Root: س ب ق

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 37 

b) No of constructions: 22

Noun: 8; Recurrence: 11; Verb: 14; Recurrence: 26 [Form-I: 20; Form-III: 1; Form-VIII: 5]

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

السين والباء والقاف أصل واحد صحيح يدل على التقديم

That it leads to the perception of advancing, moving forward, letting precede, or go before, or lead the way, doing something before something else.

Lane LexiconHe preceded him; he was, or became, got, went, or came, before him, or ahead of him; he outwent, or outstripped, him; he had, got, or took, precedence of him; syn. تَقَدَّمَهُ; (K, TA;) in running, and in everything.

Classical Lexicons

اردو میں عربی سے ماخوذ ’’سابق‘‘، ’’سبقت‘‘ مستعمل ہے۔

سبقت لے جانے والا، بڑھا ہوا۔گزشتہ، گزرا ہوا زمانہ۔


  • And notice: a point of interest - goal - objective is the hallmark for every one - group. He focuses - diverts his affiliation towards that view.

  • کیونکہ(آپ جانتے ہیں) ہر ایک ایک کے لئے اپناایک نقطہ توجہ/مقصد ہے جدھر وہ پلٹتاہے۔

  • Therefore, [leave them engaged in their diversions] you people consciously hasten striving in doing the best things of benefit, welfare and tranquillity for all.

  • (انہیں پلٹے رہنے دو)اے ایمان لانے والو! تم لوگ نیکیوں میں ایک دوسرے سے سبقت لو۔

  • Notwithstanding, wherever you people might have located yourselves, Allah the Exalted will bring you all collectively to accountability - justice.

  • تم لوگ جہاں کہیں بھی ہو گے؛ اللہ تعالیٰ (یوم قیامت)تم تمام کو اکھٹا کرکے ایک مقام پر اجتماع کر دیں گے ۔

  • Certainly Allah the Exalted has eternally the command and control over each and all things, individually and collectively, to set them right - fix them in measure. [2:148]

  • یقیناًاللہ تعالیٰ ہر ایک شئے اور معاملے کو پیمانوں میں مقید کرنے پر ہمیشہ سے قادر ہیں۔


  • And Our Majesty has compositely sent to you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] the Book (Grand Qur’ān); it is the composition of Infallible Doctrine-Discourse-Constitution.

  • It (Qur’ān) serves as the affirmer - certifier - sanctifier for that which was revealed in front of it from the (Principal - Mother) Book.

  • یہ نازل کردہ مخصوص کتاب(قرء ان)تصدیق کرنے/حقیقت قرار دینے والا ہے اس کو جو اِس سے قبل زمان و مکان میں کتاب خاص (ام الکتاب)میں سےنازل کیا گیا تھا۔

  • Simultaneously, tt (Grand Qur’ān) is a protective umbrella upon that (the revelation in the past).

  • Therefore, you the Messenger adjudge between them according to that (Qur’ān) which Allah the Exalted has compositely sent (Grand Qur’ān).

  • Take note; you the Messenger should not incline to pursue their conjectures and hearsay in deviation of that which has reached to you as Infallible Doctrine-Discourse of Established Facts.

  • Our Majesty have declared this for each one of you people as a single source and path: pursuing in letter and spirit the Book of Allah the Exalted [as was told to the first couple before dispatching them to the Earth-2:38;20:123].

  • [to differ is the right and prerogative granted to man] And if Allah the Exalted had so willed; He would have indeed made you all one harmonious unit [by exercising infinite power and dominance and taking away the freedom of will/choice]

  • But the purpose for not making you one harmonious unit by force is that He the Exalted might subject you people to test for exposure of your true worth in what He has given to you [the Book and other things]

  • Therefore, [leave them engaged in their diversions] you people diligently hasten doing the best things.

  • The return of you people will be directed towards Allah the Exalted; all of you on the Day of Requital:

  • Thereat, He the Exalted will disclose to you the matter in which you purposely kept differing. [5:48]


  • And Our Majesty had deputed Lut [alai'his'slaam] as the Messenger when he said to his nation:

  • "Do you come to such illicit sexual activity that has not a single precedence of practice in the history of the nations before you? [7:80]


  • And those who have disavowed should suppose not that they have taken a lead.

  • Indeed they cannot frustrate/incapacitate [the believers]. [8:59]


  • Had a written decree not been on record that was prescribed by Allah the Exalted earlier: [about unsolicited gains of war]

  • A severe adversity would have certainly inflicted you people for what you had adopted [during ongoing war making enemy soldiers captives without permission of the Commander] [8:68]


  • Know the fact about the forerunners who took the lead-precedence in believing amongst the immigrants and the local accommodators-helpers; and those who affectionately followed their footsteps appropriately in decent manner:

  • Allah the Exalted has appreciated and approved them; and they are admiringly happy with Allah the Exalted.

  • And He the Exalted has prepared for them:

  • Gardens with canals of water flowing side by wherein they shall reside perpetually.

  • This approval and appreciation of Allah the Exalted is the grand achievement/success. [9:100]


  • And the people used to be but a singular harmonious unit-group. Thereafter, for certain reasons, they mutually differed.

  • And had a word of promise-decision not preceded granting a respite period by your Sustainer Lord, the matter would have been ended between them regarding what they diligently differ. [10:19]


  • [they kept mocking] Till the time when Command of Our Majesty reached and the particular "Geyser" of area abruptly gushed forth —

  • Our Majesty told him: "Upload in the ship each of pairing, in twos, of plants and mammals that you have —

  • And embark your family members except the one male-non believing son, for whom the word has preceded/ decreed; and embark whoever has accepted/believed."

  • Know it, except a small number, people did not believe along with him. [11:40]


  • Know the fact, Our Majesty had given to Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] the Book.

  •  ماضی کی یہ حقیقت بھی جان لو؛ہم جناب نے موسیٰ (علیہ السلام) کو کتاب دے کر نوازا تھا۔

  • Thereby, people showed differences therein.

  • And had a word of promise-decision not preceded granting a respite period by your Sustainer Lord, the matter would have been ended between them.

  •  Moreover, the fact is that they (Bani Iesraa'eel) are certainly plunged in doubt regarding it (the Book), the doubt having characteristic trait of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [11:110]


  • They said, "O our father, indeed we went away in competition racing towards finish line —

  • While we had left Yu'suf near our possessions. Thereat in our absence the wolf ate him.

  • In this situation you will certainly not be believing us notwithstanding we are truthful." [12:17]


  • [reverting from parenthetic] And he and she swiftly ran towards the exit door, she racing in effort to catch him cleaved - creased his short from the back;

  • (Yusuf managed open the exit-door) And they both found her husband nearing the door.

 

  • [perplexed by unexpected arrival of her husband and reflective scene of rushing out] She said, "What could be the punishment for him who intended evil with your household except imprisonment or some painful infliction?" [12:25]


  • None a civilization-generation hastens the duration appointed for her; nor they people at their own can delay-lengthen it in timeframe. [15:05]


  • Likewise, Our Majesty is narrating to you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] the episodes; in event by event manner, some out of the miscellany of instances/news that have passed.

  • The fact remains, Our Majesty have given to you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] a Memoir - biographical narrative (Qur’ān); a grace from Our Majesty. [20:99]


  • And had the Word from your Sustainer Lord not been decreed - passed —

  • Certainly that [similar result] would have been encountered —

  • And had the duration not been appointed by a determined - appointed moment of termination — [20:129]


  • They do not precede Him the Exalted in saying a word and they act carrying out His command. [21:27]


  • Indeed the people for whom the most appropriate reward is already authorized from Our Grace —

  • They are the people who will be removed far away from her (Hell-Prison) — [21:101]


  • Thereby, in response Our Majesty communicated to him that "you skilfully make the ship while Our Majesty is watching and are communicating Our verbal instructions.

  • [let them keep mocking] Subsequently, when Our Command would have reached and the particular "Geyser" of area would have abruptly gushed forth —

  • At that point in time you enter in her (the ship) each of pairing, in twos, of plants and mammals that you have —

  • And your family members except the one male [his non believing son] from them for whom the word has preceded/ decreed.

  • And you should not address Me about those who have committed wrong —

  • Indeed they are the ones who are to be drowned. [23:27]


  • None a civilization-generation hastens the duration appointed for her; nor they people at their own can delay-lengthen it in timeframe. [23:43]


  • These are the people who are hastening in the better achievements and they are for that the lead takers. [23:61]


  • Or those people who perform deeds of evil import have adjudged/made up their mind that they will escape/run forward from Our Majesty.

  • Evil is that which they presumably understand and adjudge. [29:04]


  • And Our Majesty had deputed Luet [alai'his'slaam] as the Messenger when he said to his nation:

  • It is a fact that you people come to such illicit sexual activity that has not a single precedence of practice in the history of the nations before you? [29:28]


  • And so were seized Qa'roon and Fir'aoun/Pharaoh and Haa'maan —

  • And certainly Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] had come to them with demonstrative evident signs —

  • Whereupon they persistently demonstrated arrogance having made themselves obsessed with pride of grandeur and superiority in the country —

  • But they could not take the lead. [in visualizing future events despite being visionary] [29:39]


  • Afterwards Our Majesty have made the inheritors of the Book/Grand Qur’ān those from Our allegiant subjects whom Our Majesty have chosen.

Root: ص ف و

  • Thereat, amongst them is one who is unjustly evil for his person and amongst them is one who is moderate in conduct —

  • And amongst them is one who takes foremost lead in good deeds with the permission of Allah the Exalted

  • This is that which is the greatest Bounty, [35:32]


  • It is not possible (befitting) [because of set equations/relationships/devised system] for the Sun to herself follow-chase the Moon —

  • Neither the Night is the over stepper to take lead/be ahead of the Day.

  • Know it, they all are in the state of swimming in a curved - girl's breast-shaped course - orbit. [36:40]

Root: س ب ح


  • And if Our Majesty willed certainly We would have obliterated over their eyes —

  • Whereupon they tried for themselves the path, thereat how would they observe it. [36:66]


  • And it is a certain fact that the Promise of Our Majesty has preceded for Our Sincere Servants sent as the Messengers — [37:171]


  • Know the fact, Our Majesty had given to Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] the Book.

  •  ماضی کی یہ حقیقت بھی جان لو؛ہم جناب نے موسیٰ (علیہ السلام) کو کتاب دے کر نوازا تھا۔

  • Thereby, mutual differences arose about what was prescribed therein.

  • And had a word of promise-decision not preceded granting a respite period by your Sustainer Lord, the matter would have been ended between them.

  •  Moreover, the fact is that they (Bani Iesraa'eel) are certainly plunged in doubt regarding it (the Book), the doubt having characteristic trait of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [41:45]


  • And they did not differ/made sects, except after having reached them that which brought them the knowledge, because of grouping/classes/vested interests amongst them.

  • And had a word/promise/decision, of a duration to culminate on determined moment, not preceded from your Sustainer Lord the matter would have indeed been adjudged/resolved between them.

  • Moreover, the fact about those, the posterity after them, who (Bani Iesraa'eel) were caused to inherit the Book: They are certainly plunged in doubt regarding it (Grand Qur’ān), the doubt having characteristic of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [42:14]


  • And those (members of ruling elite) who denied to accept Divine Discourse said to people—

  • About those who have accepted/believed in it, "Had it been something better, they would not have taken the lead upon/preceded us in believing that".

  • And when they have purposely not self aright guided with it (Qur’ān), thereby they will keep saying/propagating to people—

  • "This (Qur’ān) is an old myth." [46:11]


  • And the Lead Takers, yes they will be the Foremost—[56:10]


  • We have decreed amongst you the death —

  • And Our Majesty are certainly never frustrated/outwitted.  [56:60]


  • You people emulously aim at taking the lead at seeking protection and forgiveness, which is transmitted to you as promise from your Sustainer Lord —

  • And take lead towards attaining Paradise from your Sustainer Lord — Her extensiveness-wideness is like the sum of the wideness of the Sky [stretched into seven layers] and the Earth [seven layers] —

  • She (the Paradise) has been prepared exclusively for those in time and space who believed in Allah the Exalted and All the Messengers of Him the Exalted.

  • This pronouncement of ideological belief by them is the act of grace and blessing of Allah the Exalted. He grants it to him who desires it/for whom He so decides.

  • Take note, Allah the Exalted  is the holder and granter of  the Bounty which is magnificent. [57:21]

  • اوریقینا اللہ تعالیٰ عظیم ترین فضل کرنے والے ہیں۔


  • And those who came afterwards of those earlier Emigrants, they pray —

  • "Our Sustainer Lord! you forgive and grant protection for us and for our those brothers who took lead upon us in the Belief —

  • And let not there be any resentment/ill-will nurtured in our hearts for those who have believed.

  • Our Sustainer Lord! You are most surely full of kindness, the Most Merciful". [59:10]

Root: ر ء ف


  • Upon that Our Majesty might cause their replacement with people better than them —

  • And that We are certainly never frustrated-outwitted. [70:41]


  • Thereat, they-[feminine active participles] winds are racers in the manner of racing to take lead — [79:04]


 

Nouns

1

Active Participle: Definite; Sound plural; Masculine; nominative;   ( مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun). (1)9:100(2)56:10(3)56:10=3

         اسم فاعل:معرفہ باللام- مرفوع-جمع سالم مذكر

 
2

Prepositional phrase:  بـِ Inseparable  preposition  + Passive Participle: Indefinite; masculine; sound plural; genitive. (1)56:60(2)70:41=2

       جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم مفعول:مجرور-جمع مذكر

 
3

Active Participle: Indefinite; singular; Masculine; nominative; ( مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun). (1)35:32=1 

                                                     اسم فاعل:مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
4

Active Participle: Definite; singular; Masculine; nominative; ( مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun). (1)36:40=1                  اسم فاعل:-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
5

Active Participle: Indefinite; Sound plural; Masculine; nominative;    ( مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun). (1)23:61=1                          اسم فاعل: مرفوع-جمع سالم مذكر

 
6

Active Participle: Indefinite; Sound plural; Masculine; accusative;     ( مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun) (1)29:39=1                       اسم فاعل: منصوب-جمع سالم مذكر

 
7

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)79:04=1                                       مصدر:منصوب

 
8

Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect + Active Participle: definite; plural; Feminine; genitive. (1)79:04=1

                   حرف فَ + اسم فاعل:معرفہ باللام-مجرور-جمع  مؤنث

 

 

Verb Form-I

1

Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; feminine; Mood: Indicative; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun. (1)15:05(2)23:43=2

                                                فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة /الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ-واحد مؤنث غائب

 
2

Verb: Perfect; Third person; singular; masculine; Subject pronoun hidden;  مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun. (1)8:68(2)11:40(3)20:99(4)23:27=4

                                                     فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب

 
3

Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; feminine; active; ت feminine marker; Subject Pronoun hidden; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun. (1)10:19(2)11:110(3)20:129 (4)21:101(5)37:171(6)41:45(7)42:14=7

             فعل ماضٍ مبني  مبني على الفتح/ + تَاء التانيث الساكنة/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هِىَ-واحد مؤنث غائب

 
4

Verb: Perfect; Third person; singular; masculine; Subject pronoun hidden; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; plural; masculine, accusative state; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun.  (1)7:80(2)29:28=2

                                                     فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب

                ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع  مذكر حاضر 

 
5

Verb: Perfect; Third person; plural; masculine; [و ] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state, with prolongation sign; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun (1)8:59=1

     فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر غائب

 
6

Verb: Perfect; Third person; plural; masculine; [و ] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state, Suffixed Object Pronoun: First Person; Plural, in accusative state; with prolongation sign;  مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun (1)46:11=1

                        فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل/جمع مذكر غائب

                                                                                            ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به /جمع  متكلم

 
7

Verb: Perfect; Third person; plural; masculine; [و ] Subject Pronoun, in nominative state; Suffixed Object Pronoun: First Person; Plural, in accusative state; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun (1)59:10=1

                        فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل/جمع مذكر غائب

                                                                                             ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به /جمع  متكلم

 
8

Verb: Imperfect; Third person person; plural; masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; [نَا] Suffixed Object pronoun: First Person; plural, in accusative state; مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun. (1) 29:04=1        فعل مضارع منصوب  و علامة نصبة حذف  النون/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل جمع مذكرغائب

                                                                                            ضمير متصل  في محل نصب مفعول به /جمع  متكلم

 
9

  Verb: Imperfect; Third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ; [Form I]; [و] Subject Pronoun; nominative state; Suffixed Object Pronoun: Third person; singular; masculine, in accusative state;  مصدر-سَبْقٌ Verbal Noun (1)21:27=1

               فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل/جمع مذكرغائب

           ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به /واحد مذكرغائب

 

Verb Form-III

1

Verb: Imperative; Second person; plural; masculine; [Form III]; [و ] Subject Pronoun, Nominative state, with prolongation sign; مصدر-مُسَابَقَةٌ Verbal Noun. (1)57:21=1                                            فعل أمر مبنى على حذف النون لأنَّ مضارعه من الأفعال الخمسة

    و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرحاضر/باب  فَاْعَلَ   

 

 

Verb Form-VIII

1

Verb: Perfect; Third person; dual; masculine;  [Form-VIII];  الف Subject pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-اِسْتِبَاقٌ Verbal noun. (1)12:25=1

           فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح /االالف-الف الاثنين ضمير مبنى على السكون فى محل رفع فاعل-تثنية غائب/باب اِفْتَعَلَ

 
2

 Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause/sequence and effect + Verb: Imperative; Second person; plural; masculine; [Form-VIII]; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-اِسْتِبَاقٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:148(2)5:48=2

        حرف فَ + فعل أمر مبنى على حذف النون لأنَّ مضارعه من الأفعال الخمسة

        و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكر مخاطب/ باب اِفْتَعَلَ

 
3

 Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause/reason-sequence and effect + Verb: Perfect; Third person; dual; masculine;  [Form-VIII];  الف Subject pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-اِسْتِبَاقٌ Verbal noun. (1)36:66=1

             حرف فَ + فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة

   و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرغائب/ باب اِفْتَعَلَ

 
4

Verb: Imperfect; First person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-اِسْتِبَاقٌ Verbal noun. (1)12:17=1

      فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة-الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره: نَحْنُ/جمع متكلم/باب اِفْتَعَلَ