Root: ل ى ل

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur’ān:

a) Total occurrences: 92 

b) No of constructions: 14 All Nouns

Classical Arabic lexicons state:

(مقاييس اللغة)

اللام والياء واللام كلمة، وهي اللَّيل: خِلافُ النهار

لسان العرب)
اللَّيْلُ: عقيب النهار ومَبْدَؤُه من غروب الشمس. التهذيب: اللَّيْلُ ضد النهار واللَّيْلُ ظلام الليل والنهارُ الضِّياءُ

(القاموس المحيط)
اللَّيْلُ واللَّيْلاةُ: من مَغْرِبِ الشمسِ إلى طُلوعِ الفَجْرِ الصادِقِ أو الشمسِ

That it signifies the night contra. of the day; that it is night following the day and it starts with the setting of the Sun and ends towards the appearance of the true dawn or emergence of the Sun on horizon. Its distinction is darkness from the light and heat of the day.

Lane Lexicon

Classical Lexicons

Semantic Domain: Physical Cosmology.

Alteration of night and day is one of the unique phenomenon of our universe. Allah the Exalted, the setter of the sciences, has explicitly elaborated the phenomenon with the choice of words that it equally appeals to the intelligibility of a common man and the scientists who observe natural phenomena in depth.

Allah the Exalted has defined the features that delineate night and day from each other:

  • And Our Majesty have rendered the Night and the Day as two symbols-signs-physical realities-reckonings.

  • Therefore, for reckoning, We have obscured - blotted out the symbol of Night;

  • And We have assigned the symbol-reckoning of the Day by rendering it illuminant, observing, spectator, that makes itself perceptible to: the faculty of observation.

  • The purpose of making the day illuminant is that you people might engage in the pursuit of sustenance-livelihood from your Sustainer Lord;

  • And so that with these two educatory manifestations you people might reckon-know the count-number of the solar years and other calculations, equations and assessments.

  • Observe; Our Majesty have made each physical-material reality as vividly distinct: demarcated-isolated-alienated-crystal clear, in classification manner: each is an isolated enclave quite distinct from another. [17:12]

Recognition of Night is that it is blotted out, it is obscured. Word choice is such that it does not signify absolute darkness. The reckoning of the day is rendered: a Form-IV feminine active participle, signifying that it renders the detailed features of things explicit for the visual faculty of an observer. As against the day, objects will not be observable in details by the focusing of fovea by a person on any object/point during night.

  • He the Exalted is the One Who has appointed for you people the Night as time duration of rest-stillness during it, and the Day as provider of brightness and vision;

  • It is a fact that in it tangible manifestations are evidently reflective of Divine Providence and Will for such people who attentively listen. [10:67]

 

  • Have they not noticed that Our Majesty have rendered the Night as a time-duration for their rest/stillness in it, and the Day as provider of brightness and vision.

  • Indeed in it are explicit manifestations reflective for people who wish to perceive/recognize the Divine Providence and Will. [27:86]

 

  • Allah the Exalted is the One Who has appointed-rendered the Night as a time-duration for your rest-stillness in it, and the Day as provider of brightness and vision;

  • Indeed Allah the Exalted is possessor of bounty showered for people,

  • But most of the people do not appreciate/recognize/express gratitude. [40:61]

The beginning and phases of the night

The Night is the beginning of the Day of Muslim Calendar. The believers are directed to start their day by communal demonstration of their allegiance as subjects to their Sustainer Lord through a Protocol designated as: . And the calendar day starts at:

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] organize-maintain the assembly for Ass-sa'laat: Protocol of Servitude and allegiance for the point in time of smooth declining and disappearing  of the Sun up to the boundary of night getting cool and darker.

