Root: ح م د

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 63 + 5 Proper Name

b) No of constructions: 17

It occurs in 66 Ayahs in 44 Sura

Nouns: 13;  Recurrence: 67;  Verbs: 1 [Form-I]

Related Root: ش ك ر

Entries from Classical Lexicons:

حمد (لسان العرب)
الحمد: نقيض الذم؛

الحَمْدُ (القاموس المحيط)
الحَمْدُ: الشُّكْرُ، والرِّضى، والجَزاءُ، وقَضاءُ الحَقِّ

حمد (مقاييس اللغة)

الحاء والميم والدال كلمةٌ واحدة وأصلٌ واحد يدلّ على خلاف الذمّ

That it is contra. of censure, vilification, vituperation.

It thus relates and compares to English semantic frame Praiseworthiness:
 The Behavior of an Evaluee is described in terms of the reaction it deserves from somebody, such as praise, blame or admiration

The basic perception infolded in the Root is to willingly and sincerely acknowledge and appreciate the grandeur and greatness, positive and proportionate qualities, traits and acts of Evaluee and thereby revere and express admiration.

It is used only for a person of will and intellect and not for matter and other living creatures while the English word "praise" refers to expression of admiration for somebody or something.

 حمد) It is the prerogative and exclusive right of a person intrinsically possessor of grandeur, greatness, power, dominion, sovereignty, admirable actions etc., and on the other hand it is an obligation upon others to recognize, acknowledge and express their admiration reflecting wilful and affectionate acceptance of their relative inferiority and humility.

The only passive verb used in Grand Qur’ān reflects that functionally its use is for reason - in relation to actsperformancesaccomplishments. It is thus explicit that Behaviour of the Evaluee is being judged as worthy of reaction of praise: 

  • Know the historical report: Allah the Exalted had obtained, at a certain point in time, the covenant-pledge of those whom the Book was given:

  • "It is must for you: the clergy, learned, scholarly men of the society that you will distinctly and vividly explain the Book for the common people and you will not conceal-withhold it from people."

  • Thenceforth, for reason of vested interests they discarded-threw away it (the Book) on their backs

  • And they purposely indulged in commercialism gaining a trifling price substituting it

  • Consequently; what a disgusting and wretched is the commercialism that they indulge in.  [3:187]

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] should not henceforth keep worrying for such people who boisterously rejoice with that which they have worldly achieved.

  • And they are fond that they be praised for that which they have not done even once.

  • Thereby for reason that everyone is pledged to his deeds you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] should not henceforth worry finding the possible way for their rescue from torment.

  • Be mindful, a grave torment is in wait-prepared for them. [3:188]

Classical lexicons stated that it is antonym of censure, vilification, vituperation.

The notion of Root ح م د in English is portrayed by the semantic field "praise":

[Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus / [ed. by B. A. Kipfer]. – N.-Y. : Laurel, 1993. – 860 p.]

The notion ‘praise’ forms the corresponding semantic concept or semantic field which embraces the following verbs:

Commend, praise, laud, compliment, applaud, clap, cheer, acclaim, encore, eulogize, boost, root for, cry up, puff, extol, magnify, glorify, exalt, sing the praises of;

Commendatory, complimentary, laudatory, panegyric, eulogistic, lavish of praise, uncritical;

Approved, praised, popular, in good odor, in high esteem, in favour, in high favour; To give thanks, say grace, bless, praise, laud, glorify, magnify, sing praises [16, p. 412].

Another lexicographical source – Oxford Compact Thesaurus / [ed. by A. S. Hornby]. – Oxford : 92 Oxford University Press, 2005. – 929 p.  – provides such constituents of the semantic field of ‘praise’:

Praise – commend, express admiration for, applaud, pay tribute to, speak highly of, eulogize, compliment, congratulate, sing the praises of, rave about, go into raptures about, heap praises on, wax lyrical about, make much of, pat on the back, take one’s hat off to, lionize, admire, admire, hail.

Glorify, honour, exalt, adore, pay tribute to, give thanks to, venerate, reverence, Approval, acclaim, admiration, approbation, acclamation, plaudits, congratulations, commendation; Tribute, accolade, compliment, a pat on the back, eulogy, panegyric, give praise to God, honour, thanks, glory, worship, devotion, adoration, reverence [15, p. 598].

The first physical-scientific fact communicated to mankind is: "Beginning is with a name/code"[01:01]. This is the fundamental fact about the created realm. This initiates the process of taking existence and cognition which relates only to that which exists i.e. . Hence beginning is with the personal name: of Him: Who is the Eternal-present prior to physical beginning/temporal realm, the Absolute Person Who created the non-absolute: physical worlds. Moreover, He the All Powerful began the creation after obliging His Self to place His absolute power and dominance under the umbrella of Mercy [Refer 6:12,54] and declaring Himself:  the Fountain of Mercy, with the result that everything and matter and affair is the manifestation of Mercy in the ultimate analysis.

On creation, coming into existence the first absolute fact that emerges distinctly and evidently for the created one is:

The above two worded sentence, in Arabic, is called nominal sentence. : It is the Subject/Topic-مبتدأ. The predicate/خبر of a nominal sentence can be indicated through a prepositional phrase, resembling like a sentence but in fact is not a sentence, vividly reflecting the omitted verb that is the predicate. Here particle  ,لِthe Prefixed Preposition which is for الاختصاص specifying something exclusively for and indicating exclusive prerogative indicates the verb/the predicate that the Subject: has been/stands specified exclusively for Allah.

But:is not something like matter having dimensions. It is abstract and can be appreciated intellectually giving rise to the feeling of expressing it. And: is not something that could exist in isolation, it is a relational word. It can emerge only when there is one Person of Will and Intellect and another person of will and intellect to act as doer/subject of performing it for the Exalted. There has to be the Praised One and the Praiser/Admirer when: the Praise, the Admiration will become a reality.

The predicate of the sentence is a hidden/omitted verb "Specified" which undoubtedly has a subject/the doer. It is obvious that whoever will be the First in Creation, whether in temporal or pre temporal era/realm, he will certainly be the first to determine and specify that: the Praise, the Admiration is exclusively for Allah the Exalted.

On coming into being, the first and foremost obligation of the created one is to Praise and Admire the Glory of his Creator. In Arabic, the one who expresses praises and admiration is referred and known by the name: the one who praises the Glory of Allah. 

  • Moreover, my assignment is as Pronouncer of glad news of one Messenger. His peculiarity is that he will corporeally come in times after my death. His name is: : Aehmad the admirer and Praiser of Allah the Exalted." [Refer 61:06]

The acknowledgement and expression of by is an oral statement. Its physical evidence and manifestation in temporal era, which unfolds its sublime meanings and true spirit, is this:

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce - make it public for humanity: "It is a fact that my Sa'laat: time bound Protocol of servitude and allegiance, and all my physical conduct-protocols

  • And my entire life and my natural death

  • Were and are administered exclusively and solely for Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of the Universes-all that exists. [6:162]

Notwithstanding that Easa علیہ السلام son of Maryam had made known the name of the only one Messenger who was to come after him as: [active participle; one who glorifies-praises], when he was corporeally sent to the world he was named:

Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] is the Messenger of Allah the Exalted. [Refer 48:29]

[Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]: means a person who is honored, exalted, respected, appreciated, paid tributes, revered and adored more than love for any other worldly object and relation, uninterruptedly.

  • And you awake in wee-hours of the night, thereby, you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] make it your habit to remain awake with/reading-compiling it (Qur’ān) in wee moments of night. This is an additional time-bound assignment-activitysupererogation for you alone


  • It may well is anticipated that your Sustainer Lord might soon honorably resurrect/revive/ return you to the state of original Place-Abode of Glory and Praise. [17:79]

  • It is a fact that the He the Exalted Who had earmarked-assigned-allocated the responsibility of delivery of Qur’ān upon you

  • He the Exalted will surely return/revive you the Messenger Mohammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] honourably to the Original Abode [مَقَاماً مَّحْمُوداً  17:79]

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce, "My Sustainer Lord best knows the one who has come along with Al-Huda-the Guide (Grand Qur’ān)

  • And knows fully the one who is wanderer in manifest forgetfulness". [28:85]

: After this having been determined and specified further information about Allah the Exalted is given as:  The Sustainer Lord of the Known/Existing Worlds-All that exists. [01:02]

  • The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally and exclusively for Allah the Exalted

  • He Who created the Skies and the Earth

  • And He the Exalted inserted (therein) the layers of dark matter/darkness, and the Visible Light as signs.

  • Afterwards, despite acknowledging it they who disavowed ascribe equals with their Sustainer Lord. [6:01]

  • The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally and exclusively for Allah the Exalted.

  • He the Exalted is the Primal Originator-Creator of the Skies and the Earth.

  • He the Exalted appoints the Angels as messengers, the possessors of wings, twos, and threes, and fours.

  • He the Exalted increases/adds in the creation [in whatever manner] that which He the Exalted wills.

  • It is a fact that Allah the Exalted is eternally the Causality Determiner upon every and all things - to set them right-fix them in measure.  [35:01]

  • Therefore, the Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified, eternally and exclusively, for Allah the Sustainer Lord of the Skies; and the Sustainer Lord of the Earth, [to cut short the list] the Sustainer Lord of all the Known/Existing Worlds/all that exists. [45:36]

On creation by the Creator the first ever relationship that comes into existence is that of:   Sustainer Lord of all that exists and is known; a relationship between the Independent and the dependant. All that exists owes its existence to Allah the Exalted. Hence the first obligation upon the created ones is to collectively/universally acknowledge and explicitly pronounce the eternal declaration: ever since the process of creation of universes was initiated.

: This declaration does not specify the subject, the one who is declaring this. Hence this declaration has the added connotation of eternity and universality; being beyond time and space; "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah the Exalted".

The ‘al’ (ال) before ‘hamd’ حمد is called “istighraaq” in Arabic, and when “al” comes before this phrase it means that entire praise, all kinds of praise and all the time, حمد is due to Allah alone. The “li-Prefixed لِ” (in , meaning for Allah) implies limitation, exclusiveness  which is known as “ikhtisaas”, [exclusivity] in Arabic and it means that Allah is the only One for Whom is the حمد in the true sense of the word.

Notwithstanding the vastness and magnanimity of: all that exists is finite, i.e. it has a measure. On the other hand the eternal fact and declaration: is about the One Who is above limits and measures and bounds and is the Infinite One.


The absolute ح م د, is the prerogative and is meant exclusively for the One Who is the Absolute, The Independent, i.e. from all that exists; the Only Self Reliant; One upon Whom all that exists, without exception, are dependant, i.e. they are .


[Similar pronouncement in 29:06;31:12;27:40;39:07;57:24;60:06]o

[Similar information in 14:08;35:15;39:07]o

  • And Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] said, "if you people disavow, you and whoever is in the Earth all collectively

  • [it makes no difference] Then beware Allah the Exalted is indeed eternally the Absolutely Independent, eternally the focus of Glory and Praise. [14:08]

  • Whatever exists in the Skies and whatever exists in the Earth are subservient-dependant-subjects for Him the Exalted.

  • Be aware; Allah the Exalted is certainly the One and Only Absolutely Independent, eternally the Icon of Glory and Praise. [22:64]

  • And indeed Our Majesty had granted wisdom/insight to understand and perceive infolded realities to Luq'maan that, "you be obliged and express gratitude for Allah the Exalted

  • And whoever makes himself feel obliged and grateful then indeed he expresses gratitude only for his own self/benefit.

  • And whoever concealed obligation/remained ungrateful [it makes no difference] since/then remember Allah the Exalted is indeed eternally the Absolutely Independent, eternally the focus of Glory and Praise." [31:12]

  • Whatever exists in the Skies and the Earth are subservient subjects for Allah the Exalted.

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is the One Who is eternally the Absolutely Independent, eternally the focus of Glory and Praise. [31:26]

  • O you the Mankind, listen!

  • You people are the obvious dependants, needy towards Allah the Exalted.

  • And Allah the Exalted is the One Who is eternally the Absolutely Independent, eternally the focus of Glory and Praise. [35:15]

It is common perception and every day observation that we produce and wish procreation only to alleviate some weakness and apprehensions. Allah the Exalted is the originator and creator of all that exists but is the Transcendent and free of any need from all of His creation.

  • And you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce, "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally and exclusively for Allah the Exalted. He the Exalted has never adopted a son.

  • And never ever there was a partner-associate for Him the Exalted to share the dominion and sovereign power.

  • And never ever there was a companion, protector for Him, needed for overcoming weakness."

  • And you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] intensively glorify Him, emphatically expressing the Sublime Greatness. [17:111]

How the eternal fact: "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah" is to be acknowledged and highlighted by human beings, it is advised:



Personal Name of the First and the Last Elevated and Chosen Person, designated and sent as Final Messenger

1) (1)3:144;(2)33:40=2

2)  (1)47:02=1

3)  (1)48:29=1

4)  (1)61:06=1



 Proper Noun: Masculine; nominative.  (1)61:06=1                        اسم علم:مذكر-مرفوع



Proper Noun: Masculine; nominative. (1)3:144(2)33:40=2        اسم علم:مذكر-مرفوع



 Proper Noun: Masculine; nominative. (1)48:29=1                      اسم علم:مذكر-مرفوع



 Proper Noun: Masculine; genitive. (1)47:02=1                              اسم علم:مذكر-مجرور




Active participle; definite; Sound plural; masculine; ( مصدر-حَمْدٌ Verbal Noun). (1)9:112=1                                                     اسم فاعل:معرفہ باللام- مرفوع-جمع سالم مذكر



Noun: Definite; masculine; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)01:02  (2)6:01(3)6:45(4)7:43(5)10:10(6)14:39(7)16:75(8)17:111(9)18:01(10)23:28(11)27:15(12)  27:59(13)27:93(14)28:70(15)29:63(16)30:18(17)31:25(18)34:01(19)34:01(20)35:01(21)  35:34(22)37:182(23)39:29(24)39:74(25)39:75(26)40:65(27)45:36(28)  64:01=28      

                                                                              اسم معرفہ باللام-مرفوع- واحد-مذکر

The acknowledgement and verbal expression of praise and adoration.


 Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Definite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)22:64(2)31:26(3)35:15(4)42:28(5)57:24(6)60:06=6

    الصفة المشبهة:-معرفہ باللام-مرفوع/-واحد مذکر



Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Definite; singular; masculine; genitive. (1)14:01(2)22:24(3)34:06(4)85:08=4   الصفة المشبهة:-معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذکر



   Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: indefinite; masculine, genitive. (1)15:98(2)20:130(3)32:15(4)39:75(5)40:07(6)40:55(7)42:05(8)50:39(9)52:48 (10)110:03=10  

              جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور-واحد مذكر



 Prepositional Phrase+ Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: definite; masculine, genitive + Suffixed possessive pronoun كَ for second person; masculine; singular; in genitive state. (1)2:30=1                        جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

       بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرحاضر/مخاطب في محل جر-مضاف إليه



Prepositional Phrase+ Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: definite; singular; masculine, genitive + suffixed possessive pronoun for third person; masculine; singular. (1)13:13(2)17:44(3)17:52(4)25:58=4             جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

                   بـِ حرف جر + اسم:مجرور واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرغائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه



 Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)2:267(2)14:08=2                                     الصفة المشبهة:-مرفوع-واحد مذكر



Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)11:73(2)31:12(3)64:06=3                         الصفة المشبهة:-مرفوع-واحد مذكر



Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; singular; masculine; genitive. (1)41:42=1                                                         الصفة المشبهة:-مجرور-واحد مذكر



Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; singular; masculine; accusative. (1)4:131=1                                                  الصفة المشبهة:-منصوب-واحد مذكر



Passive participle; masculine; accusative.(1)17:79=1

                          اسم مفعول:منصوب-واحد مذكر   


Verb Form-I


  Verb: Imperfect; Third person; plural masculine; passive; Mood: Subjunctive; [و] proxy subject pronoun/ergative of passive verb, in nominative state; مصدر-حَمْدٌ Verbal Noun. (1)3:188=1 

      فعل مضارع مبنى للمجهول- منصوب بأن-علامة نصبه حذف النون

    و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع نائب فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرغائب