Ar'Reh'maan: Personal Name of Allah the Exalted

: Ar'Reh'maan: This unique personal name of Allah the Exalted has widely been discussed by scholars, Muslims, Jews and Christians included, for determining its meanings by considering it as an attribute of the Sustainer Lord of the Universes. This debate, spreads over thousand pages.

Grand Qur'aan is perhaps the only book about which scholars, both believing and non-believing, never adhered to otherwise well accepted norms of behaviour - academic discipline of transferring a book of one language to another language. Just one example suffices to prove this allegation. We have in academics means and methods to distinguish a Proper Noun - Personal Name in a lengthy text. None seems to have cared to resolve whether Ar'Reh'maan is the Proper Noun - Name of Allah the Exalted, despite the fact that it finds mention for fifty seven times in the text of Grand Qur'aan.

We will rely upon the Grand Qur'aan to let us know whether it is the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, or could it be stretched and considered as an Adjectival Name attributing a qualitative trait.

It is used fifty seven times in the Grand Qur'aan; and we find it fully declinable, in all cases, nominative, accusative and genitive.

We will study its use by reference to collocation context for its recognition-classification, as to whether it is Proper Noun or an adjective. A habitual word-combination is called collocation.


1. Rules of Arabic language signify it only as Personal Name.

2. Surrender and allegiance is by the Personal Name of Master-Lord; not by adjectival names.

    2.1 Subject [عَبْد plural عباد] is identified only by the Personal Name Allah and Ar'Reh'maan of his Lord.

3. Creator of a thing is identified and referred only by Personal Name Ar'Reh'maan.

4. Prostration-obeisance is before and for the Person, and not for his traits.

5. One is mentioned by Personal Name who adorns the Throne/Seat of Sovereignty and not by adjectival.

6. A person makes a promise. Promise-maker finds mention by his personal name.

7. An agreement, treaty, compact, pact of obligation is with reference to Title or Personal Name.

8. Fear is induced by a perceived threat from a specific stimulus-Being or a named object.

9. Mention of Permission, Authorization, and Proclamation is always by the Name of the authority.

10. People relate a son [very as well adopted] with Personal Name of the one with whom they relate a son.

Ayat: of Allah and Ayat of Ar-Rehman not ayat of any other trait.

Nazar is for Allah and Ar Rehman 19:26

Protector is mentioned by name Aauz with Allah and Ar Rehman

Pronoun Reference

2.1. Definition of 'name'

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "a name is a word or group of words used to refer to an individual entity (real or imaginary)" (vol.24 , p.733).


And Allah the Exalted is the Resort for what you people are conjecturing. 12:18 and 21:112

1. Rules of Arabic language signify it only as Personal Name.


The nouns in Arabic, whether Proper Nouns or Common Nouns, in their default state are always "Nominative"; in Arabic مرفوع : its visual recognition is the presence of vowel sign  ـُ  on the last consonant of the noun

The name is the code that gives basic cognition of existence and presence of a thing and person. Hence, name is the introduction for apparent/initial recognition of a thing and person. Cognition of the code/name of a thing or person is the first step in gaining knowledge about the thing or person. Name of a thing or person gives it or him a vivid distinction from all other things and persons and makes it or him distinguished, identified, definite and isolated [معرفة]; and grants ability to others to identify, and describe/remember/recall and/or mention-refer it or him to others. The name/code serves as a basis/foundation for others to enquire and study about it to gain further knowledge.  

Attributive names/adjectival descriptions give further information, insight and knowledge about the thing or person introduced by a Personal Name-Proper Noun. These are complimentary in nature and help acquaint others about the inner-self [بَاطِن] of the named object or person/being. Every person and thing/object has two aspects; the one evidently apparent [ظَاهر] notwithstanding whether or not it is in the range of focus of someone, and the other is the inner-self, hidden, infolded, not apparent but invisibly embedded therein: بَاطِن.

The evidently apparent [ظَاهر] is the reflection of the fact of existence, and its cognition and reference is by the Name. The pursuit-journey of knowledge is from cognition of existence/Name towards knowing and perceiving the inner-self [بَاطِن] of that which exists and its relationships and equations with all that exists. We cannot have the absolute knowledge of anything and person/being unless we know its/his inner-self [بَاطِن], after its cognition, introductory knowledge of its Name.

Once we know the inner-self, all that is secreted, hidden and its relationships with everything else, we know that thing and Person in near absolute sense. Thereupon, it or He becomes more visible and apparent than the shining Sun in a bright and clear day, even without being in visual sight, the [ظَاهر] aspect of Him. Therefore, we know Him/him with such conviction, which is the absolute-exalted end of the knowledge. This type of knowledge, with reference to personalities, can be attained only about two,  Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted; and Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam-the mercy Personified, since the بَاطِن of both is quite extensively visible to us all around, and through the courtesy of Grand Qur'aan.

Personal Names that introduce and grant cognition of an existing personality; unlike attributive/adjectival names/descriptions, never have duality and plurality. Neither there is any process/phenomenon/rule in the Arabic language for  “feminization” or "masculinization" of proper nouns/names.

A peculiar and distinguishing feature of Arabic language is that; unlike other languages, say English and Urdu in which the adjective comes first-prioritized than the described one, the مُوْصُوف/the one being described/portrayed is always mentioned first followed by the صِفَة/Adjective. Arabic, the language of our guide lord Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, is a language of truth and fact.  مُوْصُوف: the one  being described/portrayed is mentioned first since he is First in Existence, and it is always the مُوْصُوف who has either inherently and intrinsically the mentioned  صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, or has acquired/adopted it. Hence, Proper Noun/Personal Name NEVER find a place at a secondary place as an adjective in the Adjectival Phrases.