  • And accomplish compiling the Book at the time of true dawn;

  • It is a fact that the compilation of the book at true dawn to rising of the Sun has been a witnessed affair. [17:78]

: It is a Prepositional Phrase coupled with Possessive Phrase. : The verbal noun signifies a state of smooth declining and disappearing of Sun on the horizon and smoothly. The Sun declines and touches/rubs the horizon and smoothly disappears whereby the night starts. In simple terms it signifies Sunset described by a common word:

  • Therefore, remain coolly perseverant upon what they say - slander

  • And express glory with praises of your Sustainer Lord before the Sun rise and before her setting;

  • And during hours of the night of long duration, if not sleeping then state repetitively praises; and at the extremities - time zones of the Day so that you feel comfortable - heart satisfied. [20:130]

 

  • Therefore, remain coolly perseverant upon what they say - slander

  • And express glory with praises of your Sustainer Lord before the Sunrise and before the Sunset [50:39]

The use of phrase: دُلُوكُ الشمس instead of: غُرُوبُ الشمس also contains information that the Sun does not set along a vertical line but at an angle. It is because of the Earth's tilt. The path of the Sun is curved, tilted relative to the horizon.

The permissible duration for performing the: is indicated by a prepositional phrase coupled with possessive: relating to preceding verb. Preposition: is used spatiotemporally and its general meaning is directional towards an object signifying the end point and start of a different spatiotemporal reference. The terminating point in time is when the night enters into phase signified by: : the darkening and cooling of the night.

: Towards the point in time of the darkening and cooling of the Night, this ends civil twilight when the geometric centre of Sun has reached 6 degree below the horizon. And this duration is described earlier by these words: : early moments of the Night.

  • And you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] organize- make people stand for As'salat: Protocol of Servitude and allegiance during the two visual transitions- edges [Solar ephemeris] of the bright day. And organize As'salat at approaching moments: twilight segment of the night [after sun set-17:78]  [Ref 11:114]

This phase and onward flow of night also finds mention:

  • Therefore to reiterate I swear by the twilight glow, [84:16]

  • And by the night and by that which has enveloped it;

  • And by the Moon, when it has made itself become full/complete; [84:18]

The subject of transitive verb can either be taken as the Night or the Relative Pronoun of which it is the relative clause. The verb is from Root: و س ق. Ibn Faris [died-1005] stated that the expression leads to the perception of to load with, freight with, pickup, gather: lift somebody or something up. It is used only twice in these two ayahs in relation to the Moon.  

Later the night becomes darkened and calmed staying as such for a considerable length of time, and it is paired with the brightened and hot part of the day:

  • And swearing by the brightened Day; [93:01]

  • And by the Night when it has darkened and calmed; [93:02]

This part of the night has plural number of patches that render things veiled by darkness:

  • [humiliation will overwhelm them] As if their faces had been veiled by patches of night, rendering them darkened black. [Refer 10:27]

Thereafter comes a single patch of night which is given a specific name.

  • They (Angel Messengers) consoled him saying: "O Luet [alai'his'slaam], indeed We are the Messengers of your Sustainer Lord; it will never be possible for them to encroach towards you.

 

  • Therefore, you travel with your household, in a patch of the Night [illusory dawn-54:34]; Take note, not a single one of you people should look back [to see the happenings behind]

  • Take along your household except your wife. Indeed the same infliction is for her which will strike them.

  • Indeed their appointed time is the true dawn.

  • Is the true dawn not so near! [11:81]

 

  • Therefore you travel with your family in a patch of the Night: illusory dawn; and you follow them remaining on their back-posterior;

  • And none of you people should look back; and you all keep going through the course you people have been advised to follow." [15:65]

Afterwards it did happen:

  • Our Majesty had thus conveyed to him that this is the verdict-command

  • That the back-posterity of these be cut-annihilated when they enter the true dawn. [15:66]

 

  • Thereby, the sound blast seized them when were awaking at true dawn. [15:73]

Words: and: are used in synonymous meanings signifying true dawn with reference to eastern side and rising state of the Sun.

The cut-part from the night is in between the night and: the dawn that emerges and is start of daybreak. What is the specific name of this patch of night?

 

  • It is a fact that Our Majesty had sent upon them that which pelts rock fragments-volcanic ash.

  • Except that it did not fall upon the followers of Luet [alai'his'slaam].

  • We had already rescued them at the time of illusory dawn - a part cut-distinguished from night. [54:34] 

سَحَرٌ : It is a part segmented from the night on the brim of which is: the dawn. This word is derived from Root: س ح ر and like its basic signification of illusion and turning a thing from one manner to another manner, the time of سَحَرٌ  is also short lived. It can cause optic illusion of dawn because of the presence of zodiacal light-astronomical twilight up in the sky. This begins when the Sun is 18 degree below the horizon and persists for the time it reaches 12 degree below horizon when the night terminates-about turns and: occurs and life starts thriving. 

  • And swearing is by the Night when it has about turned;  [81:17]

  • And by the true dawn when it: life has made- transformed itself breathe- energize -photosynthesized; [81:18]

Most plants initiate the process of photosynthesis at true dawn and take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen in the atmosphere. Mostly the duration of سَحَرٌ (also termed by most as: صبح كاذب false dawn) is about 34 minutes. Its short span is also understood from the advice given to Luet alai'his'slaam and his companions while leaving the city at: سَحَرٌ not to look back because a horribly disturbing scene was about to appear: when they would not have gone much far off from the city. The extremity of night is described in these words:

  • And by the Night when it has reached its extremity and about-faced [74:33]

The night ends - about-faces when the centre of Sun is 12 degree below the horizon, and a new solar day - a new morning: starts - breaths.

Like the mentioning of start of night by words: دُلُوكُ الشمس instead of: غُرُوبُ الشمس the end of night and initiation of day is mentioned by the delicate line - instance:

  • And you people eat and drink during the night till the horizontal white line renders itself for you people distinguishable emerging from unfolding of the day - daybreakdelineated from the horizontal line-layer of black-obscure colour;

  • Thereafter, you are directed to complete the fast spatiotemporally towards the setting in of night -Sun set: beginning of a new lunar day. [refer 2:187]

The theme of Ayah is the sex and eating related activities during specific time location [مفعول فيه]locative time adverb is: : the night of fasting.

It is ordered to undertake these activities during the flow of night towards a specific point in time when these activities must be terminated. The terminal point of time in the flow of night towards unfolding of the day is: : This is the subordinate clause of the preceding verbs. Particle: broadly functions as Preposition meaning "until", "to the point of", "up to", "as for as". It either precedes a noun or a sentence. The subjunctive verb occurs only in subordinate clauses. It indicates an act which is dependant upon that mentioned in the previous clause, and future to it in point of time. The verb: is third person, singular, masculine, mood subjunctive of form-V to which reflexive causative meanings are associated. Its subject is: : the horizontal line which is characteristically white - luminous. The action that it may do is for the benefit of: for you people.

The verb: signifies the rendering of the subject to become distinguishable and perceptible as distinct from something else in its surroundings or background for an observer. Here: becomes distinguishable: from the horizontal line which is characteristically black - dark - obscure.

The subject of verb: is from Root:  خ ى ط. Ibn Faris [died-1005] stated that it leads to the perception of stretching, lengthening a thing thinly. And that this stretching, expansion is not vertical, erect. And that it is well known, a needle. Thus the adjectival phrase: excludes the vertical feature from its semantic ambit.

This is the instance when: فَجْرٌ starts and its specific name is:  the true dawn. The point is further clarified by the addition of circumstantial clause for the subject of verb by prepositional phrase: that it is emerging horizontally from the "unfolding of the day - daybreak". The definite verbal/noun of action: is from Root:  ف ج ر. Ibn Faris [died-1005] stated that it signifies the state of blossoming, efflorescence, blooming, unfolding of an object,  and from it is: الفَجْر the daybreak which is: انفِجار الظُّلمة عن الصُّبح rupturing of darkness caused by true dawn.

