Exodus - Eyewitness account

From Egypt to At-Tur [Mount in Sinai] by crossing over Gulf of Suez



2. Orientation - complication and the resolution

3. Meanings of Key words: ; ; ' ; ;

4. Importance and semantic signification of conjunctive particles in the episode and "Fa-فَ "

5. The Exodus

(a) Refusal and breaking of commitments by Pharaoh to let Bani Iesraa'eel go;

(b) Last days in Egypt;

(c) Departure from Egypt during night towards East;

(d) Pharaoh, on knowing their departure, calls the troops from encampments and chases them.

(e) Bani Iesraa'eel having reached bank of Gulf of Suez notice Pharaoh with troops approaching them.

(f) Dried passage emerges over the surface of water; Bani Iesraa'eel walk over the dried passage across to the other bank;

(g) Pharaoh and his troops follow their footsteps; and were drowned;

(h) Pharaoh submits to Islam before being submerged into the Sea;

(i) Mummy identified as of Ramses II is not of Pharaoh of Day of Exodus

(j) What could be the immediate cause of collapsing of the dried passage, perhaps the sign referred is resonance phenomenon.

(k) The most ill-fate aspect of the end of Pharaoh.

(m) What was the number of people accompanying Mūsā alai'his'slaam?


Exodus of Bani Iesraa'eel-  - the sons of Iesraa'eel alai'his'slaam from Egypt to Peninsula of Sinai is one of the most discussed events of the history of Jews which is rendered blurred by conjectural, hypothetical and imaginative stories. However, the Grand Qur’ān has described the event in such picturesque manner that we can watch it as if we are watching its footage recorded by a camera.

Allah the Exalted has mentioned some episodes particularly those about which many people were or could be rendered in a perplexed and confused state of mind by Epistemology of Testimony. It is a known fact that many Psychological Manipulators distort the history and spread conjectural myths.

One such narrative is about the Exodus of the sons of Iesraa'eel alai'his'slaam from Egypt to Peninsula of Sinai. Narrative is a Factual Recount. Narrative texts have to do with real-world events and time. The purposes of narrative may be to inform, to persuade and/or to correct the record, rectify the falsities gleaned by people from the Epistemology of Testimony.

Narrative writing uses time as its deep structure. Language features of narrative text are:

In Arabic, the word for Narrative- a Real-Life Event is: : It stems from Root: ق ص ص . The basic perception infolded, in the words of Ibne Faris [died 1005] is that of following and tracking something, literally step by step. Lane's Lexicon portrayed this perception in these words; "to follow after one's track or footprints in pursuit; endeavour to trace or track someone".

A compilation of the sequence of happenings in the past is episode:, a part of history but distinct and of specific significance from the greater whole. Each part/segment of this compilation is unitary news, an activity; each segment is distinct static image like a mark/footprint. Each movement has, and leaves behind consecutive, one after the other images-traces. The movement/activity may apparently vanish but if we had seen or recorded the activity which is nothing but saving in memory or tape-disk the images, we can see that movement again either by recalling from memory or rewinding the tape and playing it back. Therefore: denotes narrating the episode in the exact manner of its actual happening, displaying the pictures of it clip by clip, image by image: the footage in present day parlance so that the activity and actual happening could be visualized by the listener and reader.

The main structural components of a narrative are the orientation, the complication and the resolution, and may include a concluding statement or comment in order to sum up the message.

2. Orientation - complication and the resolution:

The time frame is the period when the posterity of Iesraa'eel alai'his'slaam were living as a distinct fraternity - a nation sharing common blood who were slave nation and second class subjects in the reign of Pharaoh. They had distinct identity of Bani Iesraa'eel in the populace of Egypt. The Posterity of Iesraa'eel (Bani Iesraa'eel- ) are reminded of those hard days with choice of such words that for others it seems like the headline of breaking a story:

 And they are asked to recall how were they rescued:

  • Moreover, recall the point in time when Our Majesty rendered the Gulf of Suez [refer 20:80].separated to assist you people to cross over [the dry passage, central passage like line in human skull];

  • Thereby, We rescued you keeping safe above the surface-reach of water; [skeleton like dried passage/emerged fringing reef-see 26:63]

  • And We caused the drowning of the Pharaoh-folk; [army equipped with arms] while you people were watching them drowning [from other bank of Gulf of Suez after having crossed over the emerged fringing reef that served as bridge-dried passage]. [2:50]



Grand Qur’ān has succinctly described the entire episode covering its orientation, complication and resolution in just thirty four words of these two ayahs addressed to the posterity of Iesraa'eel alai'his'slaam. It also mentioned how were they rescued through Gulf of Suez.

