Root: ص ب ح

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 45

b) No of constructions: 24

Noun: 10; Recurrence: 16; Verb: 14; Recurrence:: 29 Form-II: 1; Form-IV: 28]

 (لسان العرب)
الصُّبْحُ: أَوّل النهار.
والصُّبْحُ
 الفجر.
والصَّباحُ: نقيص المَساء، والجمع أَصْباحٌ

That it is the early moments of the Day;

Lane Lexicon: He watered the camels in the morning, between daybreak and sunrise. inf. n. صَبَاحَةٌ, [q. v.,] He was, or became, beautiful, comely, pretty, or elegant; (S, A, K, TA;) as some say, peculiarly in the face: (TA:) or he was, or became, bright (Msb, TA) in the face. (Msb.)  He came to him, or to them, in the morning, in the time termed the صَبَاح;

اصبح  He entered upon the time of morning termed صَبَاح [which means both dawn and forenoon]

Classical Lexicons

Semantic Domain: Physical Cosmology

It signifies day break; it is the time when day becomes distinguishable and visible. It conveys the perception and meaning of the point of beginning. It reflects a visible position. Therefore it is used to call someone as beautiful, pretty or elegant peculiarly in the face, bright in the face. مُصبِج is the one who enters at the time of morning. اصبَجَ means hairy one with whiteness naturally intermixed in it with redness, shining hair.

How: dawn occurs, what is the process involved? It is equated with splitting of the seed and stone in endocarp:

  • The fact is that Allah the Exalted is the Splitter of the grain seed and the stone in endocarp. [refer 6:95]

  • Further know, He the Exalted is the Splitter of the dawns rendering it manifested - emerged.

  • And He the Exalted has declared - rendered the night as still - for rest-stillness —

  • And has rendered the Sun and the Moon for reckoning [time; computation, calculation, measuring, visualization].

  • These are the equations-measured settings of relations-relativity determined by the absolutely Dominant, Infinitely Knowledgeable. [6:96]

: Active participle from Root: ف ل ق. Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated in مقاييس اللغة:


الفاء واللام والقاف أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على فُرْجةٍ وبَيْنُونةٍ في الشيء، وعلى تعظيمِ شيء.

That it leads to the perception of fissure and split, division, separation, triangular spacing-aperture-gap, disunion in a thing; and to express exaltation for a thing.

Lane's Lexicon: inf. n. فَلْقٌ He split it, clave it, or divided it lengthwise;

Neither Ibn Faris [died 1005] was expert in physical cosmology nor I know even basic knowledge about it. But experts may find the basic concept of this Root relevant to how the orbits work.

: It is the duration of time termed True dawn:

  • They (Angel Messengers) consoled him saying: "O Luet [alai'his'slaam], indeed We are the Messengers of your Sustainer Lord; it will never be possible for them to encroach towards you.

  • Therefore, you travel with your household, in a patch of the Night [illusory dawn-54:34]; Take note, not a single one of you people should look back [to see the happenings behind] —

  • Take along your household except your wife. Indeed the same infliction is for her which will strike them.

  • Indeed their appointed time is the true dawn —

  • Is the true dawn not so near!" [11:81]

Those who were to be saved from upcoming disaster were requested to leave the place during a patch of the Night which is before: the True Dawn:

  • Therefore you travel with your family in a patch of the Night: illusory dawn; and you follow them remaining on their back-posterior —

  • And none of you people should look back; and you all keep going through the course you people have been advised to follow." [15:65]

Afterwards it did happen:

 

  • Our Majesty had thus conveyed to him that this is the verdict-command —

  • That the back-posterity of these be cut-annihilated when they enter the true dawn. [15:66]

  • Thereby, the sound blast seized them when were awaking at true dawn. [15:73]

Words: and: are used in synonymous meanings signifying true dawn with reference to eastern side and rising state of the Sun.

The cut-part from the night is in between the night and: the dawn that emerges and is start of daybreak. What is the specific name of this patch of night?

  • It is a fact that Our Majesty had sent upon them that which pelts rock fragments-volcanic ash.

  • Except that it did not fall upon the followers of Luet [alai'his'slaam].

  • We had already rescued them at the time of illusory dawn - a part cut-distinguished from night. [54:34] 

سَحَرٌ : It is a part segmented from the night on the brim of which is: the dawn. This word is derived from Root: س ح ر and like its basic signification of illusion and turning a thing from one manner to another manner, the time of سَحَرٌ  is also short lived. It can cause optic illusion of dawn because of the presence of zodiacal light-astronomical twilight up in the sky. This begins when the Sun is 18 degree below the horizon and persists for the time it reaches 12 degree below horizon when the night terminates-about turns and: occurs and life starts thriving.

 

  • And swearing is by the Night when it has about turned —  [81:17]

  • And by the true dawn when it: life has made- transformed itself breathe- energize -photosynthesized — [81:18]

Most plants initiate the process of photosynthesis at true dawn and take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen in the atmosphere. Mostly the duration of سَحَرٌ (also termed by most as: صبح كاذب false dawn) is about 34 minutes. Its short span is also understood from the advice given to Luet alai'his'slaam and his companions while leaving the city at: سَحَرٌ not to look back because a horribly disturbing scene was about to appear: when they would not have gone much far off from the city. The extremity of night is described in these words:

 

  • And by the Night when it has reached its extremity and about-faced — [74:33]

With the passage of little more time: reveals all its features - becomes prominently visible:

  • And by the Dawn when it has become prominent/evident-civil twilight — [74:34]

This happens when the Sun has shifted from 12 degree below the horizon to 8.5 degree below the horizon. It provides the same level of illumination on the surface of the Earth as a full Moon directly overhead.

From this point onwards the daybreak continues: ; until the daybreak - Sun emerges on the horizon.


The basic concept and meanings of the Root remain prominent in all the words stemming from it. The primary concept is change of Night and entrance into a new time-frame which has rays of white light. Thereby, it also relates to semantic domain: Transformation: Cause Change.

Nouns

1

Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive; [Form-IV]  (1)6:96=1 مصدر:معرفہ باللام مجرور

 
2

Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)11:81(2)11:81=2

                                          اسم :معرفہ باللام-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
3

Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; genitive. (1)74:34(2)81:18=2

                                     اسم :معرفہ باللام-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
4

Noun of instrument: Definite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)24:35=1

                                            اسم آله:معرفہ باللام-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
5

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: Indefinite; Plural; masculine; genitive. (1)41:12(2)67:05=2

 جار و مجرور = بِ حرف جر + اسم :مجرور-جمع  مذكر

 
6

Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)37:177=1

                                                            اسم :-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
7

Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; accusative. (1)100:03=1

                                               اسم :-منصوب-واحد مذكر

 
8

 Noun of instrument: Indefinite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)24:35=1

                                                             اسم آله:-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
9

Active Participle: Indefinite; Sound plural; Masculine; accusative. (1)15:66(2)37:137=2                             اسم فاعل:منصوب-جمع سالم مذكر

 
10

Active Participle: Indefinite; Sound plural; Masculine; accusative. (1) 15:83(2)68:17(3)68:21=3                               اسم فاعل:منصوب-جمع سالم مذكر

 

 

Verb Form-II

1

 Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; masculine;  [Form-II]; Subject pronoun hidden; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Third person; plural; masculine, in accusative state; مصدر-تَصْبِيحٌ Verbal noun. (1)54:38=1

    فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح /الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب-باب تَفْعِيل

    ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به مقدم/ جمع  مذكر غائب

 

Verb Form-IV

1

Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Perfect; third person; masculine; singular; [Form-IV];  مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun.(1)28:10(2)28:82(3)67:30=3   

       فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبني على الفتح/صيغة-واحد مذكرغائب/باب افعال

 
2

Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Perfect; third person; plural; masculine; [و] Subject noun of deficient verb; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)5:102=1

فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع اسم أَصْبَحَ-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر غائب

 
3

Verb; Imperfect; second person; plural; Mood: Indicative; [Form-IV]; [و] Subject Pronoun-nominative state; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)30:17=1

                          فعل مضارع تام مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرحاضر/باب افعال

 
4

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect/consequence Verb: Deficient; Perfect; Third Person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV]; Subject Pronoun hidden; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)5::30(2)5:31(3)18:42(4)18:45(5)28:18=5       

                حرف فَ +  فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبني على الفتح/ ضميراسم أَصْبَحَ--جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب-باب افعال

 
5

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect/consequence + Verb: Deficient; Perfect; Third Person; singular; feminine; ت feminine marker; [Form-IV]; Subject Pronoun hidden; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)68:20=1

  حرف فَ +  فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبني على الفتح/+ تَاء التانيث الساكنة/ الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ-واحد مؤنث غائب-باب افعال

 
6

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect/consequence Verb: Deficient; Perfect; Second Person; plural; masculine; [Form-IV]; [التاء ] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)3:103(2)41:23=2

  حرف فَ +  فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع

 تُم-ضمير متصل  في محل رفع  اسم أَصْبَحَ جمع مذكرحاضر/باب افعال

 
7

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect/consequence + Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Perfect; third person; plural; masculine; [و] Subject noun of deficient verb; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)5:53(2)7:78(3)7:91(4)11:67(5)11:94 (6)26:157(7)29:37(8)46:25(9)61:14=9 

        حرف فَ +  فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة

   و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع اسم أَصْبَحَ-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر غائب

 
8

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause/reason and effect + Deficient Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; feminine; Mood: Subjunctive [Form-IV]; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun (1)18:40=1

      حرف فَ + فعل ناقص مضارع منصوب  بِأَن مضمرة بعد فاء السببية و علامة نصبه الفتح

          اسم أَصْبَحَ:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ-واحد مؤنث غائب/باب افعال

 
9

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause/reason and effect + Deficient Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; feminine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-IV];مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun (1)22:63=1 

 حرف فَ +  فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة/صيغة واحد مؤنث غائب/باب افعال

 
10

Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Imperfect; Second person; plural; masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; [Form-IV]; [و] Subject noun of deficient verb; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)49:06=1 حرف فَ +  فعل ناقص مضارع منصوب -علامة نصبه حذف النون

     و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع اسم أَصْبَحَ-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر حاضر/باب افعال

 
11

Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Imperfect; third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; [Form-IV]; [و] Subject noun of deficient verb; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)5:52=1حرف فَ +  فعل ناقص مضارع منصوب بأن-علامة نصبه حذف النون

   و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع اسم أَصْبَحَ-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر حاضر/باب افعال

 
12

 Prefixed Emphatic Particle + Deficient Verb [Sister of  كَانَ]: Imperfect; Third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-IV]; [و] Subject Pronoun elided + Suffixed Emphatic Noon; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun. (1)23:40=1

        اللام واقعة في جواب قسم محذوف ومضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون المحذوفة

   واو الجماعة المحذوفة فاعل وحذفت لالتقاء الساكنين والنون للتوكيد/باب افعال

 
13

Deficient Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; Masculine; Mood: Subjunctive [Form-IV]; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر إِصْبَاحٌ Verbal Noun  (1) 18:41=1

                    فعل ناقص مضارع منصوب  بِأَن  و علامة نصبه الفتح

  اسم فعل ناقص ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ-واحد  مذكر غائب/باب افعال