Root: س ف ه

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 11

b) No of constructions: 8

Noun: 7; Recurrence: 10; Verb: 1 [Form-I]

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

 (مقاييس اللغة)

السِّينُ وَالْفَاءُ وَالْهَاءُ أَصْلٌ وَاحِدٌ، يَدُلُّ عَلَى خِفَّةٍ وَسَخَافَةٍ. وَهُوَ قِيَاسٌ مُطَّرِدٌ. فَالسَّفَهُ: ضِدُّ الْحِلْمِ

That it leads to the perception of frivolity, levity and absurdity and silliness. And it is contra. of forbearance, endurance and intelligence

Lane Lexicon : He was, or became, unwise, witless, or destitute of wisdom or understanding, or [rather] light-witted.

To be ignorant, foolish, impulsive; weak in the mind, to be base; unwise, lack judgment; feeble minded person; dim witted person.

  • Moreover, when it was said to them (Muna'fi'qeen: Impostor believers) —

  • اور جب اُن (ایمان کے جھوٹے دعویداروں)سے یہ کہا گیا

  • "You people incline to accept likewise as other people have heartily accepted."—

  • ‘‘تم لوگ تسلیم کرو اُس طرح جیسے(یہود و نصاریٰ میں سے) دوسرے لوگوں نے تسلیم کیا ہے’’

  • They replied: "Should we accept likewise as the Fools have accepted?"

  • " تو انہوں نے جواب میں کہا’’کیا ہم اُس طرح تسلیم کر لیں جس طرح جانے پہچانے بیوقوفوں نے تسلیم کیا ہے ؟

  • No, the fact is that they themselves are truly the Fools [] —

  • ،خبردار!یہ وہ لوگ ہیں جو درحقیقت خود بیوقوف ہیں

  • But they realize it not. [under duality of thought to retain association with Non-believing Jews]. [2:13]

  • (لیکن یہ لوگ خود جانتے؍/جاننا چاہتے نہیں۔(البقرۃ: ۔۱۳

  • Be thoughtful; Who is he who would avert inclination away from the Prescribed Procedural Code of the Community of Iebra'heim [alai'his'slaam]? None turns-averts his inclination away except the one who made fool of himself.

  • اور کون ہے جو ملت ابراہیم(علیہ السلام)/نظریہ اورطرز فکرو عمل سے رغبت ہٹا/ پھیر سکتا ہے سوائے اُس کے جس نے اپنے آپ کو احمق بنایا؟

Root: ر غ ب

  • Be mindful; Our Majesty had with pleasure selected and elevated him [also for friendship-4:125] in this World.

  • اورہم جناب نے انہیں (اپنا دوست)منتخب کر کے دنیا میں سرفرازکیا ہے۔

Root: ص ف و

  • Of course, he is certainly one of the most distinguished in the ranks of the Righteous-the Perfectionists in the Hereafter. [2:130]

  • اور یقینا آخرت میں صالحین میں وہ عالی مرتبت ہیں۔

  • Henceforth, the Fools (Muna'afiqeen and those averted from Procedural Code of Community of Iebra'heim alai'his'slaam) amongst the People will keep enquiring-conversing amongst themselves —

  • عنقریب لوگوں (زمانہ نزول میں اہل یہود) میں سے جانے پہچانے بیوقوف (منافقین اپنی قوم کے ایمان لانے والوں کے بارے میں)آپس میں کہیں اور ایسے موقع پر کہتے رہا کریں گے:

  • "What is that which has caused them turn away from their Qib'la'tae; Focal Point, the one [East or West] upon which they henceforth adhered?"

  • ”کس بات نے اُن لوگوں کواپنے اُس ”قبلۃ“ سے پلٹا دیا ہے جس پرعرصہ دراز سے ماضی میں قائم رہے ہیں؟“

  • You the Messenger Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce to new comers in Islam from the people of Book: "The East and the West are the domain exclusively for Allah the Exalted.

  • آپ(ﷺ)بتائیں’’ایک مخصوص مشرق اور مغرب کی سمت تمام سمتوں کی مانند اللہ تعالیٰ کے تسلط پر گواہ ہے۔

  • He the Exalted keeps guiding him; about whom He the Exalted so decides, towards the High road: Course that keeps heading safely and stably to the destination of peace and tranquillity." [2:142]

  • وہ جناب اس شخص کو جس کے متعلق رضامند ہوتے ہیں کہ متمنی ہدایت ہے صراط مستقیم کی جانب گامزن فرما دیتے ہیں“۔

  • O those people/you, who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • !اے وہ لوگوں جنہوں نے ایمان لانے کا اقرارو اعلان کیا ہے توجہ سے سنو

  • Whenever you people have mutually decided a fiscal deal of promissory nature - lending whose maturity term is specified by deadline- date for payment, thereat you are directed to document it in writing —

  • And a known (notory) scribe should write down the agreement struck between you people, impartially in just manner —

  • And scribe should not refuse documenting-writing down since Allah the Exalted has imparted him the knowledge to write —

  • Therefore, he should write down and the party under liability should dictate, and he should aspire attaining the protection from Allah the Exalted, his Sustainer Lord. And he should not undervalue anything relating to the liability/obligation —

  • However, for reason of the indebted person being immature or weak, or if he does not consider himself capable to dictate it, thereby, the guardian of his interests should dictate it, details of deal with equity —

Root: م ل ل

  • Moreover, you must seek two men of good repute amongst you as observers-non participating witness to the contract.

  • However, in case of non-availability of two men, the recourse is to seek one man and two women of vicinity selected by mutual consent to observe the deal. [two women; it is embarrassing for a woman to join unknown 4 men in a commercial shop; she might remain absent minded].

  • The cause/logic of inviting two women to observe the transaction: supposedly one of the two ladies might become lost-absorbed in herself-unmindful other woman might make her mindful.

  • And the observers/witnesses should not refuse to observe the contract when they are called upon for it.

  • And you should not neglect documenting it (lending-loaning deal) notwithstanding whether it be small or big in worth, validating till its termination date.

Root: س ء م

  • The aforementioned course is more just and equitable in the consideration of Allah the Exalted; and it is strong for primary evidence. And it reduces the chances that you might suffer confusion and double mindedness.

  • However, if it were an on-spot transaction by hand-to-hand, a routine daily business of rotation of things by selling and buying, then, no blame is upon you people in not reducing it to writing.

  • And you are directed to make it a witnessed activity when you have mutually struck a promissory commercial transaction: credit sale.

  • Take note that neither the scribe nor the witnesses should be harassed.

  • In case you do so, thereby, it will indeed attach with you people the guilt of defiance.

  • And sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • And recognize the fact that Allah the Exalted is teaching you people the right way to conduct business-economic activity.

  • And Allah the Exalted has the absolute knowledge of each and everything [visible and infolded] [2:282]

  • Be cautioned; you people should not give to the mentally weak of mind - retarded - special people your wealth which Allah the Exalted has declared as means of stable maintaining for you.

  • Mind it; you people are hereby directed to feed and afford them (weak of mind-retarded-special persons) therewith; and you clothe them —

  • And speak for them with kind and polite words of known import-true significance. [4:05]

  • Indeed those who killed their progeny, witlessly-foolishly-dogmatically without ascertaining-conceptualization of knowledge, have caused loss to their selves —

  • And similarly those have suffered loss who declared as prohibited that which Allah the Exalted had given them as sustenance by imaginative false assertions attributed upon Allah the Exalted.

  • Indeed they were lost-entrenched in straying-conjectures.

  • It restrained them in a state of those who incline not to become aright guided. [6:140]

  • The ruling elite - chieftains of his nation who had refused to believe replied him:

  • "Indeed we see you driven to irrationality —

  • And in our firm-opinion we take you as of those who contradict cherished truths." [7:66]

  • He replied: "O my nation! Irrational behaviour is never associated with me.

  • On the contrary, I am the Messenger appointed for conveying the message from the Sustainer Lord of the universes-all that exists. [7:67]

  • And Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] selected seventy men of his nation for taking to Our appointed place —

  • Thereupon, on reaching there when the Earthquake had seized them —

Root: ر ج ف

  • He (Mūsā alai'his'slaam) prayed: "My Sustainer Lord! Had Your Majesty so willed You could have eliminated them before this time and me also.

  • Would Your Majesty eliminate us for that which the fools amongst us innovatively did? [by giving precious metals and sculpting calf]

  • [as You had told me] That incident was but an evaluative trial; Your Majesty exposes and proves neglectfully straying by such trial whomever You so intend; and with it guide him about whomever You so decide.

  • You are our Protector and Saviour, therefore, kindly grant forgiveness for us and have mercy upon us —

  • Fact remains that Your Majesty are the magnanimous forgiver. [7:155]

  • And that the stupid - fools amongst us used to say things about Allah the Exalted, statement far away from truth. [72:04]



1 Adjective resembling participle: Definite; masculine; plural; nominative.  (1)2:13(2)2:13(3)2:142(4)7:155=4

                   الصفة المشبهة:-معرفہ باللام-مرفوع-جمع  مذكر

2 Adjective resembling participle: Definite; masculine; plural; accusative.  (1)4:05=1

                        الصفة المشبهة:-معرفہ باللام-منصوب-جمع  مذكر

3 Verbal Noun: Indefinite; genitive. (1)7:66=1                                           مصدر: مجرور    
4 Verbal Noun: Indefinite; nominative. (1)7:67=1                                     مصدر: مرفوع  

Verbal Noun [adverbially used]: Indefinite; accusative. (1)6:140=1 مصدر: منصوب

6 Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; Masculine;  singular; accusative. (1)2:282=1

                            الصفة المشبهة:-منصوب-واحد  مذكر

7 Possessive Phrase: Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Definite; singular; masculine; nominative + Possessive pronoun: First Person;  plural, in genitive state. (1)72:04=1

 الإِضَافَةُ-الصفة المشبهة:-مرفوع-واحد  مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-جمع متكلم في محل جر-مضاف إليه


Verb Form-I

1 Verb: Perfect; third person; singular; masculine; Transitive; Subject pronoun  hidden; مصدر-سَفْهٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:130=1

  فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب