Root: ب ى ع

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 15 

b) No of constructions: 12

Nouns: 6 Recurrence: 8; Verbs: 6 Recurrence: 7 [Form-III: 6; Form-VI: 1]

bn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الباء والياء والعين أصلٌ واحدٌ، وهو بَيْع الشّيءِ، ورُبّما سمّيَ الشِّرَى بيعا

That it signifies selling of a thing, and perhaps it is buying termed selling.

بيع (لسان العرب)
البيعُ: ضدّ الشراء، والبَيْع: الشراء أَيضاً، وهو من الأَضْداد

That it is contra. of buying, purchasing; and it has contra. significations.

Lane Lexicon: The primary signification of بَيْعٌ is The exchanging, or exchange, of property; or the making an exchange with property; as in the phrases بَيْعٌ رَابِحٌ [an exchange of property bringing gain], and بَيْعٌ خَاسِرٌ [an exchange of property occasioning loss]: and this is a proper signification when it relates to real substances: but it is tropically used to signify the making the contract [of sale and purchase]; because this is the means of giving [and obtaining] possession:

Classical Lexicon

Semantic domain: Promissory economic transanction.

Grand Qur’ān has rendered the meanings of: : Root " ب ى ع" quite explicit by the choice of collocates and comparison with its opposites:

 

  • O those/you, who consciously proclaim to have become believers, listen!

  • Spend heartily some part of the sustenance which Our Majesty have bestowed upon you people before lest the day might come —

  • Pay-later system bargain cannot be struck during that day —

  • Neither that day friendly help would be available nor recommendation/ pleading--intercession be of avail to non believers [of intercessors-2:48, 123;74:48].

  • Know the fact, those who disavowed are truly the wrong-doers/distorters/unjust. [2:254]


  • Know about those who devour compound interest/incremental gain  on lent money: they stand not except like the standing of that person whom Cobra transforms [خَابِطٌ] confounded-diplopic, caused by bite.

  • This parable for their transformation is for the reason that they said to people; "The credit sale is just like the compound interest/incremental gain on lent money."

  • Realize the difference and distance between two; Allah the Exalted has declared the credit sale as permissible and has prohibited the compound interest/incremental gain on lent money, multiple surcharges/build-up of an ever increasing debt.

  • Therefore, he whom advice; information about the difference between credit sale of goods and compound interest/incremental gain on lent money, conveyed by his Sustainer Lord has reached and in compliance thereof he has diligently abstained indulging in it, thereat, the past finalized transactions are for him while his matter rests with Allah the Exalted.

  • And mind it; if someone reverted to it (compound interest/incremental gain) —

  • Thereby, such deviants will be the residents-inmates of the scorching Hell-Prison —

  • They will abide therein permanently. [2:275] 


  • O those people/you, who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • Whenever you people have mutually decided a fiscal deal of promissory nature - lending whose maturity term is specified by deadline- date for payment, thereat you are directed to document it in writing —

  • And a known (notory) scribe should write down the agreement struck between you people, impartially in just manner —

  • And scribe should not refuse documenting-writing down since Allah the Exalted has imparted him the knowledge to write —

  • Therefore, he should write down and the party under liability should dictate, and he should aspire attaining the protection from Allah the Exalted, his Sustainer Lord. And he should not undervalue anything relating to the liability/obligation —

  • However, for reason of the indebted person being immature or weak, or if he does not consider himself capable to dictate it, thereby, the guardian of his interests should dictate it, details of deal with equity —

  • Moreover, you must seek two men of good repute amongst you as observers-non participating witness to the contract.

  • However, in case of non-availability of two men, the recourse is to seek one man and two women of vicinity selected by mutual consent to observe the deal. [two women; it is embarrassing for a woman to join unknown 4 men in a commercial shop; she might remain absent minded].

  • The cause/logic of inviting two women to observe the transaction: supposedly one of the two ladies might become lost-absorbed in herself-unmindful other woman might make her mindful.

  • And the observers/witnesses should not refuse to observe the contract when they are called upon for it.

  • And you should not neglect documenting it (lending-loaning deal) notwithstanding whether it be small or big in worth, validating till its termination date.

  • The aforementioned course is more just and equitable in the consideration of Allah the Exalted; and it is strong for primary evidence. And it reduces the chances that you might suffer confusion and double mindedness.

  • However, if it were an on-spot transaction by hand-to-hand, a routine daily business of rotation of things by selling and buying, then, no blame is upon you people in not reducing it to writing.

  • And you are directed to make it a witnessed activity when you have mutually struck a promissory commercial transaction: credit sale.

  • Take note that neither the scribe nor the witnesses should be harassed.

  • In case you do so, thereby, it will indeed attach with you people the guilt of defiance.

  • And sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • And recognize the fact that Allah the Exalted is teaching you people the right way to conduct business-economic activity.

  • And Allah the Exalted has the absolute knowledge of each and everything [visible and infolded] [2:282]

After commanding us to spend for others benefit we are informed that the act and state denoted by verbal noun: will not be possible on the Day of Resurrection. What is: and what is its advantage if it is done today?

 

  • Know it; Allah the Exalted has purchased from the Believers their selves and their wealth against the Paradise that it becomes theirs in future.

  • They are the people who confront war in the cause of Allah the Exalted whereby they kill the enemy and get killed by the enemy in the battlefield.

  • Handing over the possession of the Paradise is the promise which is incumbent upon Him the Exalted, written in the contents of the Tor'aat, In'jeel and the Qur'aan as indispensable right.

  • And who better discharges and fulfils his contractual obligation than Allah the Exalted?

  • Thereby, celebrate joyfully the pleasure of your promissory business transaction: credit sale, the one with which you people have reciprocally credited and debited with Allah the Exalted.

  • Take note, this ( credit sale transaction) is really the greatest success and achievement. [9:111]

Allah the Exalted has today very kindly purchased our selves/life and our valuables-possessions-wealth against the promise of paying us the price on the Day of Resurrection or if and when we get killed in war for His cause. The price that will be paid is the transfer of title/ownership of Paradise to us. Salient features of this contract are: Allah the Exalted is the Buyer; We the true believers are the sellers, second party; the commodity is our lives and wealth; the date of payment by the Buyer is either on the Day of resurrection or at the point in time if we get killed in the War fought for the cause of Allah the Exalted; the price settled is the Paradise. The contract is recorded in black and white in the Book of Allah the Exalted. The nature of the contract is as if it stands executed because the promise of Allah the Exalted is always fulfilled and at every moment it is an established fact.

It is thus abundantly evident that: is what we call in commerce Credit sale: sale for which buyer can pay later; a sales transaction by which the buyer is allowed to take immediate possession of the purchased goods and pay for them at a later date. Credit sale agreement/contract is essentially a loan-lending for the purchase price of the item with the money being paid after a fixed period of time.

Allah the Exalted has informed that this Credit Sale Contract was and is duly recorded in writing in the Tor'aat, In'jeel and the Qur’ān. Thereby, is necessarily a written contract between the buyer and seller wherein the seller hands over the possession of tangible goods and the buyer undertakes the promise of paying its price at an agreed point in time in the future; and that it is essentially a loan-lending. It is, therefore, ordered simultaneously clarifying all the niceties of a transaction:

: The credit sale is differentiated and contrasted in Ayah 2:282 with : adjectival phrase meaning cash business transactions. And another characteristic feature [صفة ثانية] of is portrayed by this sentence: : "you keep rotating her: hand to hand selling and purchasing between yourselves".

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce for those of My servants who proclaim having accepted and become believers:

  • That they should maintain Ass-sa'laat: Time Bound Protocol of Allegiance and Servitude —

  • And that they should spend part of the worldly resources for other's welfare out of that Our Majesty have given them —

  • They should do it privately and publicly —

  • Before that the Day might reach —

  • Peculiarity of the day is: Neither pay-later system bargain nor friendship could be struck during it. [14:31]


  • Such men are they whom distracts away neither routine cash business—selling and buying on hand to hand basis nor promissory natured commercial transactions:

  • From the remembrance and thought of Allah the Exalted; and for establishing As-sa'laat: Time Bound Protocol of Servitude and allegiance; and paying the Az-zaka'at: financial liability for economic uplift of society —

  • They fear the Day wherein the hearts and the visions will twitch. [24:37]


  • Indeed those people who willingly and affectionately pledging themselves in allegiance to you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam], they in fact only pledge to Allah in allegiance, the Hand of Allah is over the hands of them [which they place on your hand, as demonstration of solemnity].

  • Therefore, whoever broke the pledge thereat he in fact broke against his own self —

  • And whoever discharged what he had consented upon his self in bilateral contract with Allah the Exalted —

  • Thereby, in consequence soon He the Exalted will grant him a great reward. [48:10]


  • Indeed Allah the Exalted pleasantly acknowledged and appreciated the act of the Believers —

  • When they were willingly and affectionately pledging themselves in allegiance to you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] under the Tree since He fully knew that which was in their hearts.

  • Thereat, He the Exalted bestowed upon them the tranquillity and calmness and awarded them a quick victory — [48:18]


  • When believing women have arrived/migrated to you making themselves solemnly pledge before you to the effect that they will not associate with Allah anything—

  • And nor they will steal, and nor they will indulge in consented sexual intercourse and nor they will kill their offspring—

  • And nor they will allege false allegations forging it with reference to between/middle of their hands and middle of their feet/legs—

  • And nor will refuse your word in the known and accepted norms of society —

  • Thereupon/as a result you accept their fealty [in exchange of promise of award of Paradise] and for these women seek forgiveness from Allah the Exalted.

  • It is a fact that Allah the Exalted is repeatedly Forgiving-Overlooking-the fountain of Mercy.  [60:12]


  • O those/you who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • When the call has been made for the performance of Ass-sa'laat in the Day of Friday—

  • Thereat, you people hasten towards the Remembrance of Allah [join congregation for Ass-sa'laat] and leave the promissory business transactions —

  • This is the best course for you people if you people understand/know it". [62:09]

...........

  • Permission has been granted to fight back to those who were forced to get out of their city without any justification except the reason that they pronounced, "Our Sustainer Lord is Allah".

  • Realize it; had Allah the Exalted were not repelling people, a set of people by some others —

  • Certainly monasteries and churches and synagogues and mosques would have been demolished where the name of Allah is mentioned quite often.

  • And certainly Allah the Exalted will in future also help the one who helps Him.

  • It is true that Allah the Exalted is certainly the Almighty Dominant. [22:40]

Also please read:

The cumulative interest on lent money-capital

Related Roots

Root: ت ج ر

Root: ش رى

1

Verbal Noun: Definite; nominative. (1)2:275=1                مصدر:معرفہ باللام-  مرفوع

 

2

Verbal Noun: Definite; accusative. (1)2:275(2)62:09=2      مصدر:معرفہ باللام- منصوب

 

3

Prepositional phrase + Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + suffixed possessive pronoun: second person; plural, masculine, in genitive state, Vowel sign ـُ  is added for reason اجتماع الساكنين of cluster of two vowel-less consonants. (1)9:111=1                           جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

بـِ حرف جر + مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

4

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; nominative. (1)2:254(2)14:31=2                         مصدر:  مرفوع

 

5

  Verbal Noun: Indefinite; nominative. (1)24:37=1                                  مصدر:  مرفوع

 

6

Noun: Indefinite; plural; feminine; nominative. (1)22:40=1          اسم:مرفوع جمع-مؤنث

 

Verbs Form-III

1

Verb: Perfect; Second person; plural; masculine; active [Form III]; Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُبَايَعَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)9:111=1

     فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع/تُم-ضمير متصل  في محل رفع فاعل جمع مذكرحاضر/باب مفاعلة

 

2

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause/reason and effect + Verb: Imperative; Second person; singular; masculine; [Form III]; Subject pronoun hidden; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Third person; plural; feminine, in accusative state; مصدر-مُبَايَعَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)60:12=1

       حرف فَ + فعل أمر مبنى على السكون/الفاعل ضمير مستتر فيه-أَنتَ/واحد مذكر-حاضر/باب مفاعلة

      هُنَّ- ضميرمتصل مبنى على الفتح فى محل نصب مفعول به جمع مؤنث غائب

 

3

Verb: Imperfect; third person; plural; feminine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-III]; نَ Infix subject pronoun, in nominative state; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; singular; masculine, accusative state;  مصدر-مُبَايَعَةٌ Verbal noun (1) 60:12=1                              فعل مضارع مرفوع -نَ: ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مؤنث غائب-باب مفاعلة 

           كَ- ضمير متصل فى محل نصب مفعول به /واحد مذكر حاضر

 

4

Verb: Imperfect; third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ [Form-III]; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُبَايَعَةٌ Verbal noun.. (1)48:10=1

                               فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرغائب/باب مفاعلة 

 

5

Verb: Imperfect; third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ [Form-III]; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; singular; masculine, accusative state;  مصدر-مُبَايَعَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)48:10(2)48:18=2

     فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرغائب/باب مفاعلة

      كَ- ضمير متصل فى محل نصب مفعول به /واحد مذكر حاضر

 

Verbs Form-VI

1

  Verb: Perfect; Second person; plural; masculine; [Form-VI]; Subject pronoun , in nominative state; مصدر-تَبَايُعٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:282=1

     فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع/تُم-ضمير متصل  في محل رفع فاعل جمع مذكرحاضر/باب مفاعلة