Presentation for the seminar


Grand Qur’ān in 21st century

Triplet theory of translation

It is always useful to recall elementary information about a subject when we intend discussing it in some detail.

1. Translation and interpretation;

2. Language; its origin and Prime Language;

3. Translation theories: A synopsis

Translation is considered unique to humans (and two other species that also enjoy freewill, the Angels and Jinn). It may be true to the extent of translation of written texts which is defined as communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. It is rendering, conversion or transference of text in the words of another language and transmission over linguistic boundaries.

Translation is an old activity that man has practiced since ancient times. Its necessity was felt because of  variation and diversity in the languages of the peoples which in itself is a pointer-thought provoking existential for the knowledgeable people:

  • And that the creation of the Skies and the Earth is evoker of thought process indicated by His Signs - cognizable phenomena

  • And so are the the mutual variation in the languages and in skin colours of you people

  • Indeed signs indicating the existence of the Creator and Setter of sciences are obvious in the aforementioned facts for the knowledgeable people equipped with information. [30:22]

Another concept that collocates with translation is interpretation. It is defined as transference of meaning of spoken and heard words in the language of second person. The difference between the two is of real time versus delayed. Interpreting occurs in real time and in person. An interpreter transfers the meanings in both directions, on the spot, without any reference material. Interpreter is thus fluent in both the languages.

Translation is a delayed activity because it takes place long after a text is created. It gives the translator time to access resources, like lexicons, glossaries, grammar books, and these days Google to access any subject. Therefore, it is obviously an easier and less taxing task than the job of an interpreter. Learning to understand and translate a foreign language book is easier as it requires recognition rather than the harder recall.

Spoken words produce sound which is vibrations that travel through the air or another medium and they can be heard when they reach a person's or animal's ears. Thereby, it is generally believed that the spoken words decay the moment they are heard. But we the believers must not be misled by this understanding, we must be very cautious before throwing a statement out of our mounts in the air because:

 

  • He (Man) emits not a segment of an expression - syllables of a word in the open air but a smartly alert guard is nearby him to record it in writing. [Refer 50:18]

Writing, on the other hand, produces visible marks that persist through time on the paper. Thus written words exist in space and time. Written words are in fact the earliest form of sound recorders simultaneously serving as sound players that rendered the speech saved for a longer period of time and enabled its reach to a greater number of people (I am not talking about those words termed onomatopoeia in linguistic study). It is better to define the words according to Qur’ān as physical containers-receptacles wherein information - semantics is stored. Greater the semantics stored heavier is the container.

  • Certainly Our Majesty will keep exposing comprehensive-densely compacted discourse upon you the Messenger. [73:05]

 

The physical and sensory modalities of speech and writing are distinct as are the physical processes of speaking and writing different. Similarly the physical and sensory modalities of interpretation and translation are different. For interpretation, sound - voice is the medium and the organ used is ears-acoustic faculty while in translation the first medium is the vision-optical faculty through the organ of eyes.

  • He (Ar'Reh'maan) the Exalted has created the Man [55:03]

  • He (Ar'Reh'maan) has taught him (the man) the art of verbally elucidating explicitly. [55:04]

  • Have Our Majesty not rendered two eyes as organs for observation for him (mankind)  [90:08]

  • And a tongue and two lips as speech organs-articulators?  [90:09]

  • And Our Majesty have since pointed out to him two conspicuous ways? [the path of Muslims and Criminals] [90:10]

The process of gaining knowledge and enlightenment has a natural sequence:

  • Realize it; Allah the Exalted brought you people out of the bellies of your respective mothers

  • In the state that you had no knowledge about physical realm.

  • Realize it, He the Exalted have inserted the listening - acoustic faculty; and the observing - optical faculty; and of Processing-Integrating-Perceiving: Baking establishment: the Brains as locus of gaining knowledge and enlightenment for you people.

  • This realization might enable you people to express praises-thanks. [16:78] [let us respond الحمد لله]

In real world experience the end product of both is communication. Both aim at explanation or establishment of the meaning or significance of something stated orally or in writing. It is also the case when the speaker and listener, and the author and reader, have the same language. The listener and reader interpret the spoken and written words of his own language and saves them as perception what he thought or comprehended the speaker or writer intended to convey him.

Except being one directional, the translation is in fact interpretation. For translation the first requirement is the skill for reading. Reading involves translating text into sounds as were articulated by the original speaker. And comprehension involves deriving meanings from those sounds.

Qur’ān is unique in the family of books. It is described as: the Speech, the Parlanceverbal Message, the Discourse spoken by Allah the Exalted exclusively to His elevated Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam. It is declared as: the Book of Allah the Exalted which is the verbatim transcription of: in black and white by the elevated universal Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam as its First Publisher for delivery to the Mankind.

Therefore, the translation of Qur’ān is but one directional interpretation. Thereby, it is not necessary that the translator be a linguist. It is also so because translation and interpretation of a book is merely a skill.

2. Language; its origin and Prime Language

Language is the principal means to communicate and share information containing ideas and perceptions. Perception is a neurological process of observation and interpretation; acquiring and mentally interpreting information from the senses. Perception and word of a language are compulsorily complementary.

Matter has dimensions. We can perceive and retain it only if there is a language. Without a language neurological perception would have been non-existent. Sensory feelings could have meanings if a language is in existence. It is because they could become meaningful information leading to knowledge, capable of storage and retrieval from the memory, if it had some code - name using some language. Could objects be created with a purpose and design if there were no language to name - codify the created product? For human being's point of view, there has to be a language before creation of any object; language precedes creation, or at least is developed simultaneously with the creation of things.

Our knowledge is dependent upon the existence of matter and awareness of its name-code which verbally mirrors object  through words composed with alphabet and diacritics of a language making us cognizant of it. Cognizant is he who can verbally mirror the image of a thing for others. This being the ground reality, we could not say with certainty regarding whether thought-idea-image-name-word mirroring the physical object is the first in existence, or the object mirrored by that Word was first in existence. Grand Qur’ān has clarified for us in simple words that the idea, thought, wish and will of a Living Being precedes the emergence of a physical reality. The idea, thought and perception and verbal description of the thing precedes its taking physical existence. It comes into Physical Realm only in compliance to a command Word.

We live in the world of Words. We hear words, thereby we speak words. We see how words are written; thereby we write words with our hand. These are all apparent activity. Our non apparent world-Abstract Realm is also but words. We silently think by words, we ponder by words, and we reflect by words. We arrive at  conclusions, decisions and thoughts which are but words. We see and perceive with closed eyes, all by words. Word is not only all around us but inwardly in every cell of us. Minus Word, We cease to exist. The moment we not hear Word, speak not word, read or write not word, or think not a word, "We" are no more cognizable to the majority. 

A Word: "" "You become existing", brought us to existence; Word keeps us living. In Arabic, the Word is: an Infinitive; verbal noun made from Root "ق و ل". Its Verbs are: - meaning, "He said", "He says-He will say". It signifies saying that which is a complete proposition, or a word signifying at least one complete proposition. This act and the resultant Word yields and causes a state where the Reality takes apparent existence becoming cognizable, knowable, and perceivable for others. It is Word that has "miraculous power" of shifting a Reality from one Realm-Domain to another Realm.

We need a language at that point in time when we wish to introduce a person or something to some one else. The desire of communicating is the origin of language. A person, sentient, entity, objects, percept needs a name only for introduction to someone. Language and its purpose communication is a relational word, indicating existence of at least two entities both capable of cognition, recognition and perception. When nothing existed except the Ever-living, the Omnipresent, the Absolute, the First; were there any need that He the Exalted should pronounce personal name, until and unless He desired and decided to introduce Himself to someone whom He wanted to create? Therefore, the Personal Name: : Ar'Reh'maan of the Creator reflects and indicates the Prime language for the purpose of communication. Certainly the first language for communication of information to the created physical realm is Arabic: the language associated with a Town of Arabian peninsula that hosts the "House of Allah" on the Earth, and the universal leader of humanity, the Last Messenger - Spokesperson of Allah the Exalted, Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam who was born and lived nearby it in that Town.

3. Translation theories.

A synopsis of the thoughts and approaches considered suitable and adopted during various periods regarding translation is that it primarily revolves around: Ad Verbum vs. Ad Sensum; meaning according to the verbal expression vs. according to the meaning. John Dryden in seventeenth century identified three types of translation:

  • Metaphrase: involving "word by word" and "line by line" translation;

  • Paraphrase: involving "sense for sense" translation;

  • Imitation: involving variance from words and sense by abandoning the text of the original as the translator sees fit. [I have found G.A. Pervez is perhaps the only translator of Qur’ān who adopted this type. But, unfortunately, he  overlooked what Dryden had cautioned against the license of "imitation", i.e., of adapted translation: “When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."

Scottish jurist and historian Sir Alexander Fraser Tytler in his "Essay on the principles of translation", describes a good translation to be:

"that, in which the merit of the original work is so completely transferred in another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work".

According to Fraser the criterion for judging the efficiency and ideal translation should:

  • Give a complete transcript of the ideas and sentiments in the original passage;

  • Maintain the character of style;

  • Have the ease and flow of original text.

In recent times we find in translation theory terms Dynamic/functional equivalence and formal equivalence coined by Eugene A. Nida [November 11, 1914 – August 25, 2011]. According to him, a translator:

  • Analyzes the message of the text in question into its simplest and structurally clearest forms in the source language;

  • Transfers it at this simple level to the target language;

  • Restructures it at this simple level to the target language which is most appropriate for the particular type of audience in mind.

Then we come across with a theory termed Speech Act Theory which suggests that Speech acts can be analysed at three levels:

  1. locutionary act: the performance of an utterance: the actual utterance and its apparent meaning, comprising any and all of its verbal, social, and rhetorical meanings, all of which correspond to the verbal, syntactic and semantic aspects of any meaningful utterance;

  2. an illocutionary act: the active result of the implied request or meaning presented by the locutionary act. For example, if the locutionary act in an interaction is the question "Is there any salt?" the implied illocutionary request is "Can someone pass the salt to me?";

  3. and in certain cases a further perlocutionary act: the actual effect of the locutionary and illocutionary acts, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realize something, whether intended or not.

The theory more or less equates with classification or types of texts and their functions.

4. Triplet Theory of Translation for rendition of Grand Qur’ān in 21st century

The translation theories are mostly relevant and useful for languages spoken and written by peoples inhibiting the globe other than Arabian Peninsula. The language of Arabian Peninsula is uniquely different from other languages of the Globe. Thereby, we need a separate theory which could provide set of rules, principles and processes for its transference to any other language of the entire Globe.

The origin and growth process of Arabic language has the analogy to origin and growth process of posterity of Adam (alahissalam). Both have the same origin, the Seed. It is well known that the Source of Nouns and verbs of Arabic language is Root, termed: جذر which is defined by Ibn Faris as: الْأَصْلُ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ signifying ancestry, genealogy, descent and the origin of every thing. With relation to life, be it of human, animals or plants, its origin, the descent is Seed.

English word "root" as a noun refers that part of a plant which attaches it to the ground, typically growing downwards the surface of land, remaining hidden. In its second meanings it refers to the basic cause, source or origin of something. Obviously, that needs to be identified.

Classical tradition employs the word Root to explain how Arabic language works, but in reality, the concept resembles exactly to a "seed" which is either monocotyledon or dicotyledonous and contains the DNA to sprout and grow into a plant in a specific environment. "Seeds" of Arabic language have distinction of monocotyledon (Monocot/one cotyledon or embryonic-leaf: grasses-nominal words) and dicotyledonous (two leaves-verbal words). Unique assemblage and sequencing of consonants is like a DNA that encodes complete embryonic tree/plant of a unique concept-semantic frame-field of understanding which "germinates" in specific environment (context), like the life seed.

Root is a cluster of three, in some cases four or rare five, consonants of Alphabet placed in a peculiar sequence. Out of 29 letters of Arabic alphabet, Aleph is not a consonant since it has no sound; hence it is never the part of a Root. All 28 consonants may function as root radicals. However, there are no roots with identical consonants in the first and second position while at the second and third position radicals of a Root can be the same consonant. Such roots are termed geminate roots.

Though a combination of three unique consonants can constitute six Roots, for example consonants:  ح , ب and ر make these Roots: ب ح ر  -   ب ر ح -   ح ب ر -  ح ر ب -  ر ب ح  -  ر ح ب ; the Roots are determined and fixed. No new Root can be structured.

Roots are comparable to proper names as both are with unique semantic reference. However, there is a profound difference between proper names and Roots. The former designate identifiable entities with real existence, whereas Root is pure abstraction. The root is the common element shared by its derivatives.

The Root has specific, defined, distinct, conspicuous and apparent concept, phenomenon, perception and signification folded in it. It is the source, the reservoir of knowledge. Roots can be termed as "repertory of frames" of Arabic language if we follow Frame Approach to semantic analysis.

The amazing fact about the Roots is that the perception infolded in them is reflective of physicalscientific realities pertaining both to matter and life. They seem as if they are the baseline for scientific study and investigation.

The first requirement for translation and interpretation is to have a fair idea of the Qur’ān as to its type and what type it is not, its Thesis Statement, audience, objective, organization and its format, types of texts employed, ambit and scope, how coherence and unity is achieved, and its voice which is the ultimate purpose of authoring a book.

The language of Qur’ān is Arabic. It is mentioned time and again in the book itself, eleven times to be exact. It is a strange and amazing mention since no other author says that his book is written in such and such language. The text itself reveals the language, no need of mentioning it. Its mention is mysterious and thought provoking.

A translator also needs to know before hand the similarities and differences between Arabic and the target language. Earlier we noted that there are numerous languages with particular emphasis on their mutual dissimilarities and differences. However, for translation and interpretation purposes, Qur’ān has classified languages by their geography only as two families.

  • Know it, had Our Majesty rendered it (Qur’ān in Arabic) as a transcription in some language of Non-Arab land, [contrary to their present assertions of teaching by a Non-Arab-16:103]

  • Certainly they would have said to people exclaiming: "Why its Aa'ya'at: Verbal Passages (of Qur’ān in non-Arab language) are not rendered distinct?

  • Can a Non Arab: indistinct language and Arabic: distinct-eloquent language of the sons of soil of Arabian Peninsula be considered at par?" [Refer 41:44]

This hypothetical statement regards transcribing the text of Qur’ān literally word by word as such in Non-Arab language and the resultant certain objection by people provides us the key for translation of Qur’ān. Word by word rendition of its unitary Verbal Passages in any Non-Arab language will not be lucid and explicit.

The word: is a Relative Noun evident by the additional "ى" in the end depicting and relating it to the sons of soil of Arabian Peninsula. Similarly: is Relative Noun denoting language of sons of Non-Arab world.

  • And Our Majesty are certainly aware of their habit that they the elite say to people: "Factually only a person teaches him (Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]) the Qur’ān."

  • The language of the person, whom they dishonestly and unscrupulously keep referring as the person who teaches him (Qur’ān), is non-Arab: inexplicit language 

  • While this language is Arabic: rich, clear, perspicuous and eloquent language of Arabian Peninsula characteristically explicit: conveyor of information in succinct, individuated, distinct and crystallized manner. [16:103]

The Root of Passive Verb: is "ف ص ل". The basic perception infolded in it is that of a barrier or a demarcation in between two things or concepts that causes the indication of the end of limit of one thing and the beginning of the limits of another thing. It thus reflects the act of setting apart, separating, and distancing and distinguishing two things in a manner that each is manifested as distinct and exclusive from the other. It thus leaves absolutely no chance of illusion in seeing and perceiving the point, information, fact, concept, and knowledge stated verbally. It alienates and isolates the individual unit from the whole-group-species to manifest its individuality and uniqueness enabling its storage and saving in and conveniently recalling from the memory.

If we were to describe it succinctly in English its near equivalent is adjective "distinct" that incorporates:

1. Recognizably different in nature from something else of a similar type; physically separate;

2. Readily distinguishable by the senses.

3. Impression as clearly apparent to the mind as to be unmistakable; definite.

  • It (Qur’ān in Arabic) is a book of characteristic that it's Aa'ya'at: Verbal Passages are organized in distinct enclaves [Surat-chapters]- and are rendered distinct

  • It (the book-Qur’ān) is a compilation having characteristic of transcription in Arabic: a perspicuous, eloquent, distinctive and precisely expressive language; the language of the sons of soil of Arabian Peninsula. It is for people in pursuit of obtaining and learning knowledge. [41:03]

  • It (Qur’ān) serves as guarantor-conveyor of glad tidings and revivalist-Warner-awakener. [perpetually present in time and space]. [Refer 41:04]

Knowing, information and understanding are two different concepts. "Understanding" is rather a complex concept. To have a deeper and more detailed conception of a phenomenon than the description of its superficial characteristics is understanding a thing. "Understanding" is an ability to internally create knowledge of a situation, or of a phenomenon not self encountered, that is so reliable that one can act upon it in real life. "Understanding" is also the ability to fill in bits of information that is missing. This is like breaking the word "understanding" into its components "under" and "standing" meaning to know "what stands under".

  • Furthermore, He the Exalted is the One Who originated you people from an entity-person that acts as individual; retains individuality.

  • Thereby, for continuation process there is a cool resting and maturing place [epididymes for Sperm] and a departing/emptying place/depositary/receptacle for seeing off/pouring/deposit as a trust and mutual understanding/promises. [vagina-fallopian tube-uterus].

 

  • Indeed Our Majesty has rendered the Aa'ya'at: verbal passages distinct for the people who seek to comprehend/understand. [6:98]

The locus of information and understanding/comprehending is also different, according to Qur’ān. Those in pursuit of understanding/ comprehending are described by verbal sentence: stemming from Root: ف ق ه . According to Ibn Faris [died 1005] ( يَدُلُّ عَلَى إِدْرَاكِ الشَّيْءِ ) it leads to Noesis - appreciation, realizing, understanding, intellect, perception of the mind, disambiguation, and gaining knowledge - awareness. And learned Raghib said it is reaching to - obtaining - perceiving invisible information - knowledge by the visible - experienced information - knowledge. (التّوصل إلى علم غائب بعلم شاهد)

However, the astonishing information given in Qur’ān is about the organ - locus for "reasoning" and "understanding". It says it is the heart:

  • Their notable characteristic are:  Hearts are provided for them as locus of understanding; but they intend not to understand with them (hearts) [Refer 7:179]
 

  • Know it; Some of them (elite) pretend listening to you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]

  • While Our Majesty have rendered that what they claim covers upon their hearts as protection that hinders them comprehending it (Qur’ān). (also in 17:46 and 18:57) [Refer 6:25]

Translators and interpreters have nothing to input their intellect and wisdom to transfer the information embedded in the text of Qur’ān in the target language. Everything is already segregated, distinguished and delineated on the basis of absolute knowledge about everything mentioned therein. Neither the First Publisher of Qur’ān has the license to add, subtract and alter the Intellectual property; nor do the Translators, interpreters, exegetes have the right to insert stories in target text except what is stated therein and from material substantiated by traces of knowledge-the primary evidence.  Intellectual property is overall term defining creations of the mind, like a book. A publisher may or may not be given the right of copyright and editing the original manuscript of the BookIntellectual property. It is the form of expression of ideas, choice and arrangement of words. Its violation is called infringement. The translator has just to do the skilled labour to transmit information in target language.

  • Indeed Our Majesty had brought to them (the discarded people in Hell-prison) a book. Its characteristic was that Our Majesty had rendered its contents distinct based upon knowledge:

  • It (Qur’ān) serves as a guide and blessing for the people who heartily accept it. [7:52]

 

  • Observe; Our Majesty have mentioned every relevant thing rendering it distinct: demarcated-isolated-alienated-crystal clear, in classification manner: each is an isolated enclave quite distinct from another. [17:12]

It is thus evident that like physical world: Laws of Nature, the concept of information is a fundamental entity. The sum total of all the quantity of information: collectively as absolute unit is called: the Knowledge. There is no denying that our personally acquired information, whatever is its volume with an individual, is indebted to existence of physical world, each unit of which is made distinct and alienated from others. The material world has the embedded information which we retrieve and formulate. Thus, information - knowledge precedes the physical world and the laws of nature. It is the First reality; matter and energy are secondary. Information is stored in physical media. This fact too is indicative of the precedence of information. All systems originate through information. Information precedes even the "words" of a language since the words are like "receptacles" occupying and encompassing space which are filled with information - a non-physical entity. Grand Qur’ān is the explicitly distinctive speech text leaving nothing for the translator and interpreter to add:

  • Indeed it (Grand Qur’ān) is certainly a verbal statement-discourse characteristically elaborate, organized, differentiating and delineating, contrasting and isolating each element rendering it crystal clear. [86:13]

The intended purpose for having rendered the Passages of Qur’ān: distinct: categorized; demarcated; in classified state is described: that the people might:

(1) keep attaining information; becoming aware [6:97;7:32;9:11;10:05;41:03];

(2) they comprehend - perceive - understand -conceptualize [6:98];

(3) : they at their own perceive, save it in memory, take admonition and relate [6:126];

(4) they at their own objectively reflect-contemplate-deeply and honestly ponder [10:24];

(5) : they perceive by critical thinking - reasoning [30:28].

The aforementioned performances make a person :

 

  • But except Allah the Exalted and the true believers who attain the in-depth knowledge, they (the tilted minded scholars) know not the upshot - logical conclusive interpretation of it (Qur’ān).

  • They (who attain the in-depth knowledge) in this state of knowledge tell people, "We have wholeheartedly believed in it (Qur’ān). Each and all verbal passages of it (Qur’ān) are communicated by our Sustainer Lord."

 

  • -- And the circumstantial fact is thatexcept the Men of Understanding; those who objectively reflect without overlapping emotions, prejudices and biasespeople do not self grasp and take lesson --. [Refer 3:07]

The objective and expected rational response from the audience for rendering the text of Qur’ān distinctive is also mentioned:

  • Note it: Like this exposition, Our Majesty renders the Aa'ya'at: verbal passages of Qur’ān distinct making it easy to comprehend

  • And further objective is that they (polytheists) might revert to original reality: Monotheism. [7.174]

 

  • He the Exalted renders the verbal passages of Qur’ān distinct so that you people might attain conviction-certainty about confronting accountability before your Sustainer Lord. [Refer 13:02]

The thesis statement and objective of sending Qur’ān to humanity is to persuade them to revert to Monotheism, the truly justified belief of their earliest forefathers, and to convince them of certainty of their accountability in the Hereafter.

All theories of translation aim at transferring the semantics of a book into target language semantics. The semantics of Qur’ān is like "semantics" of DNA - a Triplet schema. The word DNA is quite a popular word in the vocabulary of lot many peoples speaking various languages ever since the speech of President Clinton on June 26,2000 announcing the completion of the First Survey of the entire Human Genome. He announced:

"Today, we are learning the language in which God created life. With this profound new knowledge, humankind is on the verge of gaining immense, new power to heal."

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule is the genetic blueprint for each cell that determines every characteristic of a living organism.  A molecule of DNA consists of two chains, strands [in Arabic: ] composed of a large number of chemical compounds, called nucleotides, linked together to form a chain. These chains are arranged like a ladder that is twisted into the shape of a winding staircase with many individual steps, called a double helix.

  • Moreover, Our Majesty have since segmented it (Qur’ān) in split parts; its purpose is that you the Messenger might compile-write-organize it; to read it upon the people, while they are awaiting and expecting (a new release).

  • The fact remains Our Majesty have serially sent it (Qur’ān), gradually and successively.  [17:106]

The Divine Discourse is divided into 114 Chapters. Each of 114 sub-divisions is called: : a segment denoting: an Enclave of superiority and elevation-Ascending Leap. It is like a ladder having 114 rungs: a series of hierarchical levels on which somebody moves up.  The 112th : Chapter is the peak of hierarchical levels which is captioned: : A Form-IV verbal noun signifying act and state rendering one as clear, pure, sheer, free from admixture, unmingled, unmixed, disentangled or genuine; and white; to reach to level of purity and sincerity. This is the state of synchronization with nature.

But having reached an ascension one can move or fall on the rungs downwards. Therefore, the last two "rungs": Chapter 113 and 114 are for seeking refuge with the Sustainer Lord to escape chances of downfall. The refuge sought is from all sorts of disquiet, disequilibrium and disconcerts; and from people who are the embodiment of Satan. Arabic word for Satan has also the signification of cobra. Interestingly, we have in our sub-continent a board game, now called Snake and Ladder. Ladder takes to ascensions and bite of snake takes the player downwards or backwards. In life, after having experienced the exhilaration of a ladder, it is quite possible that one could bump into a snake. Hence, the necessity of seeking refuge with the Almighty. Purity and sincerity takes one into the heights of the sky; but whoever de-synchronizes and associates anything with the Unity he will instantly fall from the Sky.

Human DNA like everything created in the physical realm is a binary string. And about Qur’ān we have this information:

  • Allah the Exalted has serially sent the infallibly authentic breaking news and information: the best verbal discourse

  • This discourse is conveyed to people in the form of a written book It is the explainer with metaphorsmirroring the hidden realities It is a Miscellany-cluster of Binary-Symmetrical-analogous verbal passages[Refer 39:23]

The guidance encoded in the DNA is conveyed to the human cells by a certain molecule. The genetic scientists have named it: "the Messenger RNA" and they tell us that it remains Messenger-designate until it becomes "mature" when it moves into the cytoplasm of the cell to deliver the message that it took from the DNA. Same has been the practice in timeline for the guidance of peoples:

  • And Our Majesty did not send before you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] spokespersons except men whom We used to verbally communicate (the discourse-Messages). [Refer 16:43]

The cytoplasm where the Messenger moves in on maturity is the location where most cellular activities occur. Likewise, human civilizations have a capital - a main city where most important activities take place that gel the people living within its geographical boundaries. Like the Messenger RNA, Allah the Exalted sent human Messengers for the guidance of nations in their respective central city:

  • And your Sustainer Lord was not such to annihilate any habitat until and unless He had sent a revivalist as Messenger in her main city who recited/narrated upon them Our Aa'ya'at: unitary verbal passages word by word.

  • [even after having sent the Revivalist Messenger] And Our Majesty were not the annihilator of any habitat except and only when her inhabitants persistently remained the distorters/evil mongers.  [28:59]

American President Clinton, announcing the completion of the first survey of entire human genome also mentioned learning the language of God in which He created the Universe before learning the language in which the God created life. What was not mentioned in the speeches on that occasion, and what they have not yet learnt is the Language of God about the re-creation - restoration of human life after death. Nothing surprising, we know it:

  • They acquire prima facie knowledge relating to apparent phenomena of life of this Lowly World

  • While they are certainly neglectful regards the Hereafter. [30:07]

It is further told:

  • That (seeking the worldly life) is their extreme limit of acquiring knowledge.

However, what has been accepted by the scientists of Genome Project is that the author of the Book of Life is Allah the Exalted. And Grand Qur’ān is the Book of Allah. It incorporates the book of Universe; it answers the seemingly complex questions of physics and existence or as learned Stephen Hawking puts it "one complete unified theory"; where did the universe come from? How and why did it begin? Will it come to an end, and if so, how?and it has the book of Lifeand additionally the book of Life in the Hereafter.

The source of guidance is but unitary - the Creator, be it for a single cell or for human being with hundred trillion cells in his body. And the medium - transmitter of guidance is also unitary - the Messenger. 

And there is one star in the Sky that comes to the rescue of a man in bewilderment of clueless location to show him the direction.

  • And they people get the direction-guidance with the help of the Star - North Pole. [Refer 16:16]

The guidance: information code for sustaining life of a cell is encoded in the DNA. DNA contains the instructions for growth and development in humans and all living organisms. It contains incredibly comprehensive information which is easy to read for the body system and to interpret it. Thereby, the Cell follows the prescribed code - regulation and instructions for conduct, operation, management, upkeep, proceeding or the like. Who is the source and writer of this comprehensively elaborate "information code"? Ordinary prudence will immediately say: "the Creator", since there is no information without a conscious intelligent sender who has desire and will of his own.

  • He (Mūsā alai'his'slaam) said: "He the Exalted is Our Sustainer Lord Who has imparted shape and dimensions to every thing of His creation. Afterwards the completion of intermediary processes, He the Exalted prescribed regulation - information code for its course of conduct, proceeding and management. [20:50]

 

  • He the Exalted is the One Who created all that exists. Thereat, He the Exalted stretched-fashioned-equated-made it even. [87:02]

  • Moreover, He the Exalted is the One Who destined things in measure-limit-scale-proportional relativity. Thereby, He the Exalted prescribed regulation - information code for its course of conduct, proceedings and management. [87:03]

 

  • The fact remains that prescribing the regulation - information code for the course of conduct, proceedings and management, exclusively rests upon Our Majesty. [92:12]

The Verb: and noun: are made from Root "ھ د ى". The basic perception infolded in the Root is to direct or guide to the way or cause to take, or follow, a right way or course or direction. It denotes a way, course, method, mode, or manner of acting, or conduct, or proceeding or the like. It signifies regulation - information code for the right course of conduct and proceedings.

The source of guidance is but unitary, be it for a single cell or for human being. The guidance: information code for aright course for sustaining life of a cell is encoded in the DNA. DNA contains the instructions for growth and development in humans and all living things. Our DNA is packaged into chromosomes that contain all of our genes. The guidance for humanity is encoded in the Grand Qur’ān: the constitution for aright conduct and the guarantor of sustained life.

  • O those people/you who consciously proclaim to have accepted-become believers, listen;

  • You people sincerely respond for Allah the Exalted and for the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] when he has urged you people towards that (Grand Qur’ān) which will give you people life [eternally comfortable and enjoyable in the Hereafter].  [Refer 8:24]

It is the "DNA" for growth and development of human personality to an exaltation that will render him eligible to be piloted by the great of creations, Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam,  beyond the ascensions of earthly universe to his original abode - the Paradise, to live and enjoy the truly living life of the Hereafter.

Genetics is quite a delicate and exhaustive discipline. Being a person of ordinary prudence, I have but to restrict to non-technical and elementary approach. I, however, understand that the Source-Originator of information is since Unitary; therefore, the transmission and decoding of guidance in the DNA and the Book of Allah the Exalted, Grand Qur’ān, must have similarities, resemblances and are governed by similar rules. Genetic scientists tell us that the genetic code is a set of rules that defines how the four-letter code of DNA is translated into 20-letter code of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.

Likewise, the linguists and grammarians have the set of rules for translating a source-language text into target-language text. Deviations from the rules will produce a defective protein and a defective, erroneous, inaccurate, incomplete or vague translation.

The peculiarities common between Grand Qur’ān and DNA

1. The DNA encodes the non-verbal guidance: information code for aright course for sustaining life of a cell and the human body. It contains the instructions for growth and development in humans. Grand Qur’ān encodes verbal-guidance for aright course for growth and development of human personality to an exaltation that will render him eligible to be piloted beyond the ascensions of earthly universe to his original abode to live the truly living life of the Hereafter.

Guidance for humanity is: the Parlanceverbal Message of Allah the Exalted. Like Messenger RNA, it was in  timeline transferredtranscribed to the elevated human Messenger of Allah the Exalted for onward communication-delivery verbatim to public:

  • Take note; It has never been the practice for any human being:

  • That Allah the Exalted may speak with him in a humanly understandable language

  • The exception to the negation of lingual communication with a human being is firstly in the manner of a written revelation: giving him a book

  • Or He the Exalted might communicate speaking to him from behind a barrier

  • Or He the exalted might send a messenger, angel or a man, to a person

  • Whereby he (the Messenger) might reveal, with the permission of Him the Exalted, to a person about that which He the Exalted intends to be communicated: His Verbal Message-Parlance-Book.

  • Indeed He is the Exalted Supreme; eternally the Knower of visible and invisible domains and the Infinitely Just Supreme Administrator of the created realms. [42:51]

They were a galaxy of men of personal choice of Allah the Exalted described by Adjective resembling participle: signifying the person who is the Chosen, elevated and given Distinction and exaltation over all others in timeline since their birth. However, they were assigned the responsibility of the Messenger only upon having attained strengthen maturity to convey the Message of Allah to the people of their time and nation in their respective language. The same is the case in human genome that the mature Messenger RNA does the same job.

  • Know it; Our Majesty never sent as the Messengers before you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] but the Men whom We communicated verbal messages [Refer 12:109]

 

The last in the galaxy of men of personal choice of Allah the Exalted, described by Adjective resembling participle: is the final universal Messenger who is unique by virtue of having been appointed for the humanity for the entire timeline. The Universal Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam is perpetually the sole Warner and survivalist for all those whom Grand Qur’ān reaches in time and space:

  • You the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce:
  • " O you the Mankind, listen;
  • Indeed I am the Messenger of Allah the Exalted towards you people universally - all people collectively —[Refer 7:158]

The Universal Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam has relayed and Grand Qur’ān has since reached us. It is like the Messenger RNA has reached to the cytoplasm, where the ribosome is located. It is the job of the individual and the ribosome in cell to translate the message:

  • And this Qur’ān has verbally been communicated to me so that by it I admonish and awaken you people in my presence; and to admonish and awaken him to whom this (Qur’ān) has reached in time and space. [Ref 6:19]

2. "Semantics" of DNA is decodingto transform an encoded message into an understandable form. There are 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome. A gene comprises of a sequence of Codons. A codon is a set of three consecutive nucleotides in Messenger molecule that codes for one amino acid. Thus each gene encodes the sequence of amino acids that will produce a specific protein. Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids specifies protein shape and function.

In verbal text, a gene corresponds to a sentence of a text that conveys a complete thought/proposition. And codon corresponds to a word or phrase—grammatical unit in a sentence imparting only one meaning. And their sequence in a sentence signifies the type of sentence by structure and function—meanings.

3.  An anticodon is a trinucleotide sequence complementary to that of a codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence. An anticodon is found at one end of a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule. During protein synthesis, each time an amino acid is added to the growing protein, a tRNA forms base-pairs with its complementary sequence on the Messenger RNA molecule, ensuring that the appropriate amino acid is inserted into the protein.

Like the triplet code of codon and corresponding anticodon for translation of a gene for producing a protein, for accurate translation of a sentence (gene) in the text of Grand Qur’ān, there is a "triplet anticodon": Root + Morphology + syntax for every word - element (codon) of the sentence. Without applying this "anticodon", any attempted translation will be but faulty, inaccurate, erroneous, incomplete or vague.

The phenomenon of translating a codon, by matching it with anti-codon, is exactly like that of translating grammatical units of a sentence of Grand Qur’ān.  The meanings of a word and phrase of Arabic are the sum-total of the meanings of its Root, meanings added by its Morphology and by role and function assigned by its syntax. These three constitute "triplet anticodon" for translation of text of Qur’ān.

The academic rules and principles for reaching to the thought of the author of a book and to complete the process of communication at reader's level is firstly to dismantle the entire text to the granular level of words; next is to identify the phrases - the grammatical units which for semantic purposes cannot be further broken down; and then demarcating the boundaries of sentence, its start and end word like the start codon and stop codon of a gene transcribed upon the Messenger RNA in human genome.

Having done these three steps, we would have acquired the basic skill for self-translating the text. Improving the skill will be a gradual process of identifying paragraphs, determining the sentences (genes) by type of structure - like simple, compound, complex, compound complex; and by types of purpose - like whether it is declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative, soft imperative, expository, or conditional. Similarly, it will later seem quite easy to segment the Divine Discourse by type of text like narrative, descriptive, injunctive, expository, and argumentative text.

Once we have segmented the text of Divine Discourse, we will be able to decipher the blue print of human being far better and much accurately and completely than the genetic scientists. Learned Francis Collins, the head of International Human Genome Project said about DNA:

"It's a history book - a narrative of the journey of our species through time."

An epithet of Grand Qur’ān is: : reference source; the Memoir; an account of history. But it is clarified that it is not an ordinary memoir in the meanings of an account of historical events written from personal observation/knowledge.

It is Grand Memoir for the reader since it covers for him the past, the present, and the future of his Universe; and beyond it to a new threshold: the transition to a new Universe where he will continue his life on resurrection. And all this timeline is the Memoir: Knowledge and Observation of the author of the Grand Qur’ān and DNA, Allah the Exalted, the creator of all realms.

  • Know the certain fact, Our Majesty have sent towards you people the Book (Grand Qur’ān). The peculiar feature of this Book is that the Narrative - Story - biography of you people is detailed therein

  • Would you still, after finding yourself mentioned therein, not reflect rationally? [21:10]

 : The book mentions and explicitly elaborates in its contents the narrative-storyhistorybiography of each one of us. It mentions us by belief, psyche, temperament, attitude, behaviour, actions, and conduct and tells our resultant placement in the "New world order"; after the threshold when the only and real big bang will be heard and we will instantly be watching on resurrection the New and Real World. Everyone can find his abode either in the Paradise or Hell-Prison as of today if the Last Moment happens later in the day or tomorrow morning. If someone finds himself in Hell-Prison, he has the time to change his destiny before the moment arrives.

4. There are twenty amino acids, and a start and a stop codon in protein-coded gene translation. In Arabic, there are twenty two declensions of a noun that signify its role and function in the sentence: two genitived, eight nominative, and twelve accusative. Syntax is all about the concept called grammatical inflection-I‘rāb إﻋﺮﺍﺏ.  It is considered the core of grammar and everything else revolves around it. Experts say by knowing this concept one understands the Arabic language and failing to understand it is failing to understand the language. Syntax of Grand Qur’ān is the simplest because we have only to observe the vowel sign on the last consonant of a noun. Another interesting fact is that the Root of the language of Qur'an: ع ر ب is used 22 times (a truly prime number), 11 times for language, 10 times for those Non-Arab settlers who have become Arab-ized: a plural noun with no singular; and once: delightful, devoted, eloquent wives of agility and pleasant personality in the Paradise.

5. A portion of Messenger (RNA) is Not Translated.

Interestingly, not all regions of a messenger RNA molecule correspond to particular amino acids. In particular, there is an area near the 5' end of the molecule that is known as the un-translated region (UTR) or leader sequence. This portion of Messenger RNA is located between the first nucleotide that is transcribed and the start codon (AUG) of the coding region, and it does not affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein. So, what is the purpose of the UTR? It turns out that the leader sequence is important because it contains a ribosome-binding site.

Sequencing of Grand Qur’ān for translation purposes is exactly like Messenger RNA molecule. After the first Chapter: Segment called: , there is a small binding-site, one Ayah: , which is not translatable because it comprises of only letters of alphabet and diacritical mark, but has no syllable, vowel. Arabic is a language of syllables, comprising of at least a consonant and a vowel producing a meaningful sound and verbal proposition which is translatable. This sequencing is specifically mentioned:

  • And indeed Our Majesty have given to you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]

  • Seven explicit Aa'ya'at: Verbal Passages selected-excerpted from the Binary-Symmetrical-analogous Miscellany

  • And We have given the Grand Qur’ān to you the Messenger [ Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam].  [15:87]

After the First Segment (Chapter), there are 29 untranslatable binding-sites in the Qur’ān where only letters of alphabet and diacritical mark appear. Interestingly, the alphabet of Arabic also comprises of 29 segments, one letter and 28 consonants. Fourteen Letters out of 29 have been used in different combinations in 29 Sura of Grand Qur’ān. In 19 Suras, there are 20 complete Aa'ya'at comprising only of letters and prolongation sign and in 10 Suras these are the initial part of the Aa'ya'at. One letter has two styles ه and ـهـ. [Refer 19:01 and 20:01]

6. The ribosome is a complex molecular machine found within all living cells, which serves as the site of biological protein synthesis- translation. Ribosome link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. Ribosome consists of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the Messenger RNA, and the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain.

Likewise man is equipped with brains (at least three placed in the skull) and a heart. For brain Arabic word is   - and its plural of paucity is ; it literally denotes a baking establishment. These are the two organs, faculties, locus for reading and comprehending the communication.

Like Messenger RNA the Grand Qur’ān resembles a long continuous strand depicting first word to its last word as a chain. The ribosome binds to the single strand of Messenger RNA in the manner denoted by Arabic verbal noun: إِعْتِصَامٌ . As the ribosome binds, we are also directed to consciously bind ourselves with the "strand of Allah the Exalted":

  • And you people (Believers) are directed to sincerely grasp and fortify yourselves by taking recourse to "the Rope of Allah the Exalted (Qu r’ān)", collectively

  • And you people should not become self disintegrated

The basic perception in the Root of word: [ح ب ل] is of binding and developing a link and connection between two things; a thing with the help of which one may reach to some other place. It denotes "Rope, Cord"; a string composed of at least two strands which are woven or twisted together. It is thus used to refer to a central idea or link-covenant-pledge that strings people together. It is ROPE that binds things rendering them a unit. And it is the Book which unites people into a coherent social unit - a fraternity. Addition of conjectural sayings by individuals in time and space dismembers the people into groups/sects.

It is the tested technique of the enemies of the Messengers to un-tie people from the Rope of Allah. All the Messengers in time and space came with the objective of Reviving the Message of Allah and to move people away from the widespread conjectures which had become shackles in their necks, restraining independent reflection by intellect.

7. The Genome Project has highlighted that the structure of the genetic language is very simple and that the rules for reading the genetic code are simple. The "Author" of Genetic code and Grand Qur’ān is Allah the Exalted. He the Exalted has proclaimed:

  • Thereby, for reason of its universality and permanence, Our Majesty have certainly rendered it (Grand Qur’ān) facilitative for reading and comprehending by transcribing it in the mother tongue: Arabic language of you Muhammad [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam].

  • The purpose of rendering it facilitator is that you the Messenger might give glad tidings-guarantee on the strength of it (Grand Qur’ān) to those who sincerely endeavour to attain salvation;

  • And so that you the Messenger may admonish with it (Grand Qur’ān) the excessively argumentative people. [19:97]

The statement that Qur’ān is rendered facilitative has the value of a claim - to say, without proof or evidence, that something is true. Since the statement is about a book which is meant for reading and comprehending, the statement will be true if the book facilitates the reader both in its reading and comprehension. This is the extent of the statement. If the critical reader finds the statement true to its extent it will obviously highlight the value, quality and importance of the book whereby he will become sincere and reverent for it.

A critical reader, more so an academician must have the habit of evaluating a statement to judge its value, quality, importance and extent. All those who spread the baseless thought presenting Qur’ān as a most difficult and disorganized book for translation and comprehension seem to have either overlooked the claim reiterated six times or read it not academically and critically.

Some other day we can discuss to evaluate the claim to find how was Qur’ān rendered facilitator for reading and comprehending it. This also means that it facilitates translating and interpreting it. We can study par excellence features of Grand Qur’ān under the heading: Inbuilt guidance for translation: Criterion - Keys for translation of Grand Qur’ān, which also serve for evaluation of the accuracy and veracity of the translation in the target language text. Many of these features are like Transfer RNA and its anticodon which help avoid erring while translating, and to understand, unambiguously, the message of the Messenger RNA.