Root: د ى ن

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 101

b) No of constructions: 25

Nouns: 23; Recurrence: 99; Verbs: 2 [Form-I: 1; Form-VI: 1]

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الدال والياء والنون أصلٌ واحد إليه يرجع فروعُه كلُّها.
وهو جنسٌ من الانقياد والذُّل. فالدِّين: الطاعة، يقال دان لـه يَدِين دِيناً، إذا أصْحَبَ وانقاد وطَاع

That it signifies submission, surrender, obedience and subservience, humbleness, lowness, cringe, servility.

Lane Lexicon: He was, or became, obedient; he obeyed: this is the primary signification: or, as some say, the primary signification is the following; namely, he was, or became, abased and submissive:

 Classical Lexicons

Semantic Domain: Constitution - Code of Conduct - Requital; And Debt Obligation

اردو میں ہم اصل دین مستعمل ہے:

١ - مذہب، عقیدہ، نظام حیات، نظام عبادات و عقاید۔

 اسلام۔٣ - مرنے کے بعد دوسرا جہان، آخرت، عقبٰی، عاقبت۔

دنیاوی یا علمی مسائل و معاملات میں نقطۂ نظر یا مکتب خیال، مشرب، مسلک۔


Constitution or Code regulates activities or states of affairs within a jurisdiction, dictating what states should be the case and what forbidden states should not. Often it also indicates negative consequences for individuals that violate it, and these negative consequences are generally enforced by the authority.

It includes Law which identifies the rule designed to guide activity, deprecating some types of activity and/or requiring other types of activity.

The required activity is a state-of-affairs which the Law - Authority declares must be maintained. It comprises of injunctions - command verbs and any description not covered by a more specific frame element of law.

Deprecating (express disapproval of) some types of activity is done in the Grand Qur’ān by using Prohibitory Particle followed by imperfect verb in Jussive mood.

: This verbal noun occurs: 92 times in the Divine Discourse, individually or in prepositional and Possessive Phrases. Since it is Verbal Noun signifying action and state-condition it has no dual and plural, or gender; its verbs are: دَانَ يَدِينُ .

In encyclopedic articles and Arabic-English dictionaries we will apparently find "diversity of meanings", like "Ruler", "obedience", or "servant-ness"; "judgment", or "retribution-requital". Though these words seem portraying different semantic fields, but when we reflect on these words with reference to our society and the state, they are all inalienably inter-related. If we encompass all these, we can combine their significance by the phrase "the code - system of life and the universe". It is understood that the right and authority for devising - promulgating a system rests with the Creator of life and matter. Even the polytheists accept and say the universe is created by Allah the Exalted Who is Mighty and absolutely Dominant. This perception is evident from the following proclamation:

 

  • Know the certain fact; Ad-Deen: Universal Constitution: Code of Conduct prescribed by Allah the Exalted is Islam: submission to the discipline establishing orderly state of peace, security, tranquility, harmony and dynamic balance for all. [refer 3:19]

The universality built in the Root "س ل م" and Verbal Noun: is depicted by calling it: "the Universal Constitution". : This is specified as predicate of noun of verb-like particle: . Like subject, it is also a verbal noun of Form-IV; its verbs are intransitive and is derived from Root: "س ل م". Classical Arabic lexicons state that the dominant and pervasive perception and meanings infolded in the Root are that of  healthy state of exactitude, validity, truth, and absolved causing wellness and tranquility. And therein is no deviation, irregularity, oddity, and abnormality disturbing wellness and tranquility. It portrays a state of peace, safety, tranquility and dynamic balance when the Man is secure from all sorts of things causing damage and disablement of that state. Obviously, it is the unique state and only source-a ladder that could enable the Man to elevate to stability, prosperity, development and all sorts of ascensions.

A verbal noun portrays without time reference an action and state, a mechanism, a process, a course, or a system. The intransitive verbal noun: also signifies one's surrendering to another's prescribed procedure, course, system and render itself subject to it, whether by willful affection or under compulsion of events, situations, or coerciveness of relationships to the environment. These two manners of surrender are also evident by the non-transitive nature of the verbal noun:

  • [Why they turned away?] Are they searching for a system which is other than (Allah's Deen) the Code of Conduct-Universal Constitution Prescribed by Allah the Exalted?

  • Despite the fact that whoever exists in the Skies and the Earth reverently acknowledged and submitted humbly in surrender, and did so for Allah the Exalted coerced by life threatening circumstances.

  • And they all will be presented before Him the Exalted for accountability  [3:83]

 

  • And in case someone purposely seeks other than Islam: submission to the discipline establishing state of peace, security, tranquillity, harmony and dynamic balance for all, as a Code of conduct of life, it will never be accepted from him.

  • Take note that he will be in the Hereafter one of those who cause loss to their selves. [3:85]

Please recall Fir'aoun (Pharaoh), throughout his reign he followed his self-devised system but had declared to have become a Muslim when he was about to drown. His request was not entertained.

I could find in English vocabulary only "Constitution" that nearly incorporates the concept of Arabic word: . It covers authority, fundamental law, obedience, judgment, requital and is also used in relation to physical and psychological makeup and ability to remain healthy and withstand hardship.

The scholars and researchers agree that this word: was used in Pre-Qur’ān literature in the meanings of custom, obedience and requital. In tribal society-nomadic people the "custom" is the prevalent law. And the law has built in obedience and requital. The Custom of tribal society has the force of law since its neglect or infraction is regularly met by the application of physical force by an individual or group possessing the socially recognized privilege of so acting. It is "traditional practice" which has acquired the status of "authority-law maker". Even otherwise, Power-authority and responsibility-obligation are inseparably associated, and an equal accountability of subject is attached.

Interestingly, this word is also the prey of "Feigning Confusion" in complicated encyclopedic discussions and "search" for "finding" its true meanings by resorting to "intra textual hermeneutics" and what not. In encyclopedic articles and Arabic-English dictionaries you will apparently find "diversity of meanings", like "Ruler", "obedience", or "servant-ness"; "judgment", or "retribution-requital"; "religion [from early 20th century-though it is not equivalent]".

Two important elements of this word: are conspicuously ignored in  discussions. That, it is a Verbal Noun, and is a relational word. In the Ayah the Law is: "from the Grace of Allah the Exalted". He the Exalted is the Supreme Sovereign-the Supreme Authority Who has framed the Universal Constitution. I could find in English vocabulary only "Constitution" that nearly incorporates the concept of Arabic word . It covers authority, fundamental law, obedience, judgment, requital and is also used in relation to physical and psychological makeup and ability to remain healthy and withstand hardship.

Its meanings as Law promulgated by a Ruler-King-Sovereign are conspicuously evident from the possessive phrase "The Law of the King" [Ref 12:76]. The kings coerce people to become the subject of their law.

  • They (the servants-officials of the government's supply depot) said: "We have misplaced and are looking for the Official/King's Measuring scale.

  • And a camel-load gift is promised for him who finds and brings it (the misplaced Official Measuring Scale -masculine);

  • And I am (Yu'suf alai'his'slaam) guarantor/undertaker for supplying it free as reward." [12:72]


  • Sequel to squally: the exchange of heated accusations of lying between caravan/his brothers and his officials; he (Yu'suf [alai'his'slaam]) had personally started checking by beginning with the saddlebags of step brothers before checking the saddlebag of his brother.

  • After lapse of sometime, (having finished and failed to find the Measuring object); he had reflexively taken out "her" (the drink-filled flask [-feminine) from the saddlebag of his brother.

  • [Before his act perplexes the mind of listener why he took out the self placed flask let it be clarified]  --This is how Our Majesty planned providing an excuse for Yu'suf [to retain his mother-born brother] --

 

  • It was not possible for him retaining his brother in the law of the King, except that Allah the Exalted was intending otherwise.

  • -- Our Majesty exalts the ranks of him for whom We so decide --.

Root: د ر ج

  • -- Remain aware; He who is intensively and extensively knowledgeable is always present over every person who has knowledge-understanding --. [12:76]

Can the Verbal Noun declared as the Universal Constitution-Universal Social Law-Universal Code-Charter of Conduct-Socialization afford to include in its ambit coercion? Certainly not, rather inclusion of an iota of that one could perceive as disturbing would jeopardize and hurt the sanctity of this verbal Noun. The Supreme Sovereign declares in simplest and straightforward words:

  • There is not at all coercion, pressure, harassment, yoking, blind folding, forceful subjection, compulsion and threat permissible in the matter of the Prescribed Constitution (Islam).

  • The Dextral-Righteousness-Veracity has made itself an evident behavioural pattern of equilibrium distinct from aberrance-deviousness-rambling [after revelation of Grand Qur’ān]. [Refer 2:256]

This is the Preamble of the Universal Constitution. Interestingly:  is also a Verbal Noun signifying action and state only, and referring to any point in time. It is the Subject of Genus Negation Particle [لا نافية للجنس] signifying all those acts and states that could be considered aversive, or disliked by a person in timeline. The Prepositional Phrase: relates to the elided predicate of sentence. It is not difficult to understand the elided predicate as it is self evident from its subject. Aversive compulsion and coercion can be caused only by people of authority and power, and religious clergy.

Even otherwise, the Verbal Noun declared as the Universal Constitution is of Form-IV, and is intransitive. The action and state acquired in it is voluntary, by affection and personal will.

