Prepositional Phrase coupled with possessive phrase

in times before you the Messenger

First occurrence:
  • Moreover, they (Mutta'qeena) are those who heartily accept-believe in that which was compositely sent to you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]


  • And in that which was compositely sent before you.

  • And they have conviction regarding the Hereafter. [2:04]

Syntactic analysis and explanation of Ayah

: Prepositional phrase (جار و مجرور) coupled with Possessive phrase.

 (الإِضَافَةُ-اسم مجرور- زمان و مكان/مضاف + ضمير متصل-واحد مذكر حاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه


Generally this particle denotes a beginning point related either to time or place. Also, it signifies the beginning point in matters unrelated to time and place, as used in sentence, "It is from Sulaiman".

The prepositions originally designate relations of place, i.e. local relations, but are transferred first, to relation of time, i.e. temporal relations, and next to various sorts of ideal relations conceived under the figure of local relations to which they correspond. The simple prepositions are divisible into three clauses, indicating respectively, motion proceeding from or away from a place; motion to or towards it; and rest in it. The prepositions which indicate motion proceeding from or away from a place are and "aen".

  with pronominal suffixes  , etc designate:

(a) The local point of departure, departure from a place; hence it is connected with verbs which convey the idea of separation, departure, holding oneself or another aloof from any person or thing, liberating, preserving, fleeing, frightening away, forbidding and the like. Hence is  used to signify, on the one hand, by or through, and on the other hand, in place of, instead of. [17:01]

 (b) The temporal point of departure, the point at which an act or state has commenced. When used in this signification, Arab Grammarians call it "denotes the commencement of the limits in place and time" or simply "lil ibteda" to denote the commencement. [17:01]

(c) The casual point of departure, the origin and source of a thing; Grammarians say that in this case is used for assigning the reason.

(d) The distance from a place, person or thing, particularly after words which signify proximity, such as قَرَبَ or دَنَا , to be near, near etc.

(e) The difference between two persons or things which are contrasted or compared with one another. Hence the use of after comparative adjectives; as "he is better than me ". [Remember: If an object is compared with itself in a different respect, the pronominal suffix must be attached to the preposition "they were nearer unbelief that day than belief".

(f) The relation which subsists between the part and whole, the species and the genus; [Rem: When  precedes a definite noun, especially in the plural, it often indicates an indefinite quantity or number. Accordingly with an indefinite genitive may be subject of a sentence. In such cases of nominal origin of we see it clearly a substantive, meaning a part or portion. [Rem: After negative particles, and interrogatives put in a negative sense prefixed to an indefinite noun means "none at all" and not "not one". [Rem: When indicates a part of a whole it is said to be used "lil tabeez" to indicate division into parts; when it indicates the parts of which a whole is composed "lil-tarkeebe" to indicate composition.

The function of this is to express the relationship between the part and whole; the member and the body to which that member belongs.

(g)  [للتَّبْيِينِ] The definition or explanation/clarification of a general or universal by a special or particular term, the later being one of several objects that go to make up the former, "therefore avoid the abomination of idols". Its sign is that it is proper to place [الذى هُوَ] in its place.

 (h) The specifying a general term.  

: Noun for time and place: Definite by construct; masculine, genitive + Suffixed Pronoun كَ: Second Person; singular; masculine; genitive state referent for the elevated Messenger Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam.

The Root of this time adverb: ق ب ل signifies the condition of two objects confronting - encountering, face to face; or one thing turning towards the other object to become face to face. The time that has passed is in our front.

As time adverb it refers to past timeline. The past is like the facing forward surface for human beings while the future is like a surface on the back not within the view. These phrases cover the entire timeline before the corporeal appearance of the exalted Messenger. Like English word "before" (a preposition and as adverb meaning previously) that indicates sequence of actions, one preceding the other and closely connected with it; the Arabic word: is also time adverb referring to preceding time-frame. It occurs in construct structure - possessive phrase. When used as an object of preposition: it will reflect all the points in time, events, or situations preceding another which relates to its second noun/pronoun in the construct structure. In otherwise identical ayahs, instead of the prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrase, only accusative time adverb: is used:

Recurrence: (1)2:4(2)3:184(3)4:60(4)4:162(5)6:10(6)6:34(7)6:42(8)10:94(9)12:109(10)13:32(11)13:38(12)15:10(13)16:43(14)16:63(15)21:25(16)21:34 (17)21:41 (18)22:52(19)28:46(20)30:47(21)32:3(22)35:4(23)39:65(24)40:78(25)41:43(26)42:3(27)43:23(28)43:45=28

  • Moreover, they (Mutta'qeena) are those who heartily accept-believe in that which was compositely sent to you the Messenger [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam]


  • And in that which was compositely sent before you.

  • And they have conviction regarding the Hereafter. [2:04]


Progressive number of grammatical units: =  + 28