First Atlas of Clouds was published in Qur’ān



1. General perception and understanding about First Atlas of Clouds.

2. However, the first identification and classification of Clouds was publicized a millennium earlier.

3. Classification and naming of Clouds in the Grand Qur’ān, the Book introduced in 7th century AD.

    3.1 "Dragging-trailing-Middle Cloud"--the cloud that is originated by Winds carrying upward parcel of -condensation nuclei.

    3.2 Sky covering clouds-causing parasol, covering shade upon people. No mention of rain

    3.3 (a) صَيِّبٍ Supercell thunderstorm; (b) multicell thunderstorm (c) Fluffy, filled with liquid feminine active participles.

4. White Clouds--Cirrus. A cloud of global concern.


1. General perception and understanding about First Atlas of Clouds.

We find in Encyclopedias that French botanist and zoologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was the first who proposed a system of identifying clouds in 1802, and that English naturalist Luke Howard proposed a better system in December 1802. Howard's original system established three general cloud categories based on physical appearance and process of formation: cirriform (mainly detached and wispy), cumuliform or convective (mostly detached and heaped, rolled, or rippled), and stratiform (mainly continuous layers in sheets) [Cloud-Wikipedia]. With slight modification, Howard’s system is still in use. Howard’s system uses Latin words to describe clouds as they appear to an observer on the ground. High wispy clouds are called cirrus (from the Latin word for curl of hair)-they are almost entirely composed of ice crystals; sheet-like clouds are called stratus (from the Latin word for layer); billowing, puffy clouds are called cumulus (from the Latin word for heap); and rain-producing clouds are called nimbus (from the Latin word for rain).


2. However, the first identification and classification of Clouds was publicized a millennium earlier.

However, this is not the whole truth since identification and classification of clouds had since been told and written as early as first quarter of 7th century AD. That book is Grand Qur’ān. We have already read in it that the a Cloud originates when the Winds went upwards with parcel of:  -condensation nuclei and created an atmosphere of erethism, excitement, or arousing. The cloud that takes existence is named ***. Grand Qur’ān has detailed other processes that are carried upon that Cloud once it becomes a visible entity. It has not used Winds and sending of parcel of nuclei about the formation or characteristic features of other types of Clouds. Here is further classification of clouds and their peculiar names that find mention therein:

  • And Our Majesty had caused a Parasol, covering shade upon you people with Sky covering Clouds: Stratocumulus. [for saving you from scorching heat of Sinai peninsula] [Refer 2:57]

It is a definite collective noun, the direct object of preceding verb, made from Root: " غ م م". The basic perception infolded in the Root is that of veiling, concealing, covering something; anything that serves as covering, concealing or obscuring canopy over something else. It refers to those near Earth clouds which cover the atmosphere becoming a widely spread layer between Sky and the Earth, causing and creating a shade-coverage upon the people. The Grand Qur’ān also performs function of a Lexicon and explains meanings of words in a manner that leaves no room for any misconception. The perception, meanings and characteristic feature and effect inbuilt in the Root is evident from its first occurrence in Grand Qur’ān through the relational word-perfect verb from مصدر-تَظْلَيْلٌ Verbal noun. It means overshadowing, shading, shadows; parasol, shelter, protection from heat, sunrays.

This type of clouds are mentioned four times in Qur’ān, but there is no mention of rain with it in the context. "A Stratocumulus cloud belongs to a class of clouds characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves, the individual elements being larger than those in altocumuli, and the whole being at a lower altitude, usually below 2,400 m (8,000 ft). Most often, stratocumuli produce no precipitation, and when they do, it is generally only light rain or snow.---Stratocumulus clouds are divided into two primary varieties: Stratocumulus undulatus (wavy) and Stratocumulus cumuliformis (cumulus-like). Stratocumulus undulatus clouds appear as nearly parallel waves, rolls or separate elongated clouds, without significant vertical development. They are usually classified by sky coverage."[Stratocumulus-Wikipedia]

Stratocumulus Clouds


  • Are they waiting [to believe/believers to follow Islam wholeheartedly] for no reason except that Allah the Exalted and retinue of Angles may come to them [instead of succinct verbal passages] within area of parasol resulting from Stratocumulus Clouds and the Matter-Affair gets finalized conclusively?

  • Be mindful that all matters are returned-presented for settling-decision-finality by Allah the Exalted. [ 2:210]


  • And Our Majesty had caused a Parasol, covering shade upon them with Sky covering Clouds [Stratocumulus] [for saving them from scorching heat of Sinai peninsula] [Refer 7:160][for saving you from scorching heat of Sinai peninsula] [Refer 7:160]


  • Mind it, the Day the Sky along with lower clouds becomes self-porous,

  • And the Angels are descended in succession; [25:25]

3.3 --

Third category of clouds is the type which is described with dangerous features and characteristics, along with information that they cause a ray of hope of profitability. They are "thunderstorms" having masculine [positive charge] as well as feminine [negative charge] gender description.

  • Layers of darkness and activity of excited movements, and luminosity-lightening keep happening within it (him-صَيِّبٍ] Supercell thunderstorm).

  • They insert their fingers in their Ears as defence from stunning thunder-clap, wary of the death.

  • Know it; Allah the Exalted is encompassing the disavowers all the time. [2:19]

The discourse is about verbal portrayal of apparent attitude and internal psyche, state of mind and heart of a peculiar class of people found uniquely in Sovereign Muslim Society. They are classified and identified by Allah the Exalted, in Grand Qur’ān by a specific "Family Name" in the Species-Human Beings. They are Muna'fi'qeen. [its equivalent is not English word "Hypocrite"]. Every human being has apparent manifestations; and an internal world which is of the True Person; whom we see, identify and classify as human being from his apparent structure. So is everything, all matter.

: Itis a Possessive Phrase: كَ Prefixed Exemplifying Noun. The Possessive Noun is Hyperbolic/Intensive participle. It is singular, masculine, denoting a single entity. Hyperbolic/Intensive participle signifies the one that enacts, the base meaning of its Verbal Noun, exaggeratedly/excessively/intensively. Its Root " ص و ب" denotes the overtaking-descending of a thing that holds firmly and durably the ground-overtaken thing. It also denotes something causing hardship, misfortune, or trouble.  This hyperbolic Noun describes some Super type cloud that holds durably, it is steady. Its, a masculine entity, internal features are described by this sentence:

  • Layers of darkness and activity of excited movements, and luminosity-lightening keep happening within it (him-صَيِّبٍ] Supercell thunderstorm).

is the Subject of the Nominal Sentence, and is Plural feminine. It denotes layers of darkness. The following two Verbal Nouns are in apposition to it. Had these not been Verbal Nouns, for apposition plural nouns were needed in nominative case. Verbal Noun:    signifies an activity wherein is excitement, and the whole thing is in excited and charged state. This is the perception infolded in its Root: ر ع د as was portrayed by learned Ibne Faris [died-1005] in these words:

 يدلُّ على حركةٍ واضطرابٍ. وكلُّ شيءٍ اضطربَ 

That it leads to the perception of movement, and agitating excitement and the whole thing is in commotion-charged state.


: It is also a verbal noun signifying; as stated in classical lexicon by Learned Ibne Faris [died 1005] in these words;

لمعانُ الشيء؛ والآخر اجتماع السَّوادِ والبياضِ في الشيء

that it signifies firstly the luminosity and gleam of a thing, and secondly, congregation-joining of "blacks" and "whites" in a thing.

: It is Prepositional Phrase, and the singular masculine pronoun refers back to: صَيِّبٍ Hyperbolic/Intensive participle. This phrase relates to the elided fronted Predicate of the nominal sentence, and the preposition indicates that the aforesaid three things are the inner self of the Intensive Active Participle-state and the activities going on within it since the verbal nouns signify only activity and state.

It may be noted that the Verbal Noun is prior to, and to it links as apposition the Verbal Noun: . Both are  within the: صَيِّبٍ Hyperbolic/Intensive participle. Therefore, for this reason and grammatical structuring being in apposition to a plural noun, these two verbal nouns cannot and should not be taken as Object Nouns with the meanings as "thunder" and "lightening". They signify only the verbal meanings as mentioned above. Within the severe/super thunderstorm, the sequence is first and then .

The excited and charged state and luminous and gleaming activity is happening within this: صَيِّبٍ. Did Arabs of 7th century, or today majority of the people know about "In-Cloud Lightening"? Majority, in time and space, only knows about Cloud-to-Ground Lightening followed by listening sound of thunder as one sharp crack.

It is like this:

3.3 (b) Hail part of the Thunderstorm Clouds described by: - Mountains.

After giving information about formation of: -"dragging-dragged cloud-masculine", another feature and area of dangerous cloud is described that causes hailstorm.

  • Have you not given a thought to the fact that Allah the Exalted urges a "dragging-trailing-middle" Cloud for gentle spurting-collection.

  • After lapse of time He the Exalted develops coalescence between it [masculine/positive charge cloud].

  • At a later time, He the Exalted rendered it as a vertically layered mass.

  • Thereupon, you see the rain-drops discharging from spaces midst it.

  • Moreover, He the Exalted keeps intermittently causing descent, from the Sky some hail from within the "Mountains-feminine/negatively charged" having characteristic of containing within her hail. [part of cumulonimbus-rising like mountain clouds].

  • Thereby, He the Exalted makes him suffer with its [masculine hail] descent whom He wills; and averts it from whom He wills.

  • The flash of lightening of it-Thunderstorm [masculine] might soon impair the visions. [24:43]

The information about the place from where the act causing decent of hail intermittently, i.e. Sky refers to vast area of atmosphere having many visible sub localities and bodies therein. The area from where the decent is caused is now restricted to "from some mountains in the Sky". Word: is a broken plural feminine genitive noun, grammatically treated as singular. Its qualitative description is , "within it are various hail". The statements in the Grand Qur’ān are an established and proven fact. Its words do not convey thoughts, ideas or information which might suffer vagueness or portray physical realities that might contradict or could wrongly be perceived by the reader in comparison to ground realities becoming visible in time and space. It is not said that within it is . The preposition is placed before it, denoting that a collective noun has variety.

The hail containing cloud is described by a feminine plural noun signifying "Mountains". The descent is partly from the hail present in those "mountains". The descended hail is described by a masculine pronoun. How and where it finally descends and whom it strikes causing trouble and loss,  it depends upon the Will of Allah the Exalted. This is perhaps the reason that it is considered as a complicated question regards how does hail fall on ground and who eventually suffers.

After the descent of hail, it is mentioned that the visions might soon be impaired by "the flash of lightening of it/him-masculine entity. The hail and lightening are interrelated phenomenon. The difference between the two in the above information is of gender [charge]; hail is in Negative-feminine rising mountain like cloud, while the flash of lightening is related to masculine cloud. This combination reflects row of storms-multicell storm, as denoted by "from some mountains".

3.3 (c) Fluffy, filled with liquid feminine active participles-Vertically Heaped-Mountains like.

The description of these peculiar Clouds in not only picturesque but also like verbally relaying the video clips about them.

  • Moreover, Our Majesty caused the flow of heavy rain water of a convective-flash flooding nature from a part of the location-downdraft area of the Fluffy, filled with liquid Clouds [Cumulonimbus], [78:14]

  • So that Our Majesty might cause the growth/exit/sprouting/germination of plant family/crops of  grains [Family: grasses-monocotyledon] and foliage/plants of all sorts [78:15]

  • And dense forests-gardens with this flash-flooding water-rain. [78:16]


: Verbal sentence:Verb: Perfect; First Person; Plural/Sovereign Singular; Masculine; [Form IV]; Suffixed Subject pronoun, in nominative state, referring to Allah the Exalted; مصدر-اِنْزَالٌ Verbal noun. The perception and meanings infolded in this Verbal Noun is the act of causing the descent of something all at once, if it is a compact/solid/ compounded/bound unit, or as a mass-transfer in one span of running time. This verb/verbal noun is not used to refer to descent of something in piecemeal,  in different and various intervals of time. It refers only to causing flash-descent of something from high-up downwards.

This is an Adjectival Phrase. is the Direct Object of preceding Verb. Water was caused flash-descent, descent in one go in continuous singular time duration without intervening interval, mass-transfer in one go. is the adjectival portrayal of that water. It is hyperbolic participle. This is a noun that indicates excess in the meaning of the verbal noun; it denotes the one that enacts the base meaning exaggeratedly/excessively/intensively. The hyperbolic participle is that noun derived from a Verbal Noun  which is used to indicate upon the one who has/is/will enact the meaning expressed by the root letters to a very high degree or to a very large extent. This hyperbolic participle used as adjective for water shows for our vision that water, which was caused flash-descent, is heavy, intensive, voluminous, flooding type rain.

The source of flash-descent of heavy, intensive, voluminous, flooding type water is indicated: . This is a Prepositional Phrase. The Preposition means descent from a part of the location-downdraft area from  . This is Feminine sound plural Active Participle derived from Form-IV;  مصدر-إِعْصَارٌ Verbal Noun, parent Root "ع ص ر". Root signifies "press, squeeze, compress grapes or other fluffy things until transuded/exuded."  The Active Participles are formed from the Present Tense Active Voice Verb according to specific rules. The verb of this Active Participle is transitive. Therefore, it signifies the ones who make themselves fluffy, juicy, full of moistures, liquid content.

Before we proceed to study the purpose of this flash-flooding rain, do we have any option but to admit that the aforesaid description of flash-flooding rain from is precisely and accurately transcribed and classified, by the World Meteorological Organization, as "Cumulonimbus" based on Latin Cumulus means "heap" or "pile" and nimbus "rain".

-Constituent of Cumulonimbus

Some conveniently understandable Facts about Cumulonimbus, already seen unambiguously mentioned in the Ayah:

1. Cumulonimbus originates from Latin: Cumulus "Heap" and nimbus "rain".

2. Downdraft area of the cloud. The downdraft area is usually near the left front of the storm near the leading edge and is the heaviest rain area. This would be the north side of an east moving storm.

3. They can produce heavy rain of a convective nature and flash flooding

4. Despite the heavy rainfall these clouds produce, the precipitation normally just lasts for around 20 minutes.

5. Most storm cells die after about 20 minutes, when the precipitation causes more downdraft than updraft, causing the energy to dissipate. [The Root signifies "press, squeeze, compress grapes or other fluffy things until transuded/exuded."]

The purpose of this flash-flooding rain is  . The verb has Prefixed Particle of Purpose. The Verb is: Imperfect; First Person; Plural/ Sovereign Singular; Masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; Subject pronoun hidden; [Form-IV]; مصدر-اِخْرَاجٌ Verbal Noun, meaning; "so that We might cause the growth/exit/sprouting/germination with this flash-flooding water/rain". The objects of the Verb are plant family/crops of  grains [Family: grasses-monocotyledon], and foliage/plants of all sorts, and dense gardens/forests.

We know that the temporary abundant availability of water is utilized by foliage with rapid germination and short growth cycle. No negative attribution, in the Grand Qur’ān, is linked with this phenomenon of heavy rains that might cause flash flood. Its hazards are only when people take the flash-flood too lightly since what makes it most dangerous is its sudden nature and fast moving water. However, there seems something dangerous perhaps associated with these feminine fluffy Clouds.

Ball Lightning Mystery

Ball Lightning, we generally believe, as one of the strangest and least understood weather phenomena. However, in Grand Qur’ān there is a mention of  "fluffy twisting ball-orb" having "masculine" characteristic, in the context where weather phenomena is not the subject of discussion. The discourse is about spending and its manners for the wellbeing of others. During the discourse, the probability of a happening finds mention as question which no one likes to happen with him, in these words: 

  • Thereat, "a fluffy twisting ball-orb" arrived at her (garden). Fire is present in it (masculine orb). Thereby she (fire) caused herself to blast-scatter-burnt out. [Refer 2:266]


 Noun: Indefinite; singular; Masculine; nominative. It is the subject of verb: . Conjunction particleفَ   denotes the point in time, sequence of happenings. The Verb is, Perfect; third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV], with suffixed object pronoun, third person, singular, feminine which refers back to feminine noun, meaning garden. Thus, the sentence conveys that at that point in time reached that garden, located on the Earth. It quite unambiguously shows that "he" is not someone who rises from the ground up in the Sky.

Before we find out as to who is "he", let us see "his" descriptive quality: . This is a complete inverted nominal sentence. The subject of nominal sentence is , fire, and , a prepositional phrase, relates to its elided predicate. The preposition is quite indicative of the elided predicate suggesting that subject/fire is present/exist within it. Fire is present within . Its Root is: "ع ص ر". The basic perception infolded is that of pressing, or squeeze grapes or other fluffy things to force out its juice, or what was in it. The fluffy characteristic is because of presence of something loose/fluid/plasma like within some object which, on extraction or flowing out, will render it squeezed or disintegrated in dust like particles. denotes a fluffy twisting sphere object. The fire contained within it has given it the fluffy characteristic.

On its arrival in the garden, something happened. It is: . Conjunction particleفَ   denotes the point in time, sequence of happenings. Verb is Perfect; third person; singular; feminine;  [Form-VIII]; and the pronoun of feminine subject is hidden referring back to feminine , fire. The Form-VIII verb is reflexive which denotes that the act and its effect is directed towards the subject itself. Root of verb is ح ر ق.  The basic perception infolded in the Root is that of calcining that converts a  thing to a powdery residue. It denotes act of rubbing metal with file resulting in its disintegration and spreading as dust particles while friction simultaneously produces heat. The act infolded in this Root and its natural effect both is evident in the Qur’ān in this quote:

  • Of course, we will certainly wear it extensively with file - calcining. Thereafter, we will certainly scatter it in the Gulf as dust - powder." [20:97]

The information content about: , in the above five words, arranged in three sentences, is that on arrival of "fluffy twisting ball-orb" the fire, which was contained in, caused itself to blast, scatter, escape from container, burn itself out. This information corresponds to mysterious stories about Ball Lightening. It confirms that this phenomenon has been in observation of people since centuries. Notwithstanding that the context is not about weather phenomenon, the word indicates that it has relationship with those clouds, which Qur’ān names as . The information in Qur’ān about this type of clouds is exactly of that which are given the name Cumulonimbus clouds.

4. White Clouds--Cirrus

This Word and its Root " م ز ن" occurs once in Grand Qur’ān. Classical Arabic Lexicons describe it as White Cloud, that it connotes new moon, egg of Ant [it is white or cream coloured], and refers  persons who generously donate to others. The original cloud: "middle-dragging cloud" is adjectively described by Passive Participle:   "subjected to manageability". When participles are used as adjective modifying a noun they become a descriptive term for it. Man can acquire capability to manage them to his benefit. Otherwise considered dangerous cloud-صَيِّبٍ Supercell thunderstorm, causing worst weather, its danger and threat is actually a localized-restricted effect. The most dangerous cloud referred in Qur’ān is:  . It is the only Cloud in its "Atlas of Clouds" where the Man-humanity is addressed subtly challengingly and threateningly, showing that it is the only cloud having global implications.

  • Have you seen-studied the Water which you people keep drinking? [56:68]

  • Did you people cause its (water) dropping from the White Shiny Clouds,

  • Or We cause it drop? [56:69]

  • Subject to that Our Majesty so decide-desire We could certainly have rendered it as unpalatable - burning to the mouth, whether salinized or bitter, or hot.

  • Therefore, why you people not express gratitude for not having rendering it unpalatable? [56:70] [Let us say الحمد لله

Cirrus clouds


This cloud is described by Latin word Cirrus that means a ringlet, or curling lock of hair. Cirrus clouds generally appear white or light grey in colour. Remaining apprehensive of the threatening information, this cloud seems an entity of global concern and interest. Therefore, it needs to be studied jointly and collaboratively by advanced nations.

After having read the description of Clouds in Grand Qur’ān, it is left to your judgment to decide as to who is the first who gave the Atlas of Clouds.