Related Root: ج ز ى

"Brotherhood" signifies a relationship based on apparent physical characteristics and commonalities amongst a group of people. These physical characteristics are the manifestation of the System and Code of Conduct [AdDeen] which yields a Fraternity/Brotherhood. Anyone adopting that Code of Conduct becomes the "brother" of that Fraternity.

  • Subject to and subsequent to their having returned from belief of plurality of gods; and they stood for performing As-sa'laat: Time Bound Protocol of Servitude and allegiance; and they paid Az-zaka'at: financial liability for economic uplift of society:

  • Thereby, they are your brethren in the System of Life: Islam.

  • Realize it; Our Majesty illustrates Aa'ya'at: verbal passages of Qur’ān demarcating, categorizing, delineating and individuating all aspects for the people who are in pursuit of knowledge. [9:11]


  • You people are hereby directed to call them (adopted youngsters) by their respective Fathers. This is most appropriate and balanced conduct in the judgment of Allah the Exalted.

  • However, if you knew not the Fathers of them, thereby, they are your brothers [not sons] in the Prescribed Code and Physical Procedure [Islam]; And they are your Beneficiaries.

 

  • And [in view of this injunction which is to take effect prospectively] there is no cause of embarrassment and disconcert for you people regarding what you erred in the past in this matter; but that what intended your hearts.

  • Know it; Allah the Exalted is repeatedly Overlooking-Forgiving, the Merciful. [33:05]

In the meanings of the Requital on the Day of Resurrection:

With the change of vowel on the first radical it signifies Debt - Promised obligation in promissory commercial transactions.

  • O those people/you, who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • !اے وہ لوگوں جنہوں نے ایمان لانے کا اقرارو اعلان کیا ہے توجہ سے سنو

  • Whenever you people have mutually decided a fiscal deal of promissory nature - lending whose maturity term is specified by deadline- date for payment, thereat you are directed to document it in writing

  • And a known (notory) scribe should write down the agreement struck between you people, impartially in just manner

  • And scribe should not refuse documenting-writing down since Allah the Exalted has imparted him the knowledge to write

  • Therefore, he should write down and the party under liability should dictate, and he should aspire attaining the protection from Allah the Exalted, his Sustainer Lord. And he should not undervalue anything relating to the liability/obligation

  • However, for reason of the indebted person being immature or weak, or if he does not consider himself capable to dictate it, thereby, the guardian of his interests should dictate it, details of deal with equity

  • Moreover, you must seek two men of good repute amongst you as observers-non participating witness to the contract.

  • However, in case of non-availability of two men, the recourse is to seek one man and two women of vicinity selected by mutual consent to observe the deal. [two women; it is embarrassing for a woman to join unknown 4 men in a commercial shop; she might remain absent minded].

  • The cause/logic of inviting two women to observe the transaction: supposedly one of the two ladies might become lost-absorbed in herself-unmindful other woman might make her mindful.

  • And the observers/witnesses should not refuse to observe the contract when they are called upon for it.

  • And you should not neglect documenting it (lending-loaning deal) notwithstanding whether it be small or big in worth, validating till its termination date.

  • The aforementioned course is more just and equitable in the consideration of Allah the Exalted; and it is strong for primary evidence. And it reduces the chances that you might suffer confusion and double mindedness.

  • However, if it were an on-spot transaction by hand-to-hand, a routine daily business of rotation of things by selling and buying, then, no blame is upon you people in not reducing it to writing.

  • And you are directed to make it a witnessed activity when you have mutually struck a promissory commercial transaction: credit sale.

  • Take note that neither the scribe nor the witnesses should be harassed.

  • In case you do so, thereby, it will indeed attach with you people the guilt of defiance.

  • And sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • And recognize the fact that Allah the Exalted is teaching you people the right way to conduct business-economic activity.

  • And Allah the Exalted has the absolute knowledge of each and everything [visible and infolded] [2:282]


  • This mandatory apportionment must be executed in times after bequest with which the person expecting death is presently bequeathing [for Mother and Father, Nearer Relatives-all who are ] and/OR after meeting the debt-obligation of promissory transaction, outstanding liability. Refer (1)4:11(2)4:12(3)4:12(4)4:12=4


 

Nouns

1

Verbal Noun: Definite; Genitive. (1)01:04(2)2:256(3)4:46(4)8:72(5)9:11(6)9:33(7)  9:122(8)15:35(9)22:78(10)26:82(11)33:05(12)37:20(13)38:78(14)42:13(15)42:21 (16)48:28(17) 51:12 (18)56:56(19)60:08(20)60:09(21)61:09(22)70:26(23)74:46(24)82:15(25)82:17(26)82:18(27)  83:11=27   مصدر:معرفہ باللام:مجرور[دَانَ-يَدِين ُ

 

2

Verbal Noun: Definite; accusative. (1)2:132(2)3:19(3)7:29(4)10:22(5)29:65(6)31:32 (7)39:02(8)39:11(9)40:14(10)40:65(11)42:13(12)51:06(13)98:05=13   مصدر:معرفہ باللام:منصوب

 

3

Verbal Noun/Noun: Definite ; nominative. (1)2:193(2)8:39(3)9:36(4)12:40(5) 16:52(6)30:30(7)39:03=7  مصدر:معرفہ باللام:مرفوع

 

4

Prepositional Phrase:  بـِ Inseparable preposition  + Verbal Noun: Definite;  Genitive. (1)82:09(2)95:07(3)107:01=3                   جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + مصدر:معرفہ باللام:مجرور

 

5

Prepositional phrase + Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + suffixed possessive pronoun: second person;  plural, masculine, in genitive state. (1)49:16=1 

              جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

               بـِ حرف جر + مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

6

  Verbal Noun: Indefinite; genitive (1)3:83(2)9:33(3)12:76(4)24:02(5)48:28(6)61:09(7) 110:02=7   مصدر::مجرور 

 Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Indefinite; nominative +  Possessive  pronoun: First Person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)109:06

      الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مرفوع/مضاف +  ضمير محذوف ي- واحد متكلم في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

7

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)9:29=1     

                                                مصدر: منصوب   

 

8

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; nominative. (1)98:05=1       

                                                 مصدر: مرفوع

 

9

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)3:85(2)4:125(3)5:03(4)6:161=4

                                                 مصدر: منصوب

 

10

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + Possessive pronoun: Second Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state. (1)2:217(2)4:171(3)5:03(4) 5:77(5)9:12=5

   الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

11

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; accusative + Possessive  pronoun: Second Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state. (1)3:73(2)5:03(3)5:57(4) 40:26=4

 الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: منصوب/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

12

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; nominative + Possessive  pronoun: Second Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state. (1)109:06=1

  الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مرفوع/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

13

 Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + Possessive pronoun: Third Person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)2:217(2)5:54=2

الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر:مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرغائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

14

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + Possessive pronoun: Third Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state. (1)3:24=1

الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل جمع مذكر غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

15

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; accusative + Possessive pronoun: Third Person; plural; masculine, genitive state. (1)4:146(2)6:70(3)6:137(4)6:159 (5)7:51(6)30:32=6 

  الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر:منصوب/مضافضمير متصل جمع مذكر غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

16

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; accusative + Possessive pronoun: Third Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state; with added Vowel sign  ـُ  for reason اجتماع الساكنين of cluster of two vowel-less consonants. (1)24:25(2) 24:55=2  

 الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر:منصوب/مضافضمير متصل جمع مذكر غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

17

Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; nominative + Possessive pronoun: Third Person; plural; masculine, in genitive state. (1)8:49=1

الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مرفوع/مضافضمير متصل جمع مذكر غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

18

  Possessive phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + Possessive pronoun:  First person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)10:104(2)39:14=2

    الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-واحد متكلم في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

19

Prepositional Phrase: Inseparable preposition  + Verbal Noun: Definite;  Genitive (1)10:105(2)30:30(3)30:43=3                 جار و مجرور= حرف جر + مصدر:معرفہ باللام:مجرور

 

20

Emphatic particle + Passive participle: Definite; sound plural;  masculine; nominative; (1)37:53=1

                       لام التأكيد +    اسم فاعل:-مرفوع-جمع سالم مذكر

 

21

Passive participle: Definite; sound plural; masculine;  genitive; (1) 56:86=1

                                        اسم مفعول:معرفہ باللام- مجرور-جمع سالم مذكر

 

In the meanings of Debt - obligation to pay the loan

1

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Verbal Noun/Noun:  Indefinite; genitive. (1)2:282=1                                   جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + مصدر::مجرور

 

2

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; genitive. (1)4:11(2)4:12(3)4:12(4)4:12=4           مصدر::مجرور

 

Verb Form-I

1

Verb: Imperfect; Third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by "نَ"; and [و] Subject Pronoun, nominative state; مصدر-دِينٌ Verbal noun.  (1)9:29=1 

    فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرغائب 

 

Verb Form-VI

1

Verb: Perfect; Second person; plural; masculine; [Form-VI]; [التاء] Subject  pronoun , in nominative state; مصدر-تَدَايُنٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:282=1

 فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع المتحرك/تُم-ضمير متصل  في محل رفع فاعل جمع مذكرمخاطب/باب تفَاْعَل