Conjunction - appositive and delineation particle


It is a particle comprising of a consonant and a vowel. This is the crucial connector in the Divine Discourse. It is used 10,126 times in the Discourse comprising of 86984 words. It helps in segmenting the text and determining the boundaries of sentences.

It primarily functions to conjunct compound statements and subordinate clauses with the antecedent independent clause; and secondly it delineates - separates a forthcoming independent clause from the previous discourse. These two functions are termed in Arabic: وَصْلٌ -connecting - interweaving, and: فَصْلٌ - delineation, separation.

Depending upon their role and function in the text, its meanings will be different. For connecting and interweaving the text, it is used in the following situations and is named accordingly:

(1) [حرف عطف]: Conjunction particle; it conjuncts compound statements; and two sentences that are expressed in the same breath: First example is in 1:05: then in 1:07. It can be translated by "and"; "moreover, furthermore" when a further piece of information is added that supports a previous statement.  It functions as an additive term within sentences to link clauses, phrases, and words. In particular, Arabic uses it in lists where, in English, a comma would be used to separate each item. The items in the list retain the case determined by their role in the sentence. In the text it is written without space with the next word.

It refers to affirming, for the المعطوف the same meaning that is affirmed for the المعطوف عليه

When used as such in the text a space is not given and the next word is written just adjacent to it.

First occurrence:

  • [Our Sustainer Lord Ar'Reh'maan] You the Exalted are the One and Only Whom we presently and henceforth solely and exclusively owe and demonstrate allegiance and servitude

 

  • Moreover, You the Exalted are exclusively the One we keep looking for rendering the environment supportive and assisting to elevate ourselves. [01:05]

This waw links words to words and sentences to sentences; According to Kyffan grammarians, this waw points out an order [tartib]. According to others this is not the case; it points to a connection which does not elucidate order.

Recurrence: (1)1:5(2)1:7(3)2:3(4)2:3(5)2:4(6)2:4(7)2:4(8)2:5(9)2:7(10)2:8(11)2:9(12)

(2)   [اِستئنافية] Recommencing particle: It is a  discourse coordinator that signals the speaker's identification of an upcoming unit which is coordinate in structure to prior unit. It is a sentence starter, like a start codon in protein-coding gene in human genome. As a sentence starter it is considered good in Arabic, but it is not usually translated into English because English style rules normally advise against starting sentence with "and". Therefore, it is translated, in keeping its purpose of drawing attention, by "take note; beware; be mindful, realize".

 

Recurrence: (1)2:7(2)2:7(3)2:8(4)

(3)  [حالية] Particle of state - circumstance. It is used in the dependent circumstantial clause of an independent sentence.  while/whilst.

The particle serves to connect two clauses, the second of which describes the state or condition either of the subject or one of the complements of the first clause, or else of a new subject. This takes place in such a way that:

(a) The clause descriptive of the state is nominal; like which has a finite verb for its predicate; [ii} the circumstantial clause has a distinct subject; [iii] circumstantial clause has a distinct subject and a finite verb for its predicate. [2:22] 

(b) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and affirmative, the verb being in the Imperfect Indicative, preceded by وَ قَدْ,

(c) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and negative, the verb being in the Imperfect Jussive, preceded by وَ لَمْ, or the  Imperfect Indicative, preceded by  وَ مَا, verse 2:08

(d) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and affirmative, the verb being in the Perfect, preceded by وَ قَدْ,  sometimes  وَ قَد is omitted, and rarely one of two alone,

(e) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and negative, the verb being in the Perfect, preceded by  وَ مَاْ, or rarely by مَا alone;

Recurrence: (1)2:8(2)

(4) [الاعتراضية] Conjunction for parenthetic;

Recurrence: (1)2:9(2)

(5)   [المعية] Accompaniment particle. It is similar to "object of accompaniment" in English grammar. It can be recognized by its successive noun which will be in accusative case.

(6)  [زائدة], Extraneous Conjunction particle;

For the purpose of  فَصْلٌ - delineation, separation, it segments the text in following two forms:

(1)   [اِستئنافية] Recommencing particle: It is a  discourse coordinator that signals the speaker's identification of an upcoming unit which is coordinate in structure to prior unit. It is a sentence starter, like a start codon in protein-coding gene in human genome. As a sentence starter it is considered good in Arabic, but it is not usually translated into English because English style rules normally advise against starting sentence with "and". Therefore, it is translated, in keeping its purpose of drawing attention, by "take note; beware; be mindful, realize".

 

Recurrence: (1)2:8(2)

(2)  [واو القسَم: وهي حرفُ جرٍّ] Particle of swearing, and it is prepositional, recognized by the object noun in genitive case.

Progressive number of grammatical units: = 191 + 10,126= 10,317