Root: خ ت م

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 8 

b) No of constructions: 6

Nouns: 3; Recurrence: 3;  Verbs: 3 Recurrence: 5 [Form-I]

 Learned Ibn Faris [died-1005] described the perception infolded in the Root as under:

مقاييس اللغة

الخاء والتاء والميم أصلٌ واحد، وهو بُلوغ آخِرِ الشّيء. يقال خَتَمْتُ العَمَل، وخَتم القارئ السُّورة. فأمَّا الخَتْم، وهو الطَّبع على الشَّيء، فذلك من الباب أيضاً؛ لأنّ الطَّبْع على الشيءِ لا يكون إلاّ بعد بلوغ آخِرِه، في الأحراز

That it signifies as crossing over to the tail end of a thing. It means to conclude, end, close or finish a performance. It denotes sealing an object after accomplishment of job at the point of entry and exit in such manner that thereafter nothing can enter therein or spill over.

Lane Lexicon says that it means to reach the end of a thing, and it is contra of inauguration; sealing, putting an impression or signet upon a thing in consideration of protection.

Semantic domain: Accomplishment and Enveloping

Classical Lexicons

Related Root:  ط ب ع Coating upon the surface - substrate

Root:  غ ل ف envelop, envelope, wrapper

Grand Qur’ān itself is the Superb Lexicon since it exposes the meanings of its important words by using it in different semantic fields whereby one can perceive all its dimensions relating to substance as well accident including metaphorical aspect.

  • They will be served exquisitely matured wine to drink, it is securely sealed. [83:25]

Root:  س ق ى

  • Its [masculine-positively charged wine] seal is securely withholding it.

Root: م س ك

  • Therefore, those who have passion for exquisite wine should ambitiously aspire to be its recipients. [83:26]

  • And its blending and temperament is effervescent. [83:27]

  • A fountain of drink, those who have been appreciated and approved for nearness drink from it. [83:28]

This is the scene of a group of people in wait for escort to the Paradise on the Day of Judgment. They are served exquisitely matured wine. As is the Active Participle: ; word: a Passive Participle is also from  خَتْمٌ-خِتَامٌ Verbal Noun; خَتَمَ-يَخْتَمُ Verb of Root  "خ ت م".  Let us not be lost in the aroma of this super wine; it is a long journey to get it; but move on with our study. Verbal Noun of these Participles also finds mention . A verbal noun denotes an action or a state. Sealed bottle of wine prevents its leakage, spill over holding it securely in the bottle.

How simple and straight forward is the perception conveyed by Root "خ ت م", please see it:

  • That Day Our Majesty will gag their mouths —

  • And their hands will speak to Our Majesty —

  • And their respective Feet will testify against them —

  • About that which they people deliberately kept performing for material gains. [36:65]

: First Person; Plural; Masculine Verb in indicative mood from Root "خ ت م". Their mouths will be sealed-gagged which will prevent them from speaking or crying out. This effect of sealing is that they will not be able to articulate an expression; whereby their hands will verbally orate that which they people kept doing in worldly life.

  • Allah the Exalted has sealed the wraps upon their hearts-intellectual consciousness and upon their faculty of listening - acoustic faculty —

  • اللہ تعالیٰ نے ان کے قلوب پر(ان کے اپنے بقول)موجود غلاف کو سربمہر کر دیا ہے اور ان کی سماعتوں پر ڈھانپ لگا دی ہے۔
    (عقل و برہان کی بات اُن کی سماعتوں اور دلوں پر اثرانداز نہ ہو سکے گی) 

  • And a veil extends upon their faculties of observation - optical faculty.

  • (اور ایک ڈھانپ ان کی بصارتوں پر چھائی ہوئی ہے (کہ آنکھیں ہوتے بھی کچھ نہیں دیکھتے

Root: غ ش و

  • Be mindful, a grave torment is in wait—prepared for them [on the Day of Resurrection]. [2:07]

  • جان لیں ایک بڑا عذاب اُن کیلئے تیار اور منتظر ہے۔

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] ask them: "Have you people considered the possibility that if Allah the Exalted seized your faculty of listening and of visions;

  • And He the Exalted put the epilogue-sealed the wraps upon your hearts-intellectual consciousness —

  • Who is iela'aha: godhead else than Allah the Exalted that could bring it back to you?"

  • Appreciate the manner how Our Majesty alternate the Verbal Passages (of Qur'an) in interchanging pattern - alternatives —

Root: ص ر ف

  • Afterwards having known the possibilities they keep neglecting it. [6:46]

Root: ص د ف

: Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; active;  مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun. Allah the Exalted is the Subject of verb. The prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrase: "upon the hearts of them", relates to the Verb. It signifies that the effect of the act denoted by verb is upon their hearts. And ultimate result is that a grave torment is in wait for them. This is their epilogue, the detail of outcome-inevitable consequence of what they did and earned in life. This is the concluding remark of Allah the Exalted that He has put the epilogue upon their hearts which symbolizes with sealing their self made wraps upon their hearts. The point in time for sealing an object is when it has since been wrapped in some covering, envelop. It is explained again in more simple terms:

  • Moreover, they said [to the Messengers whom they irritated]; "Our hearts are enveloped."

  • اور انہوں نے رسولوں سے کہا”ہمارے دلوں پر غلاف چڑھے ہیں“۔

  • No, the fact is that Allah the Exalted has discarded them as condemned because of their persistent disavowal.

  • نہیں!بلکہ حقیقت یہ ہے کہ ا للہ تعالیٰ نے ان کے انکارپر بضد رہنے پرانہیں مسترد اورپھٹکار زدہ کر دیا ہے۔

  • Thereby and thenceforth, what they believe is inadequate belief. [2:88]

  • اِس لئے   جس پر ایمان رکھنے کا دعویٰ کرتے ہیں وہ ایمان کے تقاضوں کے بالمقابل بہت مختصر ہے۔

: It is a plural noun and signifies wraps, envelops, coverings for things. The epilogue-sealing of hearts is reflective of an act and state of crossing over the ultimate end-finished-accomplished stage, which is the basic perception infolded in Root "خ ت م". People said that their hearts are wrapped in coverings which reflects a stage immediately prior to sealing an object signified by verb: . Their statement was contradicted by disclosing that their wrapped state has crossed over to the extreme stage of sealing. This is described by: "Allah the Exalted has discarded them as condemned and cursed". This is crossing the extreme end, and point of no return in any association. And the cause of this permanent condemnation is: because of their act and persistence in refusal to accept. Grand Qur’ān also uses rotational technique to highlight meaning and perception of concepts by using synonymous words about the same subject with different sentence structures:

  • Thereby, because of their deliberate breach of the solemn pledge-covenant of them —

Root: و ث ق

  • And because of their deliberate denial of the Aa'ya'at: unprecedented displays and verbal passages of Allah the Exalted —

  • And for their continued effort in character assassination of few of the Chosen and exalted Allegiants of Allah the Exalted by contrary to fact slanderous and libelous statements to distance-ill-repute them from people's reverence —

  • And because of their saying: "Our hearts are enveloped".

  • -- No, that is not the case, in fact Allah the Exalted has put a coating upon them (hearts-locus of understanding). This is for reason of their disavowal --.

Root: ط ب ع

  • Thereby, barring a few (Jews) they do not accept/believe. [4:155]

  • Have you considered/seen that one who has deliberately and consciously adopted as the iela'aha/lord of worship for him his own desire/vested interest/lusts/hypothetical conjectures —

  • And Allah the Exalted has let him remain neglectfully absorbed, on the basis of knowledge —

  • And He the Exalted has let [because of his deliberate/conscious denial to accept the truth/fact] the cover keep veiling upon his audition [passage of entry closed since he has veiled his intellect and perception with other things/preconceived conjectural notions/vested interests]; and upon his heart —

  • And He the Exalted has rendered his own whims and desires as obscuring veil upon his faculty of vision —

Root: غ ش و

  • Resultantly who/none is there who could lead him after Allah the Exalted has left him straying [in furtive worshipping of self interests-person],

  • [why you deviate] Is it for reason that you people consciously decide not to reflect? [45:23]

and: is described by: "Allah the Exalted has impressed the epilogue, coating". And here too the location is "hearts"-signifying intellectual consciousness. Its reason is the same as was given earlier: : because of their act and persistence in refusal to accept. Once the act signified by: and: is done in relation to an object, all chances and doors stand closed for entrance as well as spill over. The hearts subjected to an act: and: are like as if they are entities locked whereby nothing can enter therein.

Root of  is "ط ب ع". Its perception and meanings are, "sealing, stamping, imprinting, or impressing; impressing a thing with the engraving of the stamp; to brand or mark". Lane's Lexicon further quotes, "accord to Aboo-Is-hák the Grammarian, طَبْعٌ and خَتْمٌ both signify the covering over a thing, and securing oneself from a thing's entering it."

  • [why do they behave as such] Is it for reason that they have purposely not made it their habit to cross-examine the Qur’ān critically pursuing coherently - contiguously its miscellany: Unitary Verbal Passages?

  • Or is it the reason that the locks of hearts have become blockade upon their hearts?  [47:24]

Sealing, closing, wrapping, impressing the epilogue on hearts of people who deny and persist to remain in state of non-belief is finally portrayed in this Ayah:

  • Nay, on the contrary, the fact is that what they were earning has caused a coating of rust upon their hearts. [83:14]

  • What! Do they keep saying, "He [sincere allegiant whom the Book has been sent] has purposely compiled - fabricated (the book Qur’ān) attributing a lie upon Allah the Exalted?".

  • They slander because they consider not the possibility that if Allah the Exalted so desires, He would place a veil-cover over your (the Messenger) heart disabling you to recite or write.

  • Realize it; Allah the Exalted blots out the scum - fabricated - conjectural matter; and He the Exalted establishes the fact as proven truth manifested by His words/promises —

Root: م ح و

  • Remain mindful;  He the Exalted is absolutely aware of what is possessed/held inside the chests. [42:24]

I hope the perception and meanings infolded in Root "خ ت م" have conspicuously surfaced.

:The Authenticating Accomplisher of those who are declared Chosen, Dignified and Exalted Sincere Allegiants of Allah the Exalted.\



Active Participle: Definite; Singular; Masculine; accusative; مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun  (1)33:40=1 

                                                                           اسم فاعل: منصوب-واحد مذكر



Possessive Phrase: Verbal Noun: definite; nominative + Possessive pronoun: Third person; masculine; singular, in genitive state. (1)83:26=1

           الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مرفوع /مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه


Passive participle: Definite; Masculine; singular; genitive. (1)83:25=1

                                                  اسم مفعول:-مجرور-واحد مذكر


Verbs Form-I


Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; active;  مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun.  (1)2:07(2)6:46(3)45:23=3

                                             فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/واحد مذكر غائب    


Verb: Imperfect; First person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative; Subject pronoun hidden;  مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun. (1)36:65=1

          فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره: نَحْنُ/جمع متكلم



Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; masculine; Mood: Jussive; Subject pronoun hidden;  مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun. (1)42:24=1

  فعل مضارع مجزوم  و علامة جزمه :السكون/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب