Qur’ān is rendered facilitative for comprehension by use of figures of speech

By unique device: تَصْرِيفٌ like coverage of an event by multiple cameras


Allah the Exalted has used a unique device to render Qur’ān facilitative for complete understanding which no other author can employ because they suffer limitation of observation.

Our vision becomes dynamic when we are able to recognize objects and concepts from multiple perspectives and from different viewing angles. It then assists explicit cognition. Visual perception faces difficulties with varying lighting conditions illuminating the environment and our inability to absorb/digest visual scene in a single glimpse.

Real life experience will make the point lucid. A person watching a cricket or football match in the stadium and the Umpire/Referee cannot observe what a person can observe in the live telecast flashing each image of movements of the player and the ball from various angles seen by various cameras fixed all around the ground.

One writing device for facilitating the reader to conclusively comprehend an object, topic and concept is to describe it with the help of dichotomous relations; and by showing it from different angles, dimensions, and aspects. Dichotomous relations and terms incorporate both closeness and distance and help human cognitive tendency in categorizing experiences with their help.  This device portrays the varieties, or vicissitudes of affairs or events; scope, diametric properties; and possibilities the reader might not have given a thought. It illustrates how and why is it important to observe the other side of same or similar subject or concept and be mindful of possibilities that have not occurred but are probable.

Has this device been used in Qur’ān to render it facilitative for comprehending and conceptualizing? 

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] ask them: "Have you people considered the possibility that if Allah the Exalted seized your faculty of listening and of visions;

  • And He the Exalted put the epilogue-sealed the wraps upon your hearts-intellectual consciousness

  • Who is iela'aha: godhead else than Allah the Exalted that could bring it back to you?"

  • Appreciate the manner how Our Majesty alternate the Verbal Passages (of Qur'an) in interchanging pattern - alternatives

  • Afterwards having known the possibilities they keep neglecting it. [6:46]

: It is a verbal sentence comprising of Verb-Subject-Object. The First Person Masculine Sovereign Singular Imperfect Indicative Mood Verb is made from verbal Noun: تَصْرِيفٌ stemming from Rood:  ص ر ف. Classical Lexicons describe that it leads to the perception of turning - alternating the direction; shifting one state/condition to another; or its substitute or alternate; and it is used to describe milk when its foam has settled like separated from foam, yeast. Thus it leads to Perspectives; turning - alternating the direction; shifting one state/condition to another; diametrically different in character, tendency, belief, etc. opposite views; The varieties, or vicissitudes, of affairs or events; scope, possibilities,

The text of Qur’ān also serves as Lexicon to render meanings and perception, embedded in its important words, explicit by using it in specific context. Man is often not mindful of possibilities that have not occurred but are probable:

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "He the Exalted has full command and ability that He might revive-repeat upon you people the distress originating and seizing you from space above you or from beneath your feet

  • Or He the Exalted might let you people in a state of few groups/sects; and might cause some of you taste the combat power of some others".

  • Appreciate the manner how Our Majesty alternate the Verbal Passages (of Qur'an) in interchanging pattern - alternatives

  • Its objective is that people might conceptualize-conveniently comprehend. [6:65]

Presenting information in interchanging pattern, alternatives, and perspectives facilitates comprehending and conceptualizing it, and true understanding of relative importance of things; a sense of proportion. One meaning of the device: تَصْرِيفٌ mentioned in Classical Lexicons is to describe milk when its foam has settled like it is alienated from foam, yeast:

  • Take note: like the aforementioned luminous - enlightening manner Our Majesty present the Passages of Qur'an in interchanging pattern - alternatives so that they comprehend [refer 6:65)

  • And so that they might say: ": "You (the Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam) have threshed (separated the grains from the stalks: explained exhaustively: highlighted good and worthless, truth and scum)".

  • And by it Our further objective is rendering it (Qur’ān) explicitly explicative for the people who pursue to acquire knowledge. [6:105]

Presenting information in interchanging pattern, highlighting by alternatives is like alienating milk from foam and like threshing, a process by which grains are separated from stalks. It renders the grain and chaff distinct. The act and state signified by: تَصْرِيفٌ can result that the people might say:  : a verbal sentence; verb perfect and suffixed second person singular masculine pronoun is referent to the addressee, elevated Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam. It stems from Root: د ر س. Classical Lexicons stated that it leads to the perception of veiling, disappearance, and to reduce, shorten, drop, and obliteration. And it means to thresh: separate grains from plants.

Threshing is a process by which grains are separated from stalks. It renders the grain and chaff distinct. Traditionally it was done by laying wheat crop in an elliptical circle and oxen were made walk over it. These days mechanized system also works with a slight elliptical action.

When the object of this action is a book its obvious meanings are to explain something exhaustively separating truth from conjecture and scum, highlighting good and worthless; exposing dichotomous relations. Thereby, the discourse is rendered explicitly explicative.

Before we study how this device is used in the major chunk of the text, let us read about its further objectives:

  • Realize it; the land unit with defined boundaries which is characteristically: rich in nutrients, fertile - pleasantly beneficial: its vegetations come out by the Will of its Sustainer Lord.

  • And the land unit with defined boundaries that has experienced qualitative degradation -infertility: it does not expel something worthwhile; it brings out but picayune.

  • Like this physically observable reality, Our Majesty elaborate the verbal passages (of Qur’ān) in interchanging pattern - alternatives for the people who acknowledge and express gratitude-appreciation,  [7:58]

The background frame is the same : the piece of land with defined boundaries. It is either: or that which has experienced and attained a natural degraded quality: , either of permanent  or temporary nature. The relation between words becomes available by virtue of their links to common background frame. The purpose is not to merely illustrate that two objects are the same or different but the point is to analyze how they compare or contrast and why their similarities or differences are important. The effect about both is described by the same verb: denoting emergence-getting out of the subject from a place. With regard to:  the subject of the verb is: : the vegetation of that land. But the other type of land is itself the subject of this Verb. In this state too, it does pour out but of little or no value.

The application of the tool of: تَصْرِيفٌ  renders the informative text explicitly visible for mental imaging and leaves nothing obtuse. Land is an essential basis for a healthy and prosperous future for human beings. This will be obscured by the existence of vast areas of land with limited potential. Therefore, the presence of:  the persistently beneficial land might incline people to express gratitude if its opposite possibility of experiencing a qualitative worthlessness is visualized.

The use of writing device: تَصْرِيفٌ serves many purposes as it renders the object as primary focus of attention. If a subject is mentioned in revolving manner in the Discourse its minimum advantage is that at some place it will attract the attention of even a casual reader.

  • Appreciate the fact that Our Majesty have illustrated in this Qur'aan issues and concepts,  mirroring information by rotation in alternate directions, angles, and perspectives. Its objective is that they might at their own conveniently save, recall, relate and take lesson;

  • But the fact remains that it increases in them nothing but running away aversively. [17:41]


  • Appreciate the fact; Our Majesty have illustrated for the peoples; in this Qur’ān in interchanging pattern - alternatives, some examples selected from all instances.

  • Yet, many people have demurred for no reason except being ungratefully disobedient. [17:89]


  • Appreciate the fact; Our Majesty have illustrated in this Qur’ān in interchanging pattern - alternatives, some examples selected from all instances which are relevant for the people.

  • But the fact remains that generally speaking the Man, in most of the things, purposelessly debates and wrangles. [18:54]

This unique feature is reiterated to highlight a different point:

  • Take note; like aforementioned (account of the past, and future) Our Majesty has compositely sent it (Memoir's narrative 20:99; Qur’ān 20:2) in the form of a compilation (titled Qur’ān) having characteristic of text transcription in Arabic: a perspicuous, eloquent, distinctive and precisely expressive language; the language of the sons of soil of Arabian Peninsula.

  • And Our Majesty have revolved - repeated from different angles  within its contents certain warning of inevitable harmful upshot

  • So that they might consider becoming self conscious to endeavour to protect their selves

  • Or it (warning) may disclose a new instance for them to take heed. [20:113]


  • And indeed Our Majesty annihilated that which is around you people of the habitats/localities

  • And Our Majesty had explained the verbal passages in interchanging pattern - alternatives making the point distinct from all angles

  • So that they might revert to prescribed code of conduct.[46:27]

It states that the concept signified by: is mentioned in the book in revolving manner. It is common psyche of humans that they pay little attention to warnings about the future. Warnings thereby need to be repeated. For adding communicative force words like "formal", "official" are added to the message of warning. It stems from Root:و ع د which signifies Promise. But when a Sovereign uses the word Promise about a harmful upshot of certain undesirable or criminal conduct, it has forceful communicate value of Warning which provides an opportunity to the addressee or the concerned person to get alarmed and take action to thwart damaging upshot.

The concept of device: تَصْرِيفٌ can be grasped from physical phenomenon mentioned in Ayah 2:164:  : the atmospheric circulation-changing directions of the Winds in spaces within the Sky and within the Earth, is reiterated:

  • And in the phenomenon of alteration-revolving-circular pursuit of the Night and the Day

  • And in that Allah the Exalted has dropped from the Sky which is part of sustenance/food

  • Thereby, He the Exalted rejuvenated with it the Earth after its demise/drying up

  • And in the phenomenon of the circulation of the Winds

  • These are the existential - signs that are explicitly distinct for such people who recognize, differentiate, relate and reflect-people of critical thinking. [45:05]

This device facilitates the reader to comprehend the largest part of the text of Qur’ān; which is Narrative, in such manner as if we are watching the scenes of same event recorded by cameras from different observing locations. It thus gives a full-circle feel of each of the chain of events.

Majority of critics of Qur’ān did not realize the uniqueness of this feature and naively thought it as heavy-handed use of repetition of events (calling them stories).

Next we will study the main feature of Qur’ān: meaning explicitly elucidated discourse because of which it is easy to comprehend and facilitates translating and interpreting it since it is self exegetical.