Root: ء ث م

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 48

b) No of constructions: 20 All Nouns

It occurs in 42 Ayahs in 21 Suras

Ibn Faris [died-1005] stated:

(أثم) الهمزة والثاء والميم تدلُّ على أصلٍ واحد، وهو البطء والتأخُّر. يقال ناقة آثِمةٌ أي متأخِّرة.

والإثم مشتقٌّ من ذلك، لأنَّ ذا الإثمِ بطيءٌ عن الخير متأخّر عنه

That it leads to the perception of weariness, dullness, slowness, or slackening which results in retardation and laggardly. It refers to a she-camel when she is tired in journeying and is laggardly. Therefore, it refers to any guilt-deed aimed at violation of prohibitions-restrictions since it imposes burden of culpability. It acts as retardant causing the destination to become distant.

Semantic domain: Guiltiness

And guiltiness has a burden, and physical burden does retard the progress. Burden of guilt: Root: و ز ر

Contra: Root: ب ر ر

Lane Lexicon: he sinned; committed a sin, or crime; he did what was unlawful: an unlawful deed:or a deed which retards from recompense:

Classical Lexicons

Related/collocating Root:   ع د و

  • Afterwards the ratification of aforesaid covenant, you are such people who kill-ill repute your people —

  • And you cause a group weaker among you to exile from their towns-locations —

  • By alleging upon them accusations of guilt and transgression.

  • However, if they are brought to you as captives you voluntarily ransom them —

  • While their very exile had been made unlawful upon you.

  • Is it for reason that you accept some part of the Book and reject/deny some part of the Book?

  • Therefore, what be the return-punishment, for anyone of you people who does this act of accepting some and refusing some part of the Book —

  • Shall be but disgrace-ignominy in the life of this lowly world.

  • Take note; such people will be taken to the grievous chastisement on the Day of Rising.

  • Remain mindful; Allah the Exalted is never ever unmindful about what you people do. [2:85]

 

  • O those/you who proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • You should not liquefy-untie-disrespect the symbolic emblems of Allah the Exalted —

  • Nor the sanctity of the sacred month —

  • Nor the offerings nor the garlanded sacrificial animals —

  • Nor those who visit the House of Sanctity seeking Grace and appreciation from their Sustainer Lord.

  • And when you are free from the pilgrimage restraints-bindings then you hunt for game.

  • And nor let the ill feeling overpower you that you people may over step against a people for the reason that they stopped you to visit the Sacred Mosque.

  • And cooperate and facilitate in matters of righteousness-commodiousness-helping and accommodating people, and in endeavors for salvation —

  • But you people should not participate-collaborate in dilapidating acts-sinful activities, and digressions/injustices/excesses.

  • And sincerely endeavour to attain the protection from Allah the Exalted.

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is severe in awarding punishment/takes the matter to its logical conclusion. [5:02]

 

1 Active Participle: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; nominative. (1)2:283=1                   اسم فاعل: مرفوع-واحد  مذكر  
2 Active Participle: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; accusative. (1)76:24=1

                               اسم فاعل: منصوب-واحد  مذكر

 
3 Verbal Noun/Noun: Singular; Masculine; accusative. (1)25:68=1

                                                  اسم/مصدر: منصوب-واحد  مذكر

 
4 Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; Singular;  Masculine; genitive. (1)2:276(2)26:222(3)45:07(4)68:12(5)83:12=5  الصفة المشبهة:-مجرور-واحد مذكر  
5

Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: Indefinite; Singular;  Masculine; accusative. (1)4:107=1                                                 الصفة المشبهة:-منصوب-واحد مذكر  

 
6    Verbal noun/Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; accusative. (1)2:173(2)2:182 (3)2:203(4)2:203=4                                                   اسم: منصوب-واحد  مذكر  
7 Verbal noun/Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; nominative. (1)2:219(2) 49:12=2                اسم: مرفوع-واحد  مذكر  
8 Verbal noun/Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; accusative.  (1)2:182(2)3:178 (3)4:20(4)4:48(5)4:50(6)4:111(7)4:112(8)4:112(9)5:107(10)33:58=10                  اسم: منصوب-واحد  مذكر  
9

Possessive Phrase: Verbal noun/Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; accusative + Possessive Pronoun: Second person; singular; masculine, in genitive state. (1)5:29=1

                       الإِضَافَةُ-اسم: مجرور-واحد  مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 
10    Possessive Phrase: Verbal noun/Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; nominative + Possessive Pronoun: Third person; masculine; singular, in genitive state. (1)2:181=1

                          الإِضَافَةُ-اسم: مرفوع-واحد  مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد مذكرغائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 
11 Possessive phrase: Verbal noun/Noun: Definite; Singular; Masculine; nominative + Possessive pronoun: Third person; dual, in genitive state, with  prolongation sign. (1)2:219=1

                                 الإِضَافَةُ-اسم:مرفوع-واحد  مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-تثنية غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 
12 Active Participle: Definite by prefixed definite article; sound plural;  masculine; genitive by preposition. (1)5:106=1         اسم فاعل: معرفہ باللام-مجرور -جمع سالم مذكر  
13 Adjective resembling Active Participle: Definite; sound plural; masculine;  genitive. (1)44:44=1                                          الصفة المشبهة:بر وزن فَعِيْلٌ بمعنى فاعل-مجرور-واحد مذكر  
14

Verbal noun/Noun: Definite; Singular; Masculine; genitive.  (1)5:02(2)5:62(3) 6:120(4)24:11(5)42:37(6)53:32=6                                                           اسم :معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر

 
15 Noun: Definite; Singular; Masculine; accusative. (1)5:63(2)6:120(3)7:33=3

         اسم :معرفہ باللام-منصوب-واحد مذكر

 
16 Prepositional Phrase + Possessive Phrase: بـِ Inseparable  preposition + Verbal noun/Noun: Definite; Singular; Masculine; genitive + Suffixed Personal Pronoun: First person; masculine; singular in genitive state. (1)5:29=1 جار و مجرور + الإِضَافَةُ

                  بـِ حرف جر + اسم :معرفہ -مجرور-واحد مذكر/مضافضمير متصل-واحد متكلم في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 
17 Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable  preposition + Noun: Definite; Singular; Masculine; genitive. (1)2:85(2)2:188(3)2:206(4)58:08(5)58:09=5

         جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + اسم :معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر

 
18

Verbal noun: Indefinite; nominative. (1)52:23=1                                      مصدر:  مرفوع

 
19 Verbal noun: Indefinite; accusative. (1)56:25=1                                    مصدرمنصوب  
20 Prepositional Phrase:  Inseparable  preposition + Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; genitive. (1)5:03=1               جار و مجرور= حرف جر + اسم :معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر