Root: ت ج ر

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 9 

b) No of constructions: 5 All Nouns

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

التَّاءُ وَالْجِيمُ وَالرَّاءُ، التِّجَارَةُ مَعْرُوفَةٌ. وَيُقَالُ تَاجِرٌ وَتَجْرٌ، كَمَا يُقَالُ صَاحِبٌ وَصَحْبٌ

That it is well known; and is mentioned as trader, merchant, dealer, businessman and to deal (in), trade (in), to sell, and merchandise.

That it signifies disposal of capital goods with demand - claim of profit, return, benefit.

Lane Lexicon: He practiced traffic, merchandise, or commerce; trafficked; traded; dealt; sold and bought; (K;) employed property for the purpose of gain.

Semantic domain: Commerce (type non-personalized frame)

Classical Lexicons

In English language this Frame Commerce_scenario is defined as:

Commerce is a situation in which a Buyer and a Seller have agreed upon an exchange of Money and Goods (possibly after a negotiation), and then perform the exchange, optionally carrying it out with various kinds of direct payment or financing or the giving of change. The Seller indicates their willingness to give the Goods in their possession to a Buyer who would give them some amount of Money. The Seller may have already decided on the amount of money that they would require, in which case it is called the Asking price. The Buyer also indicates their willingness to give an amount of money called an Offer to a Seller who would give them the Goods. Normally the process is begun by the Seller. The means by which the Seller indicates their wish to engage in an exchange are various, ranging from putting a price tag on an item on a store shelf, to advertizing, to communicating directly and specifically with a possible Buyer. In some cases, however, the process may be initiated by the Buyer indicating to a possible Seller that they would like to make an exchange. 

 

However, in Arabic, the Goods do not include services. labour or time for which a separate concept-domain is: ء ج ر which has much respectable signification than labour charges, while meaning the same thing as denoted by English words.

Under the main semantic domain Commerce: sub-categories, in Arabic, are embedded in the following Roots:

Root: ش رى Purchase against another thing or money; exchange of incompatible things.

Root: ب ى ع : Credit sale;

Root: د ى ن   Credit sale

 

  • The aforementioned are the people who have purposely purchased the misguidance - straying exchanging with the Guidance (Grand Qur’ān).

  • یہ متذکرہ لوگ وہ ہیں جنہوں نے زیر مقصد راہنمائی کے بدلے گمراہی خریدی ہے۔

  • Thereby, their "Instant Commerce" did not yield benefit.

  • نتیجے کے طوران کی اس تجارت(دونوں فریقوں سے مفاد اٹھانے کا خیال اور نظریہ) نے فائدہ نہیں دیا۔
    ( الٹا اپنے فریق کا اعتماد کھو بیٹھے اور اب انہیں یقین دلانے کے لئے یہ کہنا پڑتا ہے کہ اُن کے ساتھ تو ہم مذاق کرتے ہیں )

  • It retained them in a state of those who incline not to become aright guided. [2:16]

  • (اوروہ اس حالت میں رہے کہ راہ راست کو پانے کے متمنی ہی نہ تھے۔(البقرۃ: ۔۱۶

 

  • O those people/you, who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • Whenever you people have mutually decided a fiscal deal of promissory nature - lending whose maturity term is specified by deadline- date for payment, thereat you are directed to document it in writing —

  • And a known (notory) scribe should write down the agreement struck between you people, impartially in just manner —

  • And scribe should not refuse documenting-writing down since Allah the Exalted has imparted him the knowledge to write —

  • Therefore, he should write down and the party under liability should dictate, and he should aspire attaining the protection from Allah the Exalted, his Sustainer Lord. And he should not undervalue anything relating to the liability/obligation —

  • However, for reason of the indebted person being immature or weak, or if he does not consider himself capable to dictate it, thereby, the guardian of his interests should dictate it, details of deal with equity —

  • Moreover, you must seek two men of good repute amongst you as observers-non participating witness to the contract.

  • However, in case of non-availability of two men, the recourse is to seek one man and two women of vicinity selected by mutual consent to observe the deal. [two women; it is embarrassing for a woman to join unknown 4 men in a commercial shop; she might remain absent minded].