The basic requirement of command expressions is that it must be explicit for the common people to perceive the intended meanings. The choice of word: excludes atmospheric optical phenomenon in the form of a vertical band of light which appears to extend above and/or below a light source which is termed as Light Pillar. A column of light can become visible in atmosphere. Its source can either by Sun when it is near or below the horizon or it could be caused by the Moon. This phenomenon is caused by interaction of light with ice crystals in the atmosphere.

: Its Root is ص  ب  ح. It signifies day break; it is the time when day becomes distinguishable and visible. It conveys the perception and meaning of the point of beginning. It reflects a visible position. Therefore it is used to call someone as beautiful, pretty or elegant peculiarly in the face, bright in the face. مُصبِج is the one who enters at the time of morning. اصبَجَ means hairy one with whiteness naturally intermixed in it with redness, shining hair.

This Root signifies comets:

  • It is a fact that Our Majesty have adorned the Sky of the Lowly World-Earth with the attraction-beauty of the Planets. [37:06]

 

  • And Our Majesty have indeed decorated the lowest Sky of Earth with Comets

  • And We have rendered them (comets) a source of stone-hurling for the Shai'teen [Evil Ones -Satans amongst species Jinn who rise in upper atmosphere to listen something]  [refer 67:05]

In old times, people observed certain objects appearing suddenly in the sky and behaving differently from planets. From their appearance they gave them the Greek name "Komet" meaning "hairy one, hair of the head". And today we call them "Comet", an astronomical object with long tail.

Man knows about "comets" for the last 2500 years and has observed and recorded about 2000 comets. At the time of revelation of Qur’ān, the appearance of large comets was regarded as atmospheric phenomenon and same was the perception of Aristotle. It was not regarded as celestial bodies.

"Appearances of large comets were regarded as atmospheric phenomena until 1577, when Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe proved that they were celestial bodies. In the 17th century British scientist Isaac Newton demonstrated that the movements of comets are subject to the same laws that control the planets in their orbits.

[source: Pasachoff, Jay M. "Comet." Microsoft® Encarta® 2006 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005".

 
Grand Qur’ān had clarified 1400 years back that it were celestial bodies like the planets.

The Arabic word is much more reflective with great precision to describe the object than the word "komet" assigned by the Greeks. It becomes visible only when it reaches near the Sun.

How: dawn occurs, what is the process involved? It is equated with splitting of the seed and stone in endocarp:

  • The fact is that Allah the Exalted is the Splitter of the grain seed and the stone in endocarp. [refer 6:95]

 

  • Further know, He the Exalted is the Splitter of the dawns rendering it manifested - emerged. [refer 6:96]

: Active participle from Root: ف ل ق. Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated in مقاييس اللغة:


الفاء واللام والقاف أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على فُرْجةٍ وبَيْنُونةٍ في الشيء، وعلى تعظيمِ شيء.

That it leads to the perception of fissure and split, division, separation, triangular spacing-aperture-gap, disunion in a thing; and to express exaltation for a thing.

Lane's Lexicon: inf. n. فَلْقٌ He split it, clave it, or divided it lengthwise;

Neither Ibn Faris [died 1005] was expert in physical cosmology nor I know even basic knowledge about it. But experts may find the basic concept of this Root relevant to how the orbits work.

With the passage of little more time reveals all its features - becomes prominently visible:

  • And by the Dawn when it has become prominent/evident [74:34]

This happens when the Sun has shifted from 12 degree below the horizon to 8.5 degree below the horizon. It provides the same level of illumination on the surface of the Earth as a full Moon directly overhead.

From this point onwards the daybreak continues: until the daybreak - Sun emerges on the horizon.

Recap journey of night

1. دُلُوكُ الشمس  = غُرُوبُ الشمس

2.  : the darkening and cooling of the night =  : early moments of the Night.

3.

4.

5.

6. Dark patches of night.

7. سَحَرٌ: Last patch of night;

8. When the Night has about-faced

9.  When the Night has about-faced

10. : It indicates instance - the moment in Last Patch of night: سَحَرٌ when night has about-faced and horizontal white line renders itself distinguishable emerging: from: unfolding of the day - daybreak—it is : True dawn—the time of start of Fasting and: .

11.

12. =  

 
1

Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; genitive. (1)2:164(2)2:187(3)3:27(4)3:113(5) 3:190(6)6:13(7)10:06(8)10:27(9)11:81(10)11:114(11)15:65(12)17:12(13)17:78(14)17:79(15)20:130 (16)22:61(17)23:80(18)31:29(19)34:33(20)35:13(21)39:05(22)39:09(23)45:05(24)50:40(25)51:17(26) 52:49(27)57:06(28)73:06(29)73:20(30)74:33(31)76:26(32)81:17(33)84:17(34)89:04(35)91:04(36) 92:01(37)93:02=37          

                                                                          إسمُ الجِنْسِ :معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر

 
2

Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; accusative. (1)3:27(2)6:96(3)7:54(4)10:67(5) 13:03(6)14:33(7)16:12(8)17:12(9)21:20(10)21:33(11)22:61(12)24:44(13)25:47(14)25:62(15)27:86(16) 28:71(17)28:73(18)31:29(19)35:13(20)39:05(21)40:61(22)57:06(23)73:02(24)73:20(25)78:10=25

                                                                                                       إسمُ الجِنْسِ :معرفہ باللام-منصوب-واحد مذكر

 
3

Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; nominative. (1)6:76(2)36:37(3)36:40(4) 41:37=4                                                                                           إسمُ الجِنْسِ :معرفہ باللام-مرفوع-واحد مذكر

 
4

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable  preposition + Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; singular; genitive. (1)2:274(2)6:60(3)13:10(4)21:42(5)30:23(6)37:138(7) 41:38=7        

                                        جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + إسمُ الجِنْسِ :معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر

 
5

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable  preposition + Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; singular; genitive.(1)28:72=1   جار و مجرور= بـِ حرف جر + إسمُ الجِنْسِ :مجرور-واحد مذكر

 
6

Generic Noun: Indefinite; broken plural; feminine; genitive. (1)19:10(2)69:07(3) 89:02=3                                                                                                         إسمُ الجِنْسِ :-مجرور-جمع  مؤنث

 
7

Generic Noun: Indefinite; broken plural; feminine; genitive.(1)34:18=1

                                                                                                                      إسمُ الجِنْسِ :-مجرور-جمع  مؤنث

 
8

Generic Noun: Definite; Masculine; accusative. (1)10:24(2)17:01(3)44:23(4)71:05 (5)76:26=5                                                                                                      إسمُ الجِنْسِ :منصوب-واحد مذكر

 
9

Noun; Indefinite; Feminine; singular; accusative.  (1)2:51(2)7:142(3)7:142=3

                                                                                                                                  إسم:منصوب-واحد مؤنث

 
10

Noun; Indefinite; Feminine; singular; accusative. (1)2:187=1 إسم:منصوب-واحد مؤنث

 
11

Noun; Indefinite; Feminine; singular; genitive. (1)44:03=1         إسم:مجرور-واحد مؤنث

 
12

Noun; Indefinite; Feminine; singular; genitive. (1)97:01=1          إسم:مجرور-واحد مؤنث

 
13

Noun; Indefinite; Feminine; singular; nominative. (1)97:02(2)97:03=2

                                                                                                                                   إسم:مرفوع-واحد مؤنث

 
14

Possessive Phrase: Noun: Definite; singular; Masculine; accusative + Possessive pronoun: Third person; Singular; Feminine in genitive state (1)79:29=1

             الإِضَافَةُ-إسمُ الجِنْسِ :منصوب-واحد مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل واحد مؤنث غائب  في محل جر-مضاف إليه