Root: ج ھ  د

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 41 

b) No of constructions: 18

It occurs in 36 Ayah in 19 Sura

Nouns: 8; Recurrence: 14; Verbs: 10; Recurrence: 27 [Form-III]

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الجيم والهاء والدال أصلُهُ المشقَّة، ثم يُحمَل عليه ما يقارِبُه. يقال جَهَدْتُ نفسي وأجْهَدتوالجُهْد الطَّاقَة.

That its original meaning is discomfort, toil - hard work - work hard; thereby it signifies physical and mental labour and striving according to ability and capability.

Semantic domain: Strive - struggle - participate in war.

Hostile_encounter

Definition:

This frame consists of words that describe a hostile encounter between opposing forces (Side_1 and Side_2, collectively conceptualizable as Sides) over a disputed Issue and/or in order to reach a specific Purpose.

Issue: An unresolved question over which the two sides of a hostile encounter are in disagreement.

make great efforts to achieve or obtain something.

struggle or fight vigorously.

to try very hard to do something or to make something happenespecially for a long time or against difficulties.

Lane Lexicon

Classical Lexicons

Grand Qur’ān has built in lexicon for its important words and terms. It exposes the perception and meanings of its important words in a picturesque manner. It exposes the meanings of its important words by using it in different semantic fields whereby one can perceive all its dimensions relating to substance as well accident including metaphorical aspect. It exposes the perception and meanings of most of its words picturesquely by relationships and contrasts.

 

  • [in contrast] The fact about those people, who willingly accepted-believed, and those who migrated - left their homes and strived in the cause of Allah the Exalted —

  • They are truly the people who look forward-wish for the Mercy of Allah the Exalted.

  • And indeed Allah the Exalted is repeatedly Forgiving-Overlooking, the fountain of Mercy. [2:218]

At the very first occurrence the Verbal sentence:  comprising of Verb: Perfect; Third person; plural; masculine; [Form III]; [و] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state: مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun reveals the concept of striving and struggle. It has thus irreducible semantic feature of hostile encounter between opposite forces/sides over a disputed issue in order to reach a specific purpose. The Prepositional phrase coupled with Possessive Phrase:  فِـى سَبيلِ ٱللَّهِ  relating to the preceding verb defines and restricts the area of striving and struggle only in the Way - Cause of Allah the Exalted. The following dependent clause further confirms that striving and struggle is for no other purpose but for desiring the Mercy of Allah the Exalted. Thus the hostile force - second side are obviously those who are disavowers - opponents of the Road - Code of Life prescribed by Allah the Exalted.

Grand Qur’ān keeps making the meanings of important concepts and words explicit leavomg no room for erroneous interpretation. It is one of the most important concepts and obligation to fulfill for achieving the Paradise:

  • If a trauma has afflicted you then recall that a similar trauma had certainly made them suffer —

  • Know it, these are the days of changing fortunes, Our Majesty keep them revolving between the people:

  • Its purpose is that Allah the Exalted may show and expose those people who have heartily accepted and believed and that He may choose men from amongst you as witnesses [for the Day of Requital].

  • -- Remain cognizant, Allah the Exalted does not approve for nearness those who distort-transgress the prescribed code --. [3:140]

  • And this trial by changing fortunes is for reason that Allah the Exalted might purify those who have heartily accepted and believed: by exposing unwanted containments [imposter believers] as is done by liquefying gold in fire; and that He the Exalted might efface those who persistently disavow. [3:141]

  • Had you people adjudged-made up your mind that you people might enter into the Paradise?

  • While Allah the Exalted had not yet made evident and known those of you who strived against the enemy and exposed those who are coolly perseverant and consistently stead fast. [3:142]

  • And certainly, you people kept self aspiring the death (in the cause of Allah) before you had confronted it —

  • So you have now seen it having happened —

  • While you were watching (in the battlefield). [3:143]

The war is confronted in the battlefield and one has to move out of their houses:

  • The Home Sitters amongst the believers; other than those suffering some inability-impracticability to struggle, mutually equate not with —

  • The strugglers-strivers with their wealth and by their physical participation in the cause of Allah the Exalted.

  • Allah the Exalted has granted distinction to Strugglers-strivers with their wealth and by their physical participation over those who stay back at homes; this distinction is with regard to upper rank and position.