  • The cause/logic of inviting two women to observe the transaction: supposedly one of the two ladies might become lost-absorbed in herself-unmindful other woman might make her mindful.

  • And the observers/witnesses should not refuse to observe the contract when they are called upon for it.

  • And you should not neglect documenting it (lending-loaning deal) notwithstanding whether it be small or big in worth, validating till its termination date.

  • The aforementioned course is more just and equitable in the consideration of Allah the Exalted; and it is strong for primary evidence. And it reduces the chances that you might suffer confusion and double mindedness.

  • However, if it were an on-spot transaction by hand-to-hand, a routine daily business of rotation of things by selling and buying, then, no blame is upon you people in not reducing it to writing.

  • And you are directed to make it a witnessed activity when you have mutually struck a promissory commercial transaction: credit sale.

  • Take note that neither the scribe nor the witnesses should be harassed.

  • In case you do so, thereby, it will indeed attach with you people the guilt of defiance.

  • And sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • And recognize the fact that Allah the Exalted is teaching you people the right way to conduct business-economic activity.

  • And Allah the Exalted has the absolute knowledge of each and everything [visible and infolded] [2:282]

 

  • O those people/you who proclaim to have become believers, listen;

  • You people should not consume the wealth-assets of others through deceit-fraud-cheating- fabrication-scamming —

  • Excluding the income accruing from mutually beneficial-pleasing consented commercial activity between you people.

  • And by illicit usurpation of other's wealth you should not make your selves abhorred-repugnant-hateful in society's eye resulting in distancing.

  • Know it; Allah the Exalted is ever Merciful to you people. [4:29]

 

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "If it were your fathers, and your sons, and your brothers, and your spouses and your clans;

  • And the wealth that you have acquired, and the business/commerce you people apprehend recession in it; and the residences you are delighted with:

  • These are more attractive and dearer to you people than Allah the Exalted and His Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam], and than endeavouring-exerting utmost for the cause-High road of Him the Exalted:

  • Thereby, wait remain absorbed in their love until such time Allah the Exalted proclaims His decision-command.

  • Remain cognizant, Allah the Exalted guides not the people who are aberrant-promise breakers and transgress prescribed bounds. [9:24]

 

  • Such men are they whom distracts away neither routine cash business—selling and buying on hand to hand basis nor promissory natured commercial transactions:

  • From the remembrance and thought of Allah the Exalted; and for establishing As-sa'laat: Time Bound Protocol of Servitude and allegiance; and paying the Az-zaka'at: financial liability for economic uplift of society.

  • They fear the Day wherein the hearts and the visions will twitch. [24:37]

 

 

  • Certain fact about those who recite/study the Book of Allah, word by word in the manner that passions, conceptions, perceptions, myths, notions already in memory interfere not in between the words of the Book and the Reciter/reader —

  • And steadfastly maintained the Institution of As-sa'laat: Time Bound Formal Rite demonstrating Servitude and allegiance to Allah the Exalted —

  • And they spent for other's wellbeing out of the sustenance Our Majesty had provided them —

  • They did it privately and publicly —

  • They are pursuing a business, an economic activity that might never suffer stagnation — [35:29]

 

  • O those/you who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • May I lead you people towards that commerce which will save and rescue you from the painful affliction — [61:10]

 

  • [Reverting back to conversation with Jews 62:6-8, they do not reply, instead] And when they saw some business activity/merchant caravan or amusing sport they rushed towards that and left you standing.

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce to them, "That which is from Allah the Exalted (Qur’ān) is far better than the amusing sport and than the hand to hand business activity —

  • And Allah the Exalted is the best sustenance provider". [62:11]

 

 

1 Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive. (1)62:11=1   

                                            مصدر: معرفہ باللام-مرفوع

 
2 Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)2:282(2)4:29(3)35:29(4)62:11=4                                                        مصدر: منصوب  
3 Verbal Noun: Indefinite;  nominative. (1)9:24(2)24:37=2               مصدر:مرفوع  
4 Verbal Noun: Indefinite; genitive. (1)61:10=1     مصدر: مجرور  
5 Possessive Phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; nominative + Possessive Pronoun: third person; masculine; plural; genitive state. (1)2:16=1

                                   الإِضَافَةُ- مصدر:مرفوع /مضافضمير متصل-جمع مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه