Inimitability of Grand Qur’ān - The Infinitely Reliable Book

The exalted Messenger Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam], while introducing and delivering the superb Discourse, titled Qur’ān, did not claim to be its author, its composer or editor or co-contributor of some of its content. He declared that it was sent and presented to him, and then verbally orated - communicated to him for onward communication and delivery to its audience, and that it is solely the Intellectual Property of Allah the Exalted. The Divine Origin of Qur’ān is the reason for its inimitability. The inimitability of Grand Qur’ān is used as the irrefutable evidence to argue and establish its Thesis Statement that the great of creations Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] is the Messenger - Spokesperson of Allah the Exalted for its audience in time-space until the Last Day of the Universe.

We have heard and read much about the inimitability of Grand Qur’ān, but that were mostly with reference to the art of writing a book. We will discuss it with reference to the proclamations in Qur’ān and by its unique characteristics highlighted in its discourse that render it all time exalted and sublime book. We will also refer in our study to the criteria of evaluation of books that render a book great to see the uniqueness and sublimity of Grand Qur’ān in every aspect. Inimitability means impossible to imitate because of being unique. Only that book can be called inimitable, in true sense of the term, which is infinitely reliable, whereby all other available books would stand grouped into a single family as "other than Grand Qur’ān". Greater the level of reliability; easier is it to translate and comprehend a book.

Firstly, we should refer to the universal perception and generally agreed characteristics and definition of a book and its purpose; and find the perception and meanings of its equivalent word in Arabic: . Thereafter, we will study introduction of the Grand Qur’ān at  its very outset as the Infinitely Reliable Book and then the reason and evidence of this feature.

Encyclopedia Britannica describes a book: [quoted with thanks]

"Although the form, content, and provisions for making books have varied widely during their long history, some constant characteristics may be identified. The most obvious is that a book is designed to serve as an instrument of communication —the purpose of such diverse forms as the Babylonian clay tablet, the Egyptian papyrus roll, the medieval vellum or parchment codex, the printed paper codex (most familiar in modern times), microfilm, and various other media and combinations.

The second characteristic of the book is its use of writing or some other system of visual symbols (such as pictures or musical notation) to convey meaning. A third distinguishing feature is publication for tangible circulation. A temple column with a message carved on it is not a book nor is a sign or placard, which, though it may be easy enough to transport, is made to attract the eye of the passerby from a fixed location. Nor are private documents considered books.

A book may be defined, therefore, as a written (or printed) message of considerable length, meant for public circulation and recorded on materials that are light yet durable enough to afford comparatively easy portability. Its primary purpose is to announce, expound, preserve, and transmit knowledge and information between people, depending on the twin faculties of portability and permanence. Books have attended the preservation and dissemination of knowledge in every literate society." [Unquote]

: Arabic equivalent of book is derived from Root " ك ث ب". The learned Lexicographers stated about the perception and signification infolded in the Root as under.

Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الكاف والتاء والباء أصلٌ صحيح واحد يدلُّ على جمع شيءٍ إلى شيءٍ. من ذلك الكِتَابُ والكتابة. يقال: كتبت الكتابَ أكْتبه كَتْباً

ويقولون كتبتُ البَغلَة، إذا جمعتُ شُفرَي رَحِمها بحَلْقة

ومن الباب الكِتَابُ وهو الفَرْضُ. قال الله تعالى: كُتِبَ علَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ [البقرة 183]

That  it leads to the perception of gathering, grouping, assembly, adjoining a thing with other thing. Thereby, it means the book and writing a book. And it denotes conjoining the oræ of the mule's vulva by means of a ring or a thong. And this semantic domain signifies prescribing and ordaining.

Lane Lexicon transcribes the contents of Classical Arabic Lexicons in English in these words:

Hence, كَتَبَ البَغْلَةَ, aor. كَتُبَ and كَتِبَ , inf. n. كَتْبٌ, He conjoined the oræ of the mule's vulva by means of a ring or a thong; (S;) as also كَتَبَ عَلَيْهَا. (A.) كَتَبَ, aor. كَتُبَ and كَتِبَ , inf. n. كَتْبٌ; and كَتَبَ عَلَيْهَا;  He closed the camel's vulva,  and put a ring upon it:  or he put a ring of iron or the like upon it,  conjoining the oræ, in order that she might not be covered. -b3- كَتَبَ, aor. كَتُبَ , inf. n. كَتْبٌ;  and ↓ اكتتب ; He sewed a قِرْبَة, or a سِقَآء, (K,) or a مَزَادَة, with two thongs: or, accord. to some, he closed it at the mouth, by binding it round with a وِكَاء, so that nothing [of its contents] should drop from it; [as also ↓ اكتب :] or كتب signifies he sewed a قربة; and ↓ اكتب , he bound it with a وكآء, i. e. bound it round the upper part.

 كِتَابِىٌّ.] كِتَابٌ  [inf. n. of 1, q. v. ― - as a subst.,] A thing in which, or on which, one writes: [a book:] a written piece of paper or [a record, or register; and a written mandate;] of skin: a writing, or writ, or thing written;---[unquote]

It is thus evident that whatever is the context and whatever is the morphology of a word, which originates from this Root, the basic meaning and signification shall be:  : يدلُّ على جمع شيءٍ إلى شيءٍit leads to the perception of gathering, grouping, assembly, adjoining a thing with other thing. An act has a built in purpose/objective aimed at. It were/is employed to convey the perception and meanings of conjoining the os [plural ora/mouth opening] of she-camel’s vulva by means of a ring or thong in order to close the opening. The objective is that an unknown male, without the will of her owner, might not cover her in owner's absence. Its perception and meaning is to bring the mouth of some container together to conjoin it and sew it.

It thereby signifies the act of writing or inscribing and denotes a book. It may be seen that in the act of writing [particularly Arabic text] and making a book, the basic perception of the Root is conspicuously dominant. Writing is nothing except to bring closer the letters-consonants of the alphabet of a language and stitching-sewing them together. It yields a word of meaningful import and grouping or assembly of words produces sentences. The gathering of sentences yields number of papers-parchments-scroll depending on the quantum of written material.

Like the purpose of stitching the mouth of some receptacle-container; the purpose of writing is to keep the speech-communication preserved and to transmit information and knowledge between people.

The basic purpose of conjoining the mouth of she-camel's vulva is to ensure protection from the unwanted/undesirable entry into it, without the will of the owner when he is absent from her.  The same objective is there when a person authors-put down his statement-thoughts in writing, whereby none can pollute - intermix any thing in that written matter/thought in time and space since it is physically available for reference and visual check.

The difference, between: قول with meanings of an oral statement and: كتاب a book is that the former is the sound a person:   throws out of collection in his mouth. It scatters in air and eventually diminishes, though it may not vanish in reality. On the contrary, if the same thing which one has orally stated is put in writing [placed in a receptacle, conjoined and sewn together] it will become safe and lasting. The psyche of oral utterances [افواه] is also that it quickly spreads and scatters in the society. This is diametrically opposite to the concept and perception of Arabic Root and word: كتاب. Therefore, oral - verbal communication is not of a permanent value in time and space since only those could hear it in whose ears it had created vibrations. The people far away and the posterity are to hear the voice of the Author and the Relater that is embedded in the assembly of words and sentences of the Book.

The basic objective of conjoining os of she-camel’s vulva is to avoid entrance of undesirable matter in the absence and without the will of the owner. People are bound to add matter of their own perceptions while transmitting oral utterances forward in time and space. On the contrary, if that person had also put it in writing, his utterance would go into confinement in a conjoined and static state; and would thus reach people exactly in the words he had articulated.

The writing of the spoken matter results in inscription fixedly attached or engraved on paper or tablet and covers a space. Anything, letter, treatise, book on having been put into writing attains the attribute of existence and permanence retaining its originality and purity, being the same for everyone in time and space for understanding, perceiving the words/statement/utterances/hadith of the author. Hence, it conveys the meanings: "to prescribe, ordain, make mandatory/obligatory".

The basic perception of Root: ك ت ب is to conjoin and sew together; and ultimate objective of: the book is to conjoin and sew people together making them a unit, homogeneous fraternity.

A nation-fraternity comes into being only when there is a book; a social contract or a constitution. Let us admit affectionately that no language of the world can match the Arabic, the language of the guide lord of humanity, the Last universal Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the elevated and praised uninterruptedly.

We will never find a better definition and comprehensive account as to what a book is than the factual information infolded in just three consonants of Arabic language sequenced as "ک ت ب". The best language is obviously the one that conveys volumes of information in few words. A quote from Language, its nature, development and origin by Otto Jespersen: "That language ranks highest which goes farthest in the art of accomplishing much with the little means, OR, in other words, which is able to express the greatest amount of meaning with the simplest mechanism".

Grand Qur’ān is introduced in unique literary style.

Experts and educationists, while teaching about how to read a book, suggest that in critical reading x-raying a book is necessary to grasp its structure. They lay the rule that the reader should be able to state the unity of whole book in a single sentence or at most in a short paragraph. This means discovering the main theme or main point of the book. The majority of critical readers can arrive to this grasp only after reading the whole book. Grand Qur’ān is unique; it is rendered facilitative for the reader in all aspects relating to critical reading. The whole structure and the main theme are described in the introductory sentence:

  • Alif; The First Letter not consonant, of Arabic alphabet ( أبجدية عربية‎): it has no speech sound; Laa'm and Mee'm: Two consonants of Arabic alphabet conjoined-stitched together and both have above them an ancillary glyph-prolongation sign-mark called "Madda" which means and extends-stretches the sound value of the letter to which it is added.  [2:01]

  • This is the Book, you will find reading it that its contents are absolutely void of peeving substance: suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, ambiguous, anomalous, irrational, un-certain, illusory, unsubstantiated, incongruous, biased and opinionated matter.

  • This Book is a Guide-Manual for those who sincerely endeavour to attain salvation. [2:02]

The Grand Qur’ān is introduced in a unique literary manner reflecting as if the speaker is delivering a sermon, a long lecture. It begins not by a word of verbal content - speech but by mentioning the fundamental fact which is the basic and foremost tool for the emergence of a book. The basic and foremost tools of a book are the letters, consonants and diacritic marks-symbols of a language. All other constituents for the formation of a book are secondary in the thought of there having a book.

Sequencing of Divine Discourse for translation purposes is exactly like the Messenger RNA molecule in human genome. Not all regions of a messenger RNA molecule correspond to particular amino acids. In particular, there is an area near the 5' end of the molecule that is known as the un-translated region (UTR) or leader sequence. This portion of mRNA is located between the first nucleotide that is transcribed and the start codon (AUG) of the coding region, and it does not affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein. So, what is the purpose of the UTR? It turns out that the leader sequence is important because it contains a ribosome-binding site.

After the first Chapter: Segment called: literally denoting; "an Enclave of superiority and elevation-Ascending Leap", there is a small binding-site, one Ayah: , which is not translatable because it comprises of only letters of alphabet and diacritical mark, but has no syllable, vowel. Arabic is a language of syllables, comprising of at least a consonant and a vowel producing a meaningful sound and verbal proposition which is translatable.

The teaching experts say that in order to read one must follow a sequence of characters arranged in a particular spatial order. Text of some languages flows from left to right like English, for example. And Chinese text flows from top to bottom. Therefore, the reader must know the pattern and use it consistently. The First Ayah is indicative of the fact that the Book in hand is written in language whose text flows from right to left.  

The basic requirement to acquire the ability to read a book of any language is to acquaint oneself with the sound and manner of shaping-drawing of the letters [حروف الهجاء] of its Alphabet. Each letter [حرف] is a specific image-symbol-sign-physical entity. It relays distinct and cognizable sound articulated with the help of sound articulators and ejected-thrown out of one's mouth, successively in piecemeal.

An alphabet attempts ideally to indicate separate sound by a separate symbol. The next step is to know the conjoining/combining/sewing/compiling together of the letters/consonants which creates words with a distinct sound having predetermined perception/meanings. The words are then structured into phrases and sentences to convey ideas, thoughts,  feelings, data, information, knowledge, news, concepts and perceptions for the listener or the reader. These sentences eventually compile what is called:  and: a book; written reading matter-substance, emanating from  Root: "ك ث ب" and: "ق ر ء " respectively.

This unique style of introducing the Book with a letter and consonants indicates that its writing style is not "Scriptio continua" which was the prevalent style in most of other languages of the world during the period of revelation of Grand Qur’ān. The pronouncement of letter and then the consonants with diacritic mark; and thereafter the introductory words with vowels reflects a natural distancing and space between words as well as between communication of "units of thought" for clarity of understanding by the listener and reader.

The First Ayah reflects that the Book in hand is in the language that has letters and other marks representing that its writing system is letter-diacritic combination based. It results in the combination of sounds that form a syllable rather than a single sound.

Arabic alphabet has 29 parts. It comprises of one Letter and 28 Consonants. [The word Qur’ān at all places of its occurrence appears with distinct hamza and alif]. Fourteen Letters out of 29 [28 consonants and Aleph is letter without speech] have been used in different combinations in 29 Sura [equal to the total number of letters of Arabic language] of Grand Qur’ān. In 19 Suras, there are 20 complete Aa'ya'at comprising only of letters and prolongation sign and in 10 Suras these are the initial part of the Aa'ya'at. One letter has two styles ه and ـهـ. [Refer 19:01 and 20:01] Letter ھ is used only in the beginning and middle of a word and ه is not used as such, it is only at the end; isolated or conjoined/attached.

The first Ayah of Grand Qur’ān reflects that the style of handwriting/written Arabic is cursive which means that most of the letters within a word connect to the adjacent letters. Arabic style has a substantially different shape of letters. It depends on whether it will be connecting with a preceding and/or a succeeding letter. Thus, all primary letters have conditional forms for their glyphs, depending on whether they are at the beginning, middle or end of a word, and resultantly they may exhibit four distinct forms (initial, medial, final or isolated). However, six letters have only isolated or final form, these are أ,د,ذ,ر,ز,و and so force the following letter, if any, to take an initial or isolated form, as if there were a word break.

Letter, and consonants coupled with diacritic combinations-vowels produce composite speech sound and that is a "word", an expression conveying a specific perception and meanings. The First Ayah of Grand Qur’ān does not contain what is termed as "vowel". It shows that consonants and vowels are two different entities, the latter being something which is secondary and subsequent in taking actual existence and appearance. The vibration of an apparatus, given the name “Vocal Cord” quite recently, first produces the sound of consonants.  However, way back Qur’ān gave more specific description: حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ the Cord that makes reach the thought-idea to a point where the limit of another place start-auditory apparatus of listener. Thereafter, the tongues create the vowel sounds or we can say “vowelization” takes place afterwards.

The auditory distinguishing of the vowels depends on the precise shape and volume of the oral cavity, the region of the vocal tract between the larynx and the opening of the mouth. Main organ involved in adjusting the shape and volume of the oral cavity is the tongue.

The phenomenon of vibration of vocal cord [ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ]  producing sound is but natural upon which man does not exercise mechanical/voluntary control by will. It  converts the idea-thought into sound that is retrieved from memory when one intends to convey it to others   However, once the sound has arrived in the mouth cavity, tongue mechanically articulates it by will and design  to "vowel-ize" the sound in the manner one may like to eject it out of the mouth.

One may be astonished to observe that the metaphors; like: حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ the Cord that makes reach the thought-idea, used in the Qur’ān to describe otherwise hidden realities are so superb that the scientists after having seen those realities in recent times had no other metaphor but almost the same to describe the phenomenon to a layman as “vocal cord”: Cord that produces speech; cord that communicates the idea to the auditory apparatus of others.

The shape of the vocal tract, and the way the human tongue manipulates, grants it the capability to wilfully take three extreme positions that lead to vowel sounds. When the body of the tongue is pushed forward and towards the roof of the mouth we get this vowel: ـِ  called: كسرةٌ carrying sound like "i" in English words "leap-neat-seat'. And this vowel on the last consonant of a word reflects its state in genitive.  In Arabic vocabulary, there is a valid word: "Raa'ina". Believers were directed to avoid using it while in the presence of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم.  The cause was the abuse of the human capability of vowelizing the sounds of consonants by some emigrant Arab-ized Jews of those days. They articulated it in such manner that some audience could perceive sound conveying meanings of little or derogatory import.

  • And they utter the word "Raa'ina-" by twisting-distorting its articulation with their tongues. [Refer 4:46]

We leave the mechanism of production of sound of consonants and vowels for the speech experts and Phonetic Laboratories. However, I wish to suggest a thought for study and experimentation. When we do not wish to say something to orally convey an idea for the auditory apparatus, the air from the lungs passes through the larynx unhindered. However, the moment we wish to say something the Vocal Cord starts hindering and forcing the air to cause vibration and produce "buzzy sound", or in other words converts the thought/ information retrieved from the memory into sound. The peculiarity of sound depends on the nature/peculiarity of vibration. Therefore, the vibration of Vocal Cord would vary to produce different sounds corresponding to the words that portray the thought/image one intends to convey through speech. Since the whole system is operating in complete harmony and coordination with remarkable speed, therefore, I presume that sound code is built-in the words/consonants, which is decoded by all those cells operating in converting idea/thought into speech.

It is good to learn that NASA has a research program aimed at developing the ability to capture, analyze, and recreate sub-vocal speech.

Introduction of the Grand Qur’ān

The first concern of a serious/critical reader is the accuracy, reliability and objectivity of the Book in hand. These concerns are satisfied only if the book is void of suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, un-certain, illusory, perplexing, biased and opinionated matter.

Grand Qur’ān is perhaps the only book that cares and respects the concern and time value of serious reader. It addresses the natural apprehension and uncertainty the reader might feel having picked up the Book in the hope and pursuit of truth:

  • This is the Book, you will find reading it that its contents are absolutely void of peeving substance: suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, ambiguous, anomalous, irrational, un-certain, illusory, unsubstantiated, incongruous, biased and opinionated matter. [ refer 2:02]

: This demonstrative pronoun is the subject of nominal sentence. A speaker/author uses demonstrative pronoun to divert and focus the attention of the addressee towards the pointed object, person or concept for assigning it a peculiarity/individuality. Visual axis focused upon an object yields its perfect perception. Therefore, any thing in the reach of the vision that has since been perceived is no more distant irrespective of its distance from the addressee. It stands introduced to the addressee. This demonstrative pronoun is a pointer-introducer of  : definite noun signifying a specific known book to the second person-the reader who has either picked it up or to whom it is presented.

Grand Qur’ān is introduced as a peculiar Book. A book contains written material; data, information, physical facts, events and conduct of the earlier generations; knowledge. It contains injunctions, instructions; procedural code, prescription of lawful and unlawful matter or conduct; segregates or demarcates one thing from another, describes the relationship of things, and elaborates the cause and effect of events/rise and fall. Moreover, a book may serve as a Guide giving permanent values and the road map for those seeking the destination.

The two words: do not convey full information for the person who picks it up at his own and to whom it is presented for reading. The prefixed definite article is: الْعَهْدُ الْحُضُورِىُّ : the thing is right in front of you, presence. Thereby, the speaker and listener know it. The book is in the hands of the Speaker/addressee or is in the process of showing/handing over to addressee, therefore, it is manifest that the intent of Speaker/Author is not limited to tell him "This is the Book" or "That is the Book" because he already knows it or is watching it on presentation. The intent is to draw his concentrated attention towards the peculiarity and distinction of its contents-miscellany which he has not yet read and  is still distant from his perception. This makes him attentive and enthusiastic to hear or read its ascription/predication.

: It is the solitary occurrence in the Grand Qur’ān. A book is introduced only once to the audience. The accepted and preferable mode of communication is that the subject of speech be the one which is already in the know of the listener/reader followed by ascription that is not in his knowledge. The Book is not presented with these words "This is the Qur’ān" where: stands as ascription to the demonstrative pronoun. Ascription is defined as the connection of one word with another wherein the listener benefits from the ascription making it proper for him to remain silent. We find mention  : later in 6:19;10:37; and 43:31.

A written piece of information is created by an author for a specific reason. The reason for writing is known as author's purpose. Understanding the purpose is closely related to the ability to identify the tone of a passage. Tone is the mood of author's written voice. Purpose and tone are established with word choice. Word choice: impresses the auditory faculty of the reader helping him recognize that he is addressed by the Majestic authority. "The Voice is the heart and soul of a book"; we will keep quite clearly hearing the "voice" of the Exalted Author and the elevated Relater, the honoured Messenger of Allah the Exalted throughout the text of Grand Qur’ān provided we attentively and critically listen and read it.  

People picking up books have different motives and inclinations, serious as well as non-serious to the extent of few for just killing the time. No other book in the world gives this much regards and respect to its individual reader as if he were the sole audience of the Book. "كَ" in demonstrative pronoun: is for second person, singular, masculine addressee who has picked up, or is presented this Book. The Book recognizes and acknowledges him as truly a truth seeker. A truth-seeker wishes to get hold of such books only which would reveal to him the information, knowledge, truth and fact and raise their level of understanding. Nevertheless, apprehension and uncertainty is always there that whether or not he will find truth and fact in the book after going through entire volume, and that it might turn out an exercise in futility and waste of time.

The first concern of a serious/critical reader is the accuracy, reliability and objectivity of the Book in hand. These concerns are satisfied only if the book is void of suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, un-certain, illusory, perplexing, biased and opinionated matter.

Grand Qur’ān is perhaps the only book that cares and respects the concern and time value of serious reader. It addresses the natural apprehension and uncertainty he might feel having picked up the Book in the hope and pursuit of truth.  It tells the reader, whoever he might be, about its peculiarity immediately after cognitive introduction- :

This is a complete nominal sentence as the first Predicate for the preceding subject: the Book-Grand Qur’ān; defining and describing the structure of the whole book. It is the substance and matter in the book that renders it great. The pursuit of perfection is, as Mathew Arnold said - "getting to know the best which has been thought and said in the world". The best is pure and certain "knowledge" in true sense of the word, not bits of information and opinions. "The Knowledge" is to know infinitely that which will never be affected or altered in time and space. "The Knowledge" is only that which is absolutely void of suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, un-certain, illusory, biased and opinionated matter. This unique and unprecedented introductory information ensures the reader that the Book in hand is infinitely reliable; thereby inimitable.

This emphatic and absolute negation of presence of any statement within the Book that might cause disturbance, disquiet, annoyance or agitation of  mind and heart helps satisfy your concern, apprehension and uncertainty regarding achieving objective of reading a book. This negation might place your mind in tranquil state since it subtly suggests that you will certainly find in the Book nothing but the established and proven truth, a source of tranquillity for the heart and mind.

However, if you claim to be a truth seeker, it has also created an obligation upon you; now you cannot refuse reading it otherwise you will expose yourself that in fact you are not a truth-seeker but a prisoner of own thoughts and passions. A truth seeker is never biased, prejudiced and whimsical. He is left with no option but to read the Book and accept its contents or venture to prove them wrong. Being claimant of truth-seeker, you have to read it. Reading of a book creates a liability and obligation upon the reader. He has either to accept its words or discard its version by a counter argument and evidence of fact negating its statement.

: It is a Negation particle, with specific characteristic النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْس : that it signifies the negation of genus; negation in absolute sense from all possible angles. Its identification is that it governs the following word and puts it in the accusative state while in default state all nouns are in nominative case/state. Here it governs the verbal noun .

: It is the subject noun of the negation particle; a Verbal/Infinitive noun, in Arabic terminology مصدر . It is a noun signifying action and state only. It is the source from where the verbs are derived. Its past and present tense verbs are رَابَ-يَرِيبُ. Infinitive Noun [مصدر] signifies the action indicated in the verb derived from it. The action that a verb denotes signifies change and alteration of states in time and space, physical or abstract, which was the intent or objective of doing that act. An action causes an affect to take existence; causes a new state to emerge different to that which existed before the execution of action.

The Root of:: is: "ر  ى  ب".  [Lane Lexicon-ريب] states, " رَابَ-يَرِيبُ, Infinitive Noun رَيْبٌ  "It [a thing] occasioned in me disquiet, disturbance, or agitation of mind. This is the primary signification."  At page 364 [third entry in the right column] it states; " رَيْبٌ   The primary signification is Disquiet, disturbance, or agitation of mind, and accidents or evil accidents of time that disturb or disquiet the heart and mind.

All the critical readers of the books may collectively catalogue all such elements in nonfiction books that might be considered as unpleasant and disquieting even by one reader; and thereafter peruse the Arabic text of Grand Qur’ān only to find that none is present therein. This renders it infinitely reliable and a pleasant read.

: It is a prepositional phrase relating to predicate of this sentence. The preposition فِي signifies rest in a place or during a time, and motion into a place. This signification is then transferred to the relation subsisting between two things, one of which is regarded as the place in which the other is, or happens, or into which it goes or is put. The suffixed pronoun is for third person, singular, masculine referring to: "The Book", a singular, definite, masculine noun.

The major difference between Verb and Infinitive Noun in meaning is that verb signifies occurrence of an action within a particular time-period, like the past, present or future. The Infinitive Noun [مصدر] alone can only signify the occurrence of an action within the time-period in which it finds mention. Other words are required to signify the action of the verbal noun within the context of past or future. This aspect of peculiar choice of words in a statement of Source language Arabic when ignored causes major "translation loss" in the target language for perceiving the compact thought conveyed therein. These words in the translation, "you will find all the time you read it" attempt to convey this aspect of use of an Infinitive Noun in the statement.  

The Grand Qur’ān itself is the best "Lexicon" that explains perception, meanings, depths and niceties of important words and terms used therein by their use in relation to persons and situations and cause and effect equation. The psychological makeup of Muna'fi'qeen: Impostor believers is duality of thought and conduct which creates a permanent state of restless waver, and toss.

  • The fact is that only they feign seeking your permission for exemption to proceed for war who in fact believe not in Allah the Exalted and the Last Day (Muna'fi'qeen).

  • And their hearts are self-irked suffering duplicity

  • Thereby, they keep vacillating in their self-created state of irksome duplicity of thought . [9:45]

The effect of:  upon them is:

: Verb: Intransitive; Imperfect; Third Person; Plural; Masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ ;[Form-V]; [و] Subject Pronoun, nominative state; مصدر-تَرَدُّ دٌ Verbal noun. Its Root is " ر د د". Basic perception and signification is to revert back to the original position, location or state. Measure/Form-V verb relate to the intensive meaning of Form-II with the addition of reflexive meaning, i.e. the meanings of Form-II are reflected back onto the subject of verb. The indicative mood of the verb signifies continuance, or frequentative signification. The intensive and frequentative signification renders its meanings as to cause someone to waver, vacillate in an affair, or between two affairs. This reflects a confounded and perplexed state of heart and mind. [Also see p 228-Vol-3, entry 2; Lane's Lexicon] The feel, emotion, and passion and disconcert, irk etc are, in general perception too, related to the heart. Hearts need to disassociate from the emotion and passion to attain a tranquil state:

  • Their building, the one they designed, will continue to be irking disquiet of duality sustained in their (Muna'fi'qeen) hearts. This irk will continue except that their hearts might diligently self disassociate/distance.

  • Remain cognizant; Allah the Exalted is the Fountain and Setter of knowledge-science of visible and invisible domains, realities, considerations; and the Infinitely Just Supreme Administrator of the created realm. [9:110]

Arabic word: is not synonym or synonymous with but is distinct from word: , which when used as a substantive signifies doubt, or absence of conviction/certainty about a matter/concept/idea, skepticism/skepticalness. : "Doubt" takes existence in mind only when someone receives some information about some object or subject that he considers not enough to grant him the feel of sureness and certainty. This state of mind, generally referred as "doubt", reflects ones lack of decision about the veracity of information reaching him. He may neither accept it nor discard it. "Some definitions of doubt emphasize the state in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them". Moreover, the emergence of doubt regarding some bit of information may or may not be the cause of giving rise to emotional disturbance, irritation, irk and uneasiness of heart.

However, some information might place the mind of the recipient in such doubt; especially such information that is contrary to one's long held perception, culture, practice, matters relating to Non declarative memory that have become habit; that might generate, for some, feeling of irk, disquiet, and disconcert. The Grand Qur’ān highlights the point by quoting the statement of ruling elite in response to an information/invitation:   

  • They said, "O Saleh! you were a brightening hope among us before this stance of yours.

  • Are you forbidding us not to worship/be allegiant for that which our forefathers kept worshipping?

  • It is a fact that we are certainly plunged in doubt about that towards which you are inviting us, the doubt having characteristic trait of causing disquiet, irritation, and disconcert". [11:62]


  • Know the fact, Our Majesty had given to Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] the Book.

  • Thereby, differences arose therein.

  • And had a word of promise-decision not preceded granting a respite period by your Sustainer Lord, the matter would have been ended between them.

  •  Moreover, the fact is that they (Bani Iesraa'eel) are certainly plunged in doubt regarding it (the Book), the doubt having characteristic trait of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [11:110 and Replica/Mirror 41:45]


  • And we are certainly plunged in doubt about that towards which you are inviting us, the doubt having characteristic trait of causing disquiet, irritation, and disconcert."  [Refer 14:09]


  • And a barrier has been placed between them and what they desire [acceptance of their so called belief at last moment] as was done with peoples of their nature/class in the foretimes [when people declared to have accepted on seeing the infliction]

  • It is certain that they remained plunged in doubt/skepticism, the doubt having characteristic trait of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [in accepting the word of Messengers]. [34:54]


  • And they did not differ/made sects, except after having reached them that which brought them the knowledge, because of grouping/classes/vested interests amongst them.

  • And had a word/promise/decision, of a duration to culminate on determined moment, not preceded from your Sustainer Lord the matter would have indeed been adjudged/resolved between them.

  • Moreover, the fact about those, the posterity after them, who (Bani Iesraa'eel) were caused to inherit the Book: They are certainly plunged in doubt regarding it (Grand Qur’ān), the doubt having characteristic of causer of disquiet, irritation, and disconcert. [42:14]

Grand Qur’ān has clarified that: and: are not interchangeable and signify different concepts or states of heart and mind. : It might be the consequence and affect of a particular: ; but conversely:  is not the consequence and affect of:  . Cause and affect are not considered as synonyms or synonymous. There is a quote of Arabs of the days of revelation of Qur’ān which further confirms the perception infolded in :

  • Or do they say to people, "He is a poet, the one for whom We wait with content the frustrating disquieting time". [52:30]

The quotes of the response of people of the past, on presentation of information and invitation to adopt a different code and mode of life, depict that their doubt leading to disturbance, irritation and disconcert was not factual but volitional. The volitional doubt will cause disquiet and concern when there is conflict and clash between heart and mind; conflict between desire-emotion-passion-considerations of stakes and rationality. The passion overshadowed their rational intellect.

Only that book earns the title of "Sublime Book" which is a source of granting tranquillity to mind and heart by providing tangible answers to all uncertainties and misconceptions. The uncertainties are satisfied only when the Book narrates nothing but the established and proven truths not merely in relations to time and space but such that are sustained and are facts not affected by time and space. We might call it the "Absolute Truth" or "established and proven fact in the whole realm of time and space". The structure, theme and main point of the unity of whole book described by simple negation sentence: . This fact also serves as an instrument to evaluate the accuracy and veracity of translations. This par excellence feature is conversely ascribed by an epithet which we will study next:

  • They refuse despite the fact that it (Qur’ān) is the Infallible Doctrine-Discourse; [Refer 2:91]