: Ar'Reh'maan is the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted.  It is unique, exclusive, and unprecedented [19:65]; this has no parallel, no dual, no plural, no feminine equivalent. In Grand Qur'aan, it is never placed as second noun of Adjectival Phrase; and nor one will find it in any Arabic literature mentioned as second noun of Adjectival Phrase.

Personal Names are also not the first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases [الاضافة]. They are always second noun [مضاف اليه] in possessive phrases. One will never find: : the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted as first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases.

The fundamental simple features and grammar of Arabic language vividly reflect that: has no other denotative and connotative ascription except that of the Proper Name. The Grand Qur'aan unambiguously explains in various references and contexts that this is but Unique and Exclusively the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of all that exists.

2. Surrender and allegiance is by the Personal Name of Lord; not by adjectival names.

The linguists emphasize: We understand that there is always a relationship between different concrete objects in the world. Words of a language are the reflection of these concepts, their semantic connection is obvious. A collocation which is based on semantic relations of words can be considered as one of the important issues of linguistics.
We fully know that the Exalted Personalities have recognition both by their specific Title and the Personal Name. Their referent can be either

The moment we pick up the book titled: the Grand Qur'aan, the first point we notice, on opening it, is that we see as the interchangeable-equivalent appositive name for Allah in the first elliptical sentence [a shorter form of sentence in which some words have been omitted, but it retains the same meaning] comprising only of Prepositional, Possessive and Adjectival Phrases:

In the next three Ayahs that comprise of a single simple sentence (a sentence that has one subject and a predicate), we again find the pair and associated with Subject noun : the infinite glory and praise, and with the possessive phrase : the Sustainer Lord of all that exists, and with consecutive Possessive phrases : the Master-the Sovereign-the Authority-Holder of  "The Day of Resurrection/Judgment and Requital.

We at the start are pronouncing universal thought and perception, not bound in time and space, in one breath reflecting the conviction. After stating that beginning is with the Personal Name Ar'Reh'maan of Allah the Exalted,  the fountain of mercy, we are using nominal sentence, which grammatically signify "Permanence/Eternality" [دوام] or in philosophical language "Being". Therein, we state the fact that the Praise, in the true and absolute sense of the word, stands specified for Allah the Exalted Who is the Sustainer Lord of the Worlds, and return to His Personal Name and the Trait, which has significance and relationship with Non-Temporal to Temporal realms. We, by reverting, are adding an information that like the beginning of Temporal Realm, on the Day of End, Resurrection-Judgment, the Master, the Sovereign-the Authority is  Ar'Reh'maan, the Fountain of Infinite Mercy. It reflects clarity of our thought and perception, and the comprehension of entire Temporal Realm. It reflects our intelligent and wise perception that the creation with a determined purpose/objective is time-bound and its End-Moment of determined duration is predetermined.


When we go through the Qur'aan, we find that the same advice/instruction was given to the Last Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam who was assigned the responsibility of conveying and delivering this Book to the humanity, exactly as was presented to him:

We are required to physically follow him - act and move in the manner that none comes in between him and us as is directed by him: : "Then to demonstrate and prove it, you are instructed to heartily and diligently follow me in letter and spirit without in between there a third party intervention and influence" [3:31]. The first Ayah suggests and makes us to follow his manner of reading the Book; to start reading the Book with the personal name Ar'Reh'maan, of Allah the Exalted Who is the Sustainer Lord of Worlds.

It is a matter of common sense that the relation between the Creator and the created one is that of  the Sustainer Lord [] and the created thing/being is: عَبْداً slave-allegiant of/for the creator since a created thing is never given "independence". : It is not a personal name but a noun that transpires a relationship. What is the personal name of our Sustainer Lord? Exalted Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam is The Guide for humanity, he is advised to tell us:

We call and address persons by the status, or position held by him, or by calling/taking his personal name; like "Mr. President"; "O Nurani".  In between: and is which means "or" and reflects that both are distinct Names of the Same Being, Who is The Only Iela'aha: Sustainer Lord of the peoples.

  Proper Noun: Allah's Personal Name; genitive. (1)01:01;(2)01:03(3)19:45 (4)19:58(5)19:69(6)19:78 (7)19:85(8)19:87(9)19:93 (10)21:36(11)21:42(12)25:63 (13)26:05(14)27:30(15)41:02 (16)43:19(17)43:36(18)43:45 (19)67:03;(20)67:20 (21)78:37=21             اسم علم:مذكر-مجرور  
  Proper Noun: Allah's Personal Name; Nominative. (1)2:163(2)19:61(3)19:75(4)19:88(5)19:96(6)20:05 (7)20:90(8)20:109(9)21:26(10)21:112(11)25:59 (12)25:60(13)36:15(14)36:23(15)36:52(16)43:20(17)55:01 (18)59:22(19)67:19 (20)67:29(21)78:38=21 اسم علم:مذكر-مرفوع  
    Proper Noun: Allah's Personal Name; accusative. (1)17:110;(2)36:11;(3)50:33=3                                                                                                                      اسم علم:مذكر-منصوب  
  Prepositional Phrase: Prefixed Preposition +  Proper Noun, masculine; genitive. (1)13:30(2)19:18(3)43:33=3 

                                                                                    جار و مجرور = حرف جر + لفظ الجلالة مجرور للتعظيم

  Prepositional Phrase: Prefixed Preposition لِ [for, indicating exclusive prerogative] +  Proper Noun, masculine; genitive. (1)19:26(2)19:44;(3)19:91 (4)19:92(5)20:108;(6)25:26; (7)25:60;(8)43:17;(9)43:81=9    جار و مجرور = لِ حرف جر + لفظ الجلالة مجرور للتعظيم