  • Though Allah the Exalted has promised the most appropriate-proportionate reward for all others.

  • And Allah the Exalted has granted distinct grace to the participating Strugglers-strivers over Home Sitters; a great Reward and appreciation. [4:95]

The Paradise is the lifetime achievement, ultimate success and salvation:

  • O those/you who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • You people sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • And you people most desirously explore the source that causes nearness towards Him the Exalted: [His Guidance: Qur’ān and strict adherence by remaining within its framework].

  • And you people vigorously strive in His Way with worldly resources and personal selves.

  • This is directed so that you people might attain and reap the fruit of perpetual success. [5:35]

The semantic frame of striving and struggle also entails the resources for undertaking it.

  • [in contrast] The fact about those people, who willingly accepted-believed, and those who migrated - left their homes and strived in the cause of Allah the Exalted — [Refer 2:218]

The first time occurrence of this concept and word in the independent sentence is repeated with addition of sources - instruments by which the Believers are to strive and struggle in the cause of Allah:

  • Indeed those people who accepted/believed and migrated/left their homes and strived utmost with their wealth and  by their physical participation solely for the cause of Allah the Exalted —

  • And those locals who gave shelter and help to migrants:

  • These are the people who are allies and companions of each other. [Refer 8:72]

Qur’ān has told that all the claimants of Belief are not necessarily the believers; there are Muna'fi'qoon: Imposter believers: . The litmus test as to who is true and proven believer is جِهَادٌ :

  • The certain fact about those who had accepted the belief and had migrated and exerted utmost with their wealth and physically solely for the cause of Allah the Exalted —

  • And those locals who gave shelter and help to migrants:

  • These are truly the proven and established believers amongst claimants of belief.

  • Forgiveness and par excellence sustenance is guaranteed for them. [8:74]

  • And those who accepted/believed afterwards in timeline and migrated and exerted utmost along with you, thereby,  they are recognized as being part of you people.

  • Take note, the holders of womb's relationship are in worldly matters comparatively nearer [like parents] than others as laid down in the Book of Allah the Exalted.

  • The fact remains; Allah the Exalted is eternally the knower of absolute: visible and infolded knowledge of physical realm: all that exists. [8:75]


  • Those people who heartily accepted/believed and migrated/left their homes and strived utmost with their wealth and  by their physical participation solely for the cause of Allah the Exalted:

  • They are greater with regard to ranking and exaltation in the consideration of  Allah the Exalted [as compared to other believers in timeline and space who are not equal to them] —

  • And they are truly the people who have achieved success. [9:20]

Though the Phrases: بِأَمْوَٟلِـهِـمْ وَأَنفُسِهِـمْ appear in different order in the above mentioned sentences (8:72 and 9:20), their grammatical role and semantics is the same. They relate to the preceding verb. The preposition: بـِ is both [لِلتَّعدِيَةِ] for making verb transitive and [للإِسْتَعَانَةِ] for assistance; instrument to carry out the action denoted by the verb. What is meant by striving with: أَنفُسِهِـمْ  their personal selves?

  • The Home Sitters amongst the believers; other than those suffering some inability-impracticability to struggle, mutually equate not with —

  • The strugglers-strivers with their wealth and by their physical participation in the cause of Allah the Exalted.

  • Allah the Exalted has granted distinction to Strugglers-strivers with their wealth and by their physical participation over those who stay back at homes; this distinction is with regard to upper rank and position.

  • Though Allah the Exalted has promised the most appropriate-proportionate reward for all others.

  • And Allah the Exalted has granted distinct grace to the participating Strugglers-strivers over Home Sitters; a great Reward and appreciation. [4:95]

It is rendered explicit by contrast that struggling with: أَنفُسِهِـمْ  their personal selves signifies physically participating in the warfare. Those who physically participate in warfare are" the strivers who exert much effort and energy, move out to fight forcefully; and they are contrasted with: those who stay back at homes, despite being physically fit, in case war is imposed upon the believers.

That struggling with: أَنفُسِهِـمْ  their personal selves signifies physically participating - combating in the warfare is again rendered explicit:

  • [for reason of infliction of war] You people are directed to move out with light and heavy weapons —

  • And to  strive with your wealth and by your physical participation in the cause of Allah the Exalted.

  • This is the best course prescribed for you people if you were really understanding it. [9:41]

Physical participation in the warfare necessitates moving out of the houses in lightly or heavily equipped state depending upon one's role of guarding and combating. The true believers do not try to find excuses for avoiding participating in war:

  • Know it, they, who truly believe in Allah the Exalted and the Last Day, do not seek exemption from you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] for striving with their wealth and and by their physical participation.

  • And Allah the Exalted is always fully aware of those people who who sincerely endeavour to attain salvation. [9:44]

  • The fact is that only they feign seeking your permission for exemption to proceed for war who in fact believe not in Allah the Exalted and the Last Day (Muna'fi'qeen).

  • And their hearts are self-irked suffering duplicity —

  • Thereby, they keep vacillating in their self-created state of irksome duplicity of thought. [9:45]

The concept of: جِهَادٌ includes in its ambit the act of engaging in fight, forcefully contending the enemy in battle. However, Muna'fi'qoon: Imposter believers: in Muslim society feign excuses to avoid participating in war as well as taking the responsibility of guarding - defending against the enemy. Neither, they wish to move out of their houses nor to confront war in the battlefield along with the Messenger Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam who ordered to confront the attacking enemy:

  • The stragglers rejoiced in their homes, acting contrarily in opposition to the Messenger of Allah the Exalted —

  • And they were aversive to striving by their finances and by physical participation in the cause of Allah the Exalted —

  • And advised others saying:  "You people should not go forth in highly warm weather."

  • You the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "The fire of Hell-Prison is much intense with regard to degree of temperature."

  • This information could benefit them only if they had tried to understand it. [9:81]

  • --Thereby, they should laugh little rejoicing —

  • Instead they should weep quite often. This is the recompense for what they people kept seeking and earning --.  [9:82]

  • Thereby, on termination of war when Allah the Exalted would have returned you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] to influential-richer group of them (Imposter believers): thereat, they will feign seeking your permission for participation in the war next time.

  • Respond to rebut them saying: "You will never move out with me and you will never participate along with me in war against any enemy.

  • Indeed you were satisfied and pleased in sitting back on the first occasion, therefore, keep sitting with those who tarry behind." [9:83]

Confronting and participating in the war against the enemy, whenever the Islamic state has decided going in war, is mandatory for the true believers. But the Muna'fi'qeen: Imposter believers are against the concept of war which is even fought for self-defence upon imposition by enemy.

  • Take note, when a Surah: a segment-chapter was compositely sent containing injunction: "you people believe in Allah the Exalted and confront war along with His Messenger":

  • The men of riches among them (Muna'fi'qeen: Imposter believers) asked for your permission and said: "You grant us leave. We would remain with stragglers."  [9:86]

  • They were pleased in preferring to be in the company of those who tarry behind.

  • And wraps were placed upon their hearts, thereby and thenceforth, they comprehend not. [9:87]

The true believers do participate in the war, both financially and physically:

  • On the other hand the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] and those who had heartily believed (in the Grand Qur’ān) along with him strive by their finances and by physical participation.

  • Know it, they are the people: the best fortunes are promised and are in wait for them.

 

  • And they are the people who are truly the endeavourers for perpetual success-fruitfulness. [9:88]


  • Further know about imposter believers, they swore by Allah the Exalted, their swearing was emphatic, that indeed if you ordered them certainly they would henceforth go forth—move out —

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] say, "You people do not swear.

  • Affectionate acceptance of word is quite a recognized thing.

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is fully aware of all what acts you people are doing." [24:53]


  • And they (disavowers) swore by Allah the Exalted their exerted oaths that if an unprecedented sign-display came to them they will certainly believe by it.

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "The unprecedented displays are manifested only upon permission from Allah the Exalted —

  • And what will give you people the idea-perception that the moment she (unprecedented sign) came to them they will still not incline to believe?" [6:109]


  • Those who criticize and slander against the willing donors amongst the believers in giving away gifts of generosity and against those who do not find resources except their physical effort/exertion —

  • Thereby, some of them go a step further mocking and ridiculing. Allah the Exalted has discarded as condemned such of them.

  • Be mindful, a severe punishment is prepared-in wait for them. [9:79]


Nouns

 
1

Active Participle: Definite; Sound plural; Masculine; nominative.  (1)4:95=1

                                              اسم فاعل:معرفہ باللام- مرفوع-جمع سالم مذكر

 
2

Active Participle: Definite; Sound plural; Masculine; accusative.  (1)4:95(2)4:95(3)47:31=3                                       

                                اسم فاعل:معرفہ باللام- منصوب-جمع سالم مذكر

 
3

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; genitive. (1)9:24=1                                              مصدر: مجرور

 
4

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)25:52=1                                    مصدر: منصوب

 
5

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)60:01=1                                مصدر: منصوب

 
6

Possessive Phrase: Verbal Noun: Definite; genitive + Possessive pronoun: Third person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)22:78=1

الإِضَافَةُ-مصدر: مجرور/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرغائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 
7

Verbal Noun: definite by construct; accusative. (1)5:53(2)6:109(3)16:38(4)24:53(5)35:42=5                       مصدر: منصوب

 
8

Possessive Phrase: Noun/Verbal Noun: Definite by construct; accusative + Possessive Pronoun: Third Person; Plural; Masculine; Genitive state.  (1)9:79=1

الإِضَافَةُ-اسم/: مصدر: منصوب/مضافضمير متصل-جمع  مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

Verbs Form-III

1

Verb: Imperfect; second person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-III]; [و] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)61:11=1   

             فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرحاضر/باب مفاعلة

 
2

  Verb: Imperative; Second person; singular; masculine; [Form-III]; Subject pronoun hidden; Vowel sign is added for reason اجتماع الساكنين of cluster of two vowel-less consonants; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)9:73(2)66:09=2

      فعل أمرمبنى على السكون/الفاعل ضمير مستتر فيه-أَنتَ-واحد مذكرمخاطب/باب مفاعلة

 
3

Verb: Perfect; Third person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-III];  Subject  Pronoun hidden; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)9:19(2)29:06=2

فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح /الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب -باب مفاعلة

 
4 Verb: Perfect; Third person; Dual; Masculine; [Form-III]; الف Subject  Pronoun, nominative state; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; singular; masculine, accusative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)29:08(2)31:15=2

      فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح/ الفاعل: الف الاثنين ضمير متصل مبنى على السكون  في محل رفع /تثنية غائب باب مفاعلة

               كَ-ضمير متصل مبنى على الفتح واحد مذكرحاضر فى محل نصب مفعول به

 
5

  Verb: Perfect; Third person; plural; masculine; [Form III]; [و] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state: مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun (1)2:218(2)3:142(3)8:72(4)8:74(5)8:75 (6)9:16(7)9:20(8)9:88(9)16:110(10)29:69(11)49:15=11

 فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر غائب/باب مفاعلة

 
6

Verb: Imperative; second person; plural; masculine; [Form-III]; [و] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)5:35(2)9:41(3) 9:86(4)22:78=4 

     فعل أمر مبنى على حذف النون لأنَّ مضارعه من الأفعال الخمسة 

  و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرحاضر/باب مفاعلة

 
7

Verb: Imperative; Second person; singular; masculine; [Form-III]; Subject pronoun hidden + Suffixed Object Pronoun: Third person; masculine; plural, in accusative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)25:52=1

 فعل أمرمبنى على السكون/الفاعل ضمير مستتر فيه-أَنتَ-واحد مذكرمخاطب/باب مفاعلةَ

   ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به / جمع  مذكر غائب

 
8

Verb: imperfect; third person; singular; masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-III]; Subject pronoun hidden;  مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun (1)29:06=1

      فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة-الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب/باب مفاعلة

 
9

Verb: Imperfect; Third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; [Form-III];  [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun.  (1)9:44(2)9:81=2 

     فعل مضارع منصوب بأن  و علامة نصبة حذف النون

       و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرغائب -والألف-فارقة/باب مفاعلة

 
10

Verb: Imperfect; Third person; Plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by " نَ"; [Form-III]; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-مُجَاهَدَةٌ Verbal Noun (1)5:54=1

                                 فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرغائب/باب مفاعلة