1 جَهَدَ جهد , (S, A, L, &c.,) aor. جَهَدَ , (K,) inf. n. جَهْدٌ, (TA,) He strove, laboured, or toiled; exerted himself or his power or efforts or endeavours or ability; employed himself vigorously, strenuously, laboriously, diligently, studiously, sedulously, earnestly, or with energy; was diligent, or studious; took pains, or extraordinary pains; (S, A, L, K;) فِى كَذَا in such a thing; (S;) or فِى الأَمْرِ in the affair; (A;) as also ↓ اجتهد ; (A, K;) and so ↓ جاهد , with respect to speech and actions: (L:) or جَهَدَ فِى الأَمْرِ, aor. and inf. n. as above, he did his utmost, or used his utmost power or efforts or endeavours or ability, in prosecuting the affair: (Msb:) and ↓ اجتهد and ↓ تجاهد he exerted unsparingly his power, or ability: (S, A, K:) or فِى الأَمْرِ اجتهد he exerted unsparingly his power, or ability, in the prosecution of the affair, so as to effect his utmost. (Msb.) You say also, اِجْهَدْ جَهَدَكَ فِى هذَا الأَمْرِ (tropical:) Do thine utmost in this affair: (Fr, S, K: *) but not جُهْدَكَ. (Fr, S.) And رَأْيَهُ اجتهد (tropical:) He took pains, or put himself to trouble or fatigue, to form a right judgment or opinion. (MA.) And رَأْيِى وَنَفْسِى حَتَّى اِجْتَهَدْتُ بَلَغْتُ مَجْهُودِى (assumed tropical:) I exerted my judgment and my mind so that I attained the utmost of my power, or ability. (T, L.) ― -b2- جَهَدَبِهِ He tried, proved, or examined, him, (L, K,) عَنِ الخَيْرِ وَ غَيْرِهِ [respecting good qualities, &c.]. (L.) -A2- جَهَدَهُ, (Mgh, L, Msb,) aor. جَهَدَ , (Mgh, L,) inf. n. جَهْدٌ, (L, Msb,) It, (an affair, and a disease,) and he, (a man,) affected him severely; harassed, embarrassed, distressed, afflicted, troubled, inconvenienced, fatigued, or wearied, him: (Msb:) it (disease, L and K, and fatigue, and love, L) rendered him lean; emaciated him: (L, K:) he burdened him beyond his power; imposed upon him that which was beyond his power; as also ↓ اجهدهُ : (Mgh:) and, [as also ↓ اجهدهُ ,] he importuned him, harassed him, or plied him hard, in asking, begging, or petitioning. (A.) [Hence,] جُهِدَ, said of a man, He was severely affected, harassed, embarrassed, distressed, afflicted, troubled, inconvenienced, fatigued, or wearied: (S, L:) or was grieved, or made sorry or unhappy. (L.) And أَصَابَهُمْ قُحُوطٌ مِنَ المَطَرِ فَجُهِدُوا جَهْدًا شَدِيدًا Drought befell them, and they consequently became severely distressed. (S.) And جُهِدُوا They were, or became, afflicted with drought, barrenness, or dearth; or with drought, and dryness of the earth. (L.) And رَجُلٌ يَجْهَدُ أَنْ يَحْمِلَ سِلَاحَهُ مِنَ الضَّعْفِ, for يَجْهَدُ نَفْسَهُ, A man who imposes upon himself a difficulty, or trouble, or fatigue, or a difficult or severe task, or who strains, or strains himself, in the carrying of his weapons, or arms, by reason of weakness. (Mgh.) And جَهَدَ دَابَّتَهُ and ↓ اجهدها He jaded, harassed, distressed, fatigued, or wearied, his beast; i. q. بَلَغَ جَهْدَهَا : (K:) or he tasked, or plied, his beast beyond his power in journeying, or marching, or in respect of pace. (S, Msb.) And أَجْهَدْتُهُ عَلَى أَنْ يَفْعَلَ كَذَا وَ كَذَا [I importuned him, or harassed him, to do such and such things]. (L.) ― -b2- Also, (S, Msb,) aor. as above, (A,) and so the inf. n., (Msb,) (tropical:) He deprived it (namely, milk,) of its butter, (S, A, K,) entirely: (S, K:) or churned it so as to extract its butter and render it sweet and pleasant: or mixed it with water: (Msb:) or diluted it so that it consisted for the most part of water: and in like man(???) is used in relation to broth. (A.) ― -b3- Hence, (Msb,) جَهَدَهَا (assumed tropical:) He lay with her; or compressed her: (L, Msb, from a trad.:) or i. q. دَفَعَهَا, and حَفَزَهَا [which has a similar meaning]. (L.) ― -b4- جَهَدَ الطَّعَامِ (assumed tropical:) He desired the food eagerly; longed for it; (S, K;) as also ↓ اجهدهُ . (K.) And جُهِدَ الطَّعَامُ and ↓ أُجْهِدَ (assumed tropical:) The food was eagerly desired, or longed for. (S.) ― -b5- Also (tropical:) He ate much of the food: (S, K:) he left nothing of it. (A.) You say also, هٰذَا كَلَأٌ يَجْهَدُهُ المَالُ (assumed tropical:) This is herbage, or pasture, of which the cattle eat perseveringly. (AA, TA.) -A3- جَهِدَ It (a state of life) was, or became, hard, difficult, strait, or distressful. (S, K.) 3 جِهَادٌ جهاد , inf. n. of جاهد, properly signifies The using, or exerting, one's utmost power, efforts, endeavours, or ability, in contending with an object of disapprobation; and this is of three kinds, namely, a visible enemy, the devil, and one's self; all of which are included in the term as used in the Kur xxii. 77. (Er-Rághib, TA.) See also 1, first sentence. You say, جاهد العَدُوَّ, (JK, A, Mgh,) inf. n. as above (JK, Mgh, K) and مُجَاهَدَةٌ, (JK, K,) He fought with the enemy: (K:) or he encountered the enemy, imposing upon himself difficulty or distress or fatigue, or exerting his power or efforts or endeavours or ability, [or the utmost thereof,] to repel him, his enemy doing the like: and hence جاهد came to be used by the Muslims to signify generally he fought, warred, or waged war, against unbelievers and the like. (Mgh.) You say also, جاهد فِى سَبِيلِ ا@للّٰهِ, inf. n. جِهَادٌ (S, Msb) and مُجَاهَدَةٌ, (S,) [He fought, &c., in the way of God; i. e., in the cause of religion.] 4 اجهد أجهد اجهد جهد , as trans.: see 1, in six places. ― -b2- Also He made, or incited, another, to strive or labour or toil, to exert himself or his power or efforts or endeavours or ability, &c.; trans. of 1 in the first of the senses assigned to it above. (JK.) ― -b3- أُجْهِدَ He was thrown into a state of difficulty, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, or fatigue. (L.) ― -b4- اجهد مَالَهُ He consumed, or wasted, and dispersed, his property: (K:) or gave it away, and dispersed it, altogether, here and there. (En-Nadr, TA.) -A2- As intrans., He (an enemy) strove, laboured, or exerted himself, in enmity, (K, TA,) عَلَيْنَا against us. (TA.) ― -b2- He acted with energy, or with the utmost energy: so in the phrases سَارَ فَأَجْهَدَ He marched, or journeyed, and did so with energy, or with the utmost energy; and حَلَفَ بِاللّٰهِ فَأَجْهَدَ He swore by God, and did so with energy, &c.: in which cases one should not say فَجَهَدَ. (Aboo-' Amr Ibn-El-'Alŕ, L.) ― -b3- He took the course prescribed by prudence, precaution, and sound judgment, فِى الأَمْرِ in the affair; syn. اِحْتَاطَ. (L, K.) ― -b4- He became in a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, or fatigue. (L.) ― -b5- (assumed tropical:) It (a thing) became mixed, or confused. (K.) -A3- He entered upon land such as is termed جَهَاد: he went forth into the desert; and into the plain, or open country. (JK.) ― -b2- It rose up; rose into view; appeared. (JK.) You say, اجهد لِىَ القَوْمُ The people, or company of men, came within my sight, or view; syn. أَشْرَفُوا. (AA, K.) And اجهد فِيهِ الشَّيْبُ Hoariness appeared upon him, and became much: (TA:) or (tropical:) became much, and spread: (A:) or became much, and was quick in its progress, (K, TA,) and spread. (TA.) And أَجْهَدَتْ لَهُ الأَرْضُ The land became open to him. (L, K. *) And in like manner, اجهد له الطَّرِيقُ, (L,) and الحَقُّ, (L, K, *) The road, and (assumed tropical:) the truth, became open, apparent, and manifest, to him. (L, K. *) And اجهد لَكَ الأَمْرُ (assumed tropical:) The thing became, or has become, within thy power, or reach; (Aboo-Sa'eed, K;) and offered, or presented, itself to thee. (Aboo-Sa'eed, TA.) 6 تَجَاْهَدَ see 1. 8 إِِجْتَهَدَ see 1, in five places. ― -b2- اِجْتِهَادٌ as a conventional term means A lawyer's exerting the faculties [of the mind] to the utmost, for the purpose of forming an opinion in a case of law [respecting a doubtful and difficult point]: (KT:) the seeking to form a right opinion: (KL:) [investigation of the law, or the working out a solution of any difficulty in the law, by means of reason and comparison: and] the referring a case proposed to the judge, [respecting a doubtful and difficult point,] from the method of analogy, to the Kur-Án and the Sunneh. (L, TA. *) جَهْدٌ جهد Power; ability; as also ↓ جُهْدٌ ; (S, A, IAth, L, Msb, K;) the latter of the dial. of El- Hijáz, and the former of other dials.; (Msb;) and ↓ مَجْهُودٌ : (A:) جهد in the Kur ix. 80 is read both جَهْد and ↓ جُهد : (S:) and جَهْدٌ signifies also labour, toil, exertion, effort, endeavour, energy, diligence, painstaking, or extraordinary painstaking: (L: [see جَهَدَ:]) or ↓ جُهْدٌ has the signification first mentioned above, (Fr, S, IAth, Msb,) and جَهْدٌ, with fet-h, is from اِجْهَدْ جَهْدَكَ فِى هٰذَا الأَمْرِ, (Fr, S,) or from جَهَدَ فِى الأَمْرِ, being an inf. n. from this verb, (Msb,) and signifies, [as also ↓ مَجْهُودٌ ,] one's utmost; the utmost of one's power or ability or efforts or endeavours or energy. (Fr, S, IAth, Msb, K.) You say, بَذَلَ الجَهْدَ, (Msb in art. بلغ, &c.,) and ↓ المَجْهُودَ , (S, A,) or جَهْدَهُ, (Mgh,) [and ↓ مَجْهُودَهُ ,] He exerted unsparingly his power or ability: (Mgh:) [or his utmost power or ability or efforts or endeavours or energy; as shown above.] And بَلَغَ جَهْدَهُ, (A, L,) and ↓ مَجْهُودَهُ , (A,) He accomplished the utmost of his power or ability; did his utmost. (A, L. [Like جَهَدَ جَهْدَهُ. See also بَلَغَ جَهْدَ دَابَّتِهِ, below.]) And ↓ جُهَيْدَى is syn. with جَهْدٌ; (K;) as in the saying, لَأَبْلُغَنَّ جُهَيْدَاىَ فِى الأَمْرِ (JK, TK,) i. e. I will assuredly accomplish the utmost of my power, or ability, in the affair. (TK. [In a copy of the A, جُهَيْدَاكَ; and so in the TA, I believe from that same copy.]) [So, too, is ↓ جُهَادَى ; as in the saying,] جُهَادَاكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ The utmost of thy power, or ability, and the utmost of thy case, is, or will be, thy doing [such a thing]; syn. قُصَارَاكَ [q. v.], (JK, K,) and غَايَةُ أَمْرِكَ. (TA.) الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُوا بِا@للّٰهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ, in the Kur [v. 58, &c.], means Who swore by God with the most energetic of their oaths: (K, * Jel:) or the strongest, or most forcible, of their oaths; جهد being originally an inf. n., and in the accus. as a denotative of state with يَجْهَدُونَ understood before it, or as an inf. n. (Bd.) ― -b2- Also Difficulty, or grievousness; embarrassment, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, fatigue, or weariness; (S, A, IAth, Mgh, Msb, K;) so accord. to some who say that ↓ جُهْدٌ , with damm, has the first of the significations assigned to it above; (Msb;) as also ↓ مَجْهُودٌ : (Mgh:) a disease, or difficulty, that distresses or afflicts, a man; as also ↓ جُهْدٌ . (JK.) Hence, جَهْدُ البَلَآءِ, (Msb,) i. e. A state of difficulty, or trouble, to which death is preferred: or largeness of one's family, or household, combined with poverty. (L, K. *) [Hence also,] بَلَغَ جَهْدَ دَابَّتِهِ, [i. e. بَلَغَ مَشَقَّتَهَا,] i. q. جَهَدَهَا: see 1. (K.) ― -b3- Also Small provision, upon which a man possessing little property can live (JK, L) with difficulty. (L.) And جَهْدٌ المُقِلِّ What a man who possesses little property can afford to give in payment of the poor-rate required by the law. (L, from a trad.) جُهْدٌ جهد : see جَهْدٌ, in five places. -A2- Also Milk mixed [with water: see مَجْهُودٌ]. (JK.) جَهَادٌ جهاد Hard land: (JK, S:) or land in which is no herbage: (TA:) or hard land in which is no herbage: (K:) or level, or even, land: or rugged land: also used as an epithet; so that you say أَرْضٌ جَهَادٌ: (TA:) or level, smooth land, in which is no hill: (JK:) or the most plain and even of land, whether it have produced herbage or not, not having any mountain or hill near it: and such is what is termed a صَحْرَآء: (ISh, TA:) or an open tract of land: (Fr, TA:) or sterile, barren, or unfruitful, land, in which is nothing; as also جَمَادٌ: pl. جُهُدٌ. (AA, L.) -A2- Also The fruit of the أَرَاك; (IAar, K;) and so جَهَاضٌ. (IAar, TA.) مَرْعًى جَهِيدٌ مرعي جهيد (tropical:) Pasture much eaten by cattle. (S, A, K.) And أَرْضٌ جَهِيدَةُ الكَلَأِ (tropical:) Land of which the herbage is much eaten by cattle. (A.) جُهَادَى جهاد جهادى جهادي : see جَهْدٌ. جُهَيْدَى جهيد جهيدى جهيدي : see جَهْدٌ. جَاهِدٌ جاهد [Striving, labouring, or toiling; &c.: see 1. Hence,] سَيْرُنَا جَاهِدٌ [Our journeying is laborious]. (TA in art. اخو.) And جَهْدٌ جَاهِدٌ [Intense labour or exertion, or the like: or severe difficulty or distress &c.]: an intensive expression, (K, TA,) like شِعْرٌ شَاعِرٌ and لَيْلٌ لَائِلٌ. (TA.) ― -b2- (assumed tropical:) Eagerly desiring [food]; longing for [it]: (JK, S:) pl. أَجْهَادٌ. (JK.) ― -b3- غَرْثَانُ جَاهِدٌ (tropical:) Hungry and greedy, leaving no food. (A.) مُجْهَدٌ مجهد A man thrown into a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, inconvenience, trouble, or fatigue. (L.) هُوَ مُجْهَدُ لَكَ هو مجهد لك He is one who takes the course prescribed by prudence, precaution, or sound judgment, for thee; syn. مُحْتِيطٌ. (L.) And نَصِيحٌ مُجْهِدٌ A sincere, or faithful, and careful, adviser, or counsellor. (L.) ― -b2- رَجُلٌ مُجْهِدٌ A man in a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, inconvenience, trouble or fatigue: possessing little property; poor. (L.) ― -b3- And A man whose beast is weak by reason of fatigue. (L.) مَجْهُودٌ مجهود Severely affected, harassed, embarrassed, distressed, afflicted, troubled, inconvenienced, fatigued, or wearied: (S, Mgh, L:) distressed, or afflicted, by disease or difficulty: (JK:) afflicted with drought, barrenness, or dearth; or with drought, and dryness of the earth: (L:) and angry. (JK.) ― -b2- A hard, difficult, strait, or distressful, state of life. (TA.) ― -b3- (tropical:) Milk deprived of its butter (S, A) entirely: (S:) or mixed with water: (Msb:) or diluted so as to consist for the most part of water; and in like manner, broth: (A:) or churned so that its butter is extracted and it is rendered sweet and pleasant: and used as meaning eagerly desired, or longed for, and drunk without its occasioning disgust, by reason of its sweetness and pleasantness: (Msb:) or eagerly desired, or longed for; and so food in general: (JK, L:) or eagerly desired, or longed for, and drunk with perseverance, on account of its pleasantness and sweetness. (L.) -A2- See also جَهْدٌ, in six places. Credit: Lane Lexicon