive Phrase: Noun: singular; masculine; Nominative + Attached Possessive pronounُ; third person; singular; masculine, in genitive state, with prolongation sign. (1)61:06=1

                           الإِضَافَةُ-اسم :مرفوع-واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد  مذكر غائب في محل جر -مضاف إليه

"The Name of Him"


 Possessive Phrase: Noun: singular; masculine; Nominative + Attached Possessive pronoun; third person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)3:45=1

                          الإِضَافَةُ-اسم :مرفوع-واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد  مذكر غائب في محل جر -مضاف إليه



 Noun: Broken Plural; definite; feminine; accusative. (1)2:31=1

                                                                                                      اسم:معرفہ باللام- منصوب-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Noun; definite; Broken Plural;  feminine; Nominative. (1)7:180(2)17:110(3)20:08(4)59:24=4                                                                             اسم:معرفہ باللام- مرفوع-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Noun; definite; Singular; masculine; Nominative. (1)49:11=1

                                                                                                                  اسم:معرفہ باللام-مرفوع- واحد مذكر



 Prepositional phrase:  بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: Plural; feminine; Genitive. (1)2:31=1                                            جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور-جمع مكسر-مؤنث



 Prepositional phrase + Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: Plural; feminine; Genitive + suffixed possessive pronoun: third person; plural, masculine, in genitive state. (1)2:33(2)2:33=2                               جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

       بـِ حرف جر + اسم: مجرور-جمع مكسر-مؤنث/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه



 بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: singular; masculine; Genitive  (1)56:74(2)56:96(3)69:52(4)96:01=4                                               جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور-واحد مذكر



Prefixed Preposition بِ + Noun: singular; masculine; Genitive. (1)01:01(2)11:41(3)27:30=3                                                           جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور-واحد مذكر



Verbal noun;  Indefinite; accusative; [Form-II]. (1)53:27=1       مصدر:منصوب

"to ascribe feminine name/ appellation"


   Noun [quasi passive participle]; indefinite; singular; masculine; accusative. (1)19:07(2)19:65=2                                                                                                   اسم:منصوب-واحد مذكر



Passive Participle; singular; masculine; indefinite; . (1)2:282(2)6:02(3)6:60(4) 11:03(5)13:02(6)14:10(7)16:61(8)20:129(9)22:05(10)22:33(11)29:53(12)30:08(13)31:29(14)35:13(15) 35:45(16)39:05(17)39:42(18)40:67(19)42:14(20)46:03(21)71:04=21

                                                                                             اسم مفعول--مرفوع- مجرور یا منصوب-واحد مذكر

"specified/named/ defined/ designated/ timed"

Verbs Form-II denoting naming


 Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; feminine; Passive; [Form-II]; Mood: Indicative; Proxy Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)76:18=1                                                        فعل مضارع مبنى للمجهول-مرفوع بالضمة المقدرة على الألف للتعذر   

                                                                    نائب فاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ/ واحد مؤنث غائب/باب تَفْعِيل

"She/that is named"


   Verb: perfect; third person; singular; masculine; [Form II]; Subject pronoun hidden + Suffixed Object pronoun: second person; plural; masculine, in accusative state; مصدر تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)22:78=1

     فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح المقدر على الألف للتعذر/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب -باب تَفْعِيل

                                                                                   ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع  مذكر حاضر 

 "He named you people"


  Verb: Imperative, plural, second person; [Form II] + [و] Subject Pronoun in nominative state; Suffixed object pronoun: third person; plural; masculine; accusative state; مصدر تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)13:33=1

 فعل أمر مبنى على حذف النون لأنَّ مضارعه من الأفعال الخمسة الخمسة/باب تَفْعِيل/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل

                                                                                       ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع مذكرغائب

"you people name them"


Verb; Perfect; second person; plural; masculine; [Form II]; Subject pronoun, in nominative state + [و] delineator; Suffixed Object pronoun; third person; singular; feminine, in accusative state, with prolongation sign;  مصدر-تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)7:71(2)12:40(3)53:23=3

فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضميرالرفع المتحرك/ ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل جمع مذكرحاضر/باب تَفْعِيل

                                                               ضمير متصل مبنى على الفتح  في محل نصب مفعول به/ واحد مؤنث غائب

التاء-الميم علامة جمع الذكور-والواو لاشباع الميم ولأثبات أن الميم للجمع


 Verb: Perfect; first person; singular; [Form II];  تُ  Subject Pronoun, in nominative state + Suffixed Object pronoun هَا; third person; singular; feminine, in accusative state; مصدر-تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)3:36=1

             فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع/ضمير متصل  في محل رفع فاعل-واحد متكلم/باب تَفْعِيل

                                                              ضمير متصل مبنى على الفتح  في محل نصب مفعول به/ واحد مؤنث غائب



 لَ  Prefixed particle of emphasis + Verb: Imperfect, third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form II]; [و] Subject Pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-تَسْمِيَةٌ Verbal noun.  (1)53:27=1 

           لام التوكيد+ فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكر غائب/باب تَفْعِيل



Nouns denoting Sky, Skies


Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Genitive.

 (1)2:19(2)2:22(3)2:29(4)2:59(5)2:144(6)2:164(7)2:164(8)3:05(9)4:153(10)5:112(11)5:114(12)6:35 (13)6:99 (14)6:125(15)7:40(16)7:96(17)7:162(18)8:11(19)8:32;(20)10:24(21)10:31(22)10:61(23)13:17 (24)14:24(25)14:32(26)14:38(27)15:14(28)15:16(29)15:22(30)16:10(31)16:65(32)16:79(33)17:93(34) 17:95(35)18:40(36)18:45(37)20:53(38)21:04(39)22:15(40)22:31(41)22:63(42)22:70(43)23:18(44) 24:43(45)25:48(46)25:61(47)26:04(48)26:187(49)27:60(50)27:64(51)27:75(52)29:22(53)29:34(54) 29:63(55)30:24(56)30:48(57)31:10(58)32:05(59)34:02(60)34:09(61)34:09(62)35:03(63)35:27(64) 36:28(65)39:21(66)40:13(67)41:11(68)43:11(69)43;84(70)45:05(71)50:06(72)50:09(73)51:07(74) 51:22(75)51:23(76)52:44(77)54:11(78)57:04(79)57:21(80)67:16(81)67:17(82)85:01(83)86:01(84) 86:11(85)88:18(86)91:05=86

                                                                                                                   اسم:معرفہ باللام مجرور-واحدمؤنث



Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Accusative (1)2:22(2)6:06(3)11:52(4)17:92(5)21:16(6)21:32(7)21:104(8)22:65(9)37:06(10)38:27(11)40:64(12)41:12 (13)51:47(14)55:07(15)67:05(16)71:11(17)72:08=17                                                       

                                                                                                            اسم:معرفہ باللام منصوب-واحد مؤنث



Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Nominative. (1)25:25(2)30:25(3)44:10(4) 44:29(5)52:09(6)55:37(7)69:16(8)70:08(9)73:18(10)77:09(11)78:19(12)79:27(13)81:11 (14)82:01 (15) 84:01=15                                                                                         اسم:معرفہ باللام مرفوع-واحد مؤنث



. Noun: Definite; plural; Feminine; Genitive/accusative.

(1)2:33(2)2:107(3)2:116(4)2:117(5)2:164(6)2:255(7)2:255(8)2:284(9)3:29(10)3:83(11)3:109(12)3:129 (13)3:180(14)3:189(15)3:190(16)3:191(17)4:126(18)4:131(19)4:131(20)4:132(21)4:170(22)4:171(23) 5:17(24)5:18(25)5:40(26)5:97(27)5:120(28)6:01(29)6:03(30)6:12(31)6:14(32)6:73(33)6:75(34)6:79 (35)6:101(36)7:54(37)7:158(38)7:185(39)7:187(40)9:36(41)9:116 (42)10:03(43)10:06(44)10:18(45) 10:55(46)10:66(47)10:68(48)10:101(49)11:07(50)11:123(51)12:101(52)12:105(53)13:02 (54)13:15 (55)13:16(56)14:02(57)14:10(58)14:19(59)14:32(60)15:85(61)16:03(62)16:49(63)16:52  (64)16:73 (65)16:77(66)17:55(67)17:99(68)17:102(69)18:14(70)18:26(71)18:51(72)19:65(73)19:93(74)20:04 (75)20:06(76)21:19(77)21:30(78)21:56(79)22:18(80)22:64(81)23:86(82)24:35(83)24:41  (84)24:42 (85)34:64(86)25:02(87)25:06(88)25:59(89)26:24(90)27:25(91)27:60(92)27:65(93)27:87  (94)29:44 (95)29:52(96)29:61(97)30:08(98)30:18(99)30:22(100)30:26(101)30:27(102)31:10 (103)31:16(104) 31:20(105)31:25(106)31:26(107)32:04(108)33:72(109)34:01(110)34:03(111)34:22(112)34:24(113) 35:01(114)35:38(115)35:40(116)35:41(117)35:44(118)36:81(119)37:05(120)38:10(121)38:66(122) 39:05(123)39:38(124)39:44(125)39:46(126)39:63(127)39:68(128)40:37(129)40:57(130)42:04(131) 42:11(132)42:12(133)42:29(134)42:49(135)42:53(136)43:09(137)43:82(138)43:85(139)44:07(140) 44:38(141)45:03(142)45:13(143)45:22(144)45:27(145)45:36(146)45:37(147)46:03(148)46:04(149) 46:33(150)48:04(151)48:07(152)48:14(153)49:16(154)49:18(155)50:38(156)52:36(157)53:26(158) 53:31(159)55:29(160)55:33(161)57:01(162)57:02(163)57:04(164)57:05(165)57:10(166)58:07(167) 59:01(168)59:24(169)61:01(170)62:01(171)63:07(172)64:01(173)64:03(174)64:04(175)78:37(176) 85:09=176

                                                                                                     اسم:معرفہ باللام مجرور/منصوب-جمع مؤنث



Noun; Definite; plural; Feminine; nominative. (1)3:133(2)11:107(3)11:108(4)14:48(5)17:44(6)19:90(7)23:71(8)39:67(9)42:05=9                             اسم:معرفہ باللام مرفوع-جمع مؤنث



Noun; Indefinite; Singular; Feminine; Genitive. (1)41:12=1     اسم: مجرور-واحدمؤنث



Noun: Indefinite; plural; Feminine; Genitive (1)2:29(2)41:12(3)65:12(4)67:03(5)71:15=5                                                                                                                اسم: مجرور-جمع مؤنث



Vocative Particle +  Noun; Indefinite; singular; Feminine;  nominative state  (1)11:44=1                                                                                  أداة نداء +  اسم:مرفوع -واحد-مؤنث



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