Economics: : Sustenance that sustains life


Contents

1. Introduction: The semantic frame/domain of Economics in Arabic language; Economic system is founded upon philosophy and belief about life

2. There are two philosophies about life; hence there are two economic systems since the emergence of civilization:

a) Divine Economy: For those who have faith with conviction in the continuity of life: Resurrection and Accountability: Upshot Hell-Prison or Paradise;

b) Capitalist Economy: Devised by those whose Philosophy and belief about life is: We live only onceno resurrection. Upshot: Hell-Prison

Introduction

Experts suggest it is useful to view the vocabulary of a language/text as a set of words referring to a series of conceptual fields. In linguistics, these divisions are called Semantic fields. A semantic field or semantic domain is a set of words grouped by meaning referring to a subject; languages will have fields of distance, location, size, shape, time, emotion, beliefs, economics, academic subjects, natural phenomena, etc. Each field can have many sub-divisions or lexical sets: actual words and expressions. Semantic fields are arranged hierarchically, going from the more general to the more specific. Linguists generally refer the general word by umbrella term "superordinate" and the specific word as "hyponym". The propositional meaning carried by a general word or superordinate is part of the meaning of each of its hyponyms but not vice versa. In Arabic, each Root is specific to a semantic field referring to a subject.

The conceptsemantic frame of economicseconomic or material wellbeing - all maters relating to wealth is portrayed in the Grand Qur’ān by the word: a noun of action [اسم مصدر]. It is derived from Root: ع ى ش. The basic perception infolded in it was described by learned Ibn Faris [died 1005 - (مقاييس اللغة)] in these words:

 

That it leads to the perception of life, and survival - subsistence.

(مقاييس اللغة)

العين والياء والشين أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على حياةٍ وبقاء

 
Lanes Lexicon says:
مَعَاشٌ. مَعِيشَةٌ  inf. n. of عَاشَ  Also Victuals, living, sustenance, or food and drink by which one lives; that whereby life subsists; the means of life or subsistence;

In Urdu we have borrowed words with similar proposition-concept:

 معاشیات-عیش۔عیاشی: ہنسی خوشی بغیر تفکرات یا غم کے زندگی گزارنا

The concept, perception infolded in the Root reflects that Economics is like lifeline for survival of a person and society having analogy with blood which is lifeline for each cell of the body and human life as a whole unit.

Allah the Exalted has outlined and explained that there are only two systems of economics that are pursued by Man ever since the first known civilization: the nation described by association with the name of elevated Messenger of Allah the Exalted, Noah alahissalam. Their foundation is with reference to two philosophies about life.

One System was devised by a group of deviants who refused to believe in the Hereafter. They have materialist worldview; "we live only once". They believe not about facing a reckoning for their actions. They revolve around a presumptive belief that resources are scarce to fulfil their unlimited wants. They believe that Man is self-interested being. They consider pain and pleasure are two sovereign masters that govern the life of a man. They have the ideology that makes money-capital the central purpose of life for all individuals. They worship it believing it gives them the power; they can tame and enslave people and become in charge of existence.  They make people believe in themselves, they turn human "self" as "inner god", naively rendering them slaves of desires. Divine guidance is a myth in their opinion. Their philosophy is human minds were the only source of knowledge. They are trapped in a vicious circle that the determining forces behind the reality of universe are causation, nature, and chance.

The other Economic System is devised and proposed by Allah the Exalted for those who truly believe in the continuity of life in the Hereafter and are convinced of accountability for actions in Earthly life. They are given a method of earning to ensure an economy of affluence and wellbeing for the truly living life of Hereafter.

The difference between two systems is primarily of philosophy and ideology about life; and not merely of economic terms, financial instruments and institutions. We for ease of reference term them as Divine Economy and Capitalist Economy.

We humans do not belong to this Universe comprising of Earth and the Sky layered into seven segments. Our origin is partly terrestrial since some constituent elements are earthly but the primary and vital element is water which is extraterrestrial matter, flash descended in measured quantity and stored in the Earth [23:18]. We came into existence in areas beyond the space of Universe of Earth and Skies.

However, a happening caused us to leave that place and we came down to the Earth. Perhaps, all those present on the Earth would have observed for the first time a UFO-Unidentified foreign object landing with the first Man and the First Lady onboard as governors enjoying autonomy-discretionary powers to self administer their affairs: [ref 2:30].

  • Thereat, through devious manipulation Shai'taan caused both slip from the given advice.

  • Thereby, he caused the exile of both from state of felicity-comfort in which they had been;

  • And We had directed: "You all go down to the Earth.

  • Some of you will be acting as enemy for some others.

  • Know it, comfortable dwelling and livelihood is arranged in the Earth for you people for a duration to an appointed moment of termination". [2:36]

 

We were told that this descent and sojourn is for a limited period and that we might be ascended back subject to we follow certain conditions, whereby the most disturbing emotional concerns will fade. Man was plainly told while he was seen off to land on the Earth:

  • We had said: "You go down out of this place jointly-together.

  • Take note of sub-classifications; whenever shall come to you people guidance-guide from Me;

  • Thereat, whoever would have followed in letter and spirit My Guidance in such manner that nothing else influences in between;

  • Thereby, fear will not overshadow-haunt such class of people.

  • Neither will they have a cause to grieve". [2:38]

  • He the Exalted said: "You both go down to Earth jointly departing from this place: Paradise.

  • Some of you people will be acting as enemy for some others.

  • Thereby, when Guidance-Guide comes to you people from Me;

  • Thereat, whoever affectionately acted upon My Guidance in letter and spirit in such manner that nothing else influences in between;

  • Thereby, having acted on My Guidance neither would he go stray-neglectful-unrewarded nor would he face trouble-difficulty-inconvenience." [20:123]

 

The universal principle laid down for strict compliance to secure perpetual success and a truly living life in the Hereafter was to follow the Book of Allah the Exalted in timeline fixed for the Earthly life. Those will be declared successful and will be given their record in their right hand who complied with and lived consciously avoiding breach of the cognizable offences; and orienting themselves to the best of their knowledge and capacity with the Code of Conduct prescribed in the Book of Allah the Exalted:

  • Thereat as for he is concerned whose record is handed over to him in his right hand:

  • Thereat he will say to others: "Here, you people read my record; [69:19]

  • The fact is that I was positively sure that I will certainly be confronting my account." [69:20]

  • Thereby, he will live in affluent economics, a pleasantly enjoying life; [69:21]

  • In the elevated Garden; [69:22]

  • Its clusters of fruits are hanging near in hand reach for plucking: [69:23]

  • "You people eat and drink with satisfaction because of that which you did beforehand in the days gone by." [69:24]

 

 
  • Thereat as for he is concerned whose weigh scales weighted heavier; [101:06]

  • Thereby, he will live in affluent economics, a pleasantly enjoying life; [101:07]

The upshot of other group of people was also declared:

  • And those people who deliberately refused to accept and publicly contradicted Our Aa'ya'at: unitary verbal passages of the Book:

  • They are the people who will be the resident subjects-companions of scorching Hell-Prison.

  • They will abide therein permanently. [2:39]

  • And whoever had purposely abstained adhering My Admonition-Reference Source-Operative Manual for conduct: Book:  

  • Thereby, certainly a straitened living -economy will be arranged for him in Hell-prison.

  • Take note; We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection; he will be feeling blind. [20:124]

 

It is thus evident that common human beings are divided in two groups, the Believers of Divine Book and guidance and Non-Believers of Divine Book. In the Hereafter, the abodes for common human beings are two, the Paradise and Hell-Prison. The economy of life in Paradise is of affluence and par excellence pleasure. The economy of life in the Hell-Prison is straitened by meagre resources. The details of economic conditions obtaining in the Paradise and the Hell-Prison we will discuss later. In the next chapter we will discuss the philosophy and economic system of people who believe not in the Hereafter.

2. There are two philosophies about life; hence there are two economic systems since the emergence of civilization: