Active Participles in Grand Qur'aan

Alphabetically arranged


* Active Participle is a derivative noun which means that it is derived from another word.

** Active Participle signifies the person, creature or thing/object that performs the action associated with the verb from which it is derived. Arabic Participles describe or refer to entities involved in an activity, process, or state.

*** One of the unique feature of an Active participle is that it has a verbal quality. It signifies that it has the same meaning as the Active Voice Verb and can even govern words in the same manner as a verb governs in a sentence. Like a verb, the pronoun of the subject will either be visible or concealed. In the Active Participle, however, the pronoun will be considered visible whenever the Active Participle containing the pronoun precedes a Subject in a sentence. When the Active Participle containing a pronoun follows the subject, the pronouns will be considered concealed. 

Derivation of the Active Participle.

The Active Participles are formed from the Present Tense form of the verb according to specific rules. The Present Tense in turn is derived from the Past Tense which is derived from the Verbal Noun [مصدر]. The pattern of derivation of Active Participle from the Three Letter Primary Verb-Form-I is فَاعِلٌ.  For the other Forms (II-X), the pattern is to prefix ( مـُ ) to the stem. The stem vowel on the second radical is always Kasra. An exception to that is for pattern IX, which has to be FatHa

The active participle structures are two types, a simple, basic type that is derived from triliteral perfective verbs (form I verbs), and a "meemic" type (begins with a mu- prefix) that is derived from the rest of the verb forms

The meemic active participles are relatively complex structures that are hard to "break" and remake into irregular plurals (though it is possible to add to them an augmentative tied taa<). This is why those are pluralized primarily via the regular plural suffixes when they refer to male humans (and infrequently via the addition of an augmentative tied taa<).

On the other hand, the non-meemic active participles that are derived from triliteral verbs and refer to male humans have two situations: the ones that are functioning as participles or adjectives take the masculine plural ending, whereas those functioning as non-adjective agent nouns are irregularly pluralized.

Functions and meanings

The Active participle governs with the government of a verb, if it has the meaning of the present or future tense and is supported by the subject [Mubtada]. Or it is supported by the word associated with the Hal [Zil Hal]. Or it is supported by the interrogative hamza. Or supported by the particle of negation-Ma. Or it is supported by a noun modified by an adjective.

If the Active Participle signifies the meaning of past tense, Idhafa is required.

As for when the Active Participle is defined by Lam, then all tenses are equal. 

There is one important exception to the measure I Active Participle. Sometimes you will encounter an active participle that follows the pattern فَعَّال . This pattern is used for occupations or skills that involve using hands for work.

Fawaid 2:50

See Tasreef 2 Page 342

A particular adverbial function of AP is their use in the Hall or circumstantial accusative construction. The AP is used to describe additional circumstances of a verbal action, coordinating a state or circumstances with the action denoted by the verb. The AP used in the Hall structure agrees with the doer or sometimes with the object of action in number and gender, but is always in the accusative state.

AP + Noun object

If the Hall AP is from a transitive verb it may take an object in the accusative case.

Arabic Participles describe or refer to entities involved in an activity, process, or state.

The participles have no fixed time reference. This has to be interpreted from the context.

In form,  Participles are substantives, that is they inflect as nouns or adjectives [for case, gender, number, definiteness]. In terms of their function, however, they may serve as nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or even verb substitutes.

The meanings of AP and PP are directly related to their descriptive nature and the verb from which they derive.

Used as an adjective, the AP acts as a descriptive term. As a predicate-adjective it may serve as a verb substitute, as in Huwa Musafirun. "He is travelling". Such APs, Jalisun, Zahibun,  are often used to indicate an on-going, simultaneous, or imminent action or state, having a meaning close to the verb in imperfect tense. They may then correspond to the English present participle, progressive present, or future.