This composite mention of episode is again referred with other details of the history of Bani Iesraa'eel:

3. Meanings of Key words

With regard to rescuing them, the verbal sentences used are:

 ; ; ' .

They all stem from the Root: ن ج و  Its semantic domain is Rescue and Escape. Classical lexicons state that its primary signification is rescuing a man and to move away fast - drive out of a place - evacuate. It denotes a place too high for flooding to reach.

Secondly, its original meanings are secret consultations between two persons. The primary signification of this Root is to rescue a person, and escaping of a person from a dangerous and unpleasant situation; and secondary signification is of consultations, talks in privacy or seclusion, nature of which can be good or bad intents. Common feature shared by both signification is driving or moving to a safe place.

When the rescue is through a water reservoir, it will signify nothing else but moving away over upon the surface of water; and people over it were safe from drowning. Semantically, it is not possible to relate this driving out through a place which is below the level and surface of water.

In the first three verbal sentences the subject of the verb is first person, masculine plural, referent to the speaker speaking in Majestic tone, Our Majesty. The last verbal sentence is spoken by Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] and it is third person masculine singular perfect verb with subject pronoun hidden referent for Allah the Exalted.

Except for the first verbal sentence in which the verb is of Form-II, the rest are of Form-IV. Form II Verb represent two shifts in the meaning from Form-I. First shift is causative and the other is to intensify the meanings of Form-I Verb. The derivative verb makes an attribution to object; to consider someone or something to be something. It also indicates gradation: it means that the action occurs progressively. Form-IV is Causative - Causing someone or something to perform the action of Measure I.

Another important word in the exodus episode is: . It stems from Root: ب ح ر. The basic perception infolded in the Root is to slit, trench, or cleave lengthwise. Since the beds of  river, sea, ocean are naturally trenched on a large area of  land in length and width which become the flowing route of reservoirs of waters, therefore, the word: refers and signifies either the Sea, Lake or the River. The Rivers end up, or we may say the trench continues to join another trench of bigger size, in Lakes and Seas. From this, we can see the concept and perception of a global interconnected trench enabling flow and serving as reservoir of water.

However, the Sea and River have some features that are common for both, and some peculiar characteristics are such that signify both as distinct entities. Therefore, we must take care of the characteristics and relationship with other words, wherever we find mention of: , to arrive at exact conclusion whether it refers to River or certain Sea over the surface of the Earth/Landforms or a trench beneath the Earth wherein water reservoirs flow. This is also necessitated if the word is prefixed with the definite article.

The verb: in the sentence: unambiguously identifies its object as the peculiar Sea: since the act and its effect related with this Verb cannot be thought or perceived in relation to the River. 

  • Know it; Our Majesty helped them safely cross over the [dried passage-fringing Reef] Gulf of Suez along with Bani Iesraa'eel;  [Recurrence:(1)7:138(2)10:90=2]

Verb: Perfect; First person; Plural/Sovereign Singular; Masculine; [Form-III]; [نَا] Suffixed Subject Pronoun; nominative state;  مصدر مُجَاوَزَةٌ Verbal Noun. It stems from Root ج و ز. It signifies crossing over a place, a passage which is crossed from one side to other. Its object is Gulf of Suez. The travelers on the passage over the Water of the Gulf of Suez were the Messengers along with Bani Iesraa'eel.  

Why the object of verb: be taken as Gulf of Suez? Because they were rescued to a place which is located on other side of the Gulf of Suez. It is explicitly mentioned:

  • They were reminded: "O you the posterity of Iesraa'eel! Our Majesty deliveredrescued you in the recent past from your enemy;

  • And We have appointed for you a period [of asylum] on the right side of At-Tur [Mount in Sinai];

  • And We have intermittently sent to you al-Munna and As-salwa: excellent food. [20:80]


In the entire globe there is no At Tur by the bank of a Sea except the one on the Eastern shore of Gulf of Suez opposite to a location known as Râs Shukeir. The width of Gulf is 12 to 20 miles. The width between Ras Shukeir and right side of At Tur seems on shorter side in the Google Map. And we will see them in later part of the study that they had moved out of the Egypt towards East to escape.

[In frame of reference today it reflects to the reader; O you the posterity of Israel! Indeed in the past We delivered/rescued you from your enemy and We had appointed for you a period of asylum on the right side of At-Tur [Mount in Sinai] and We kept sending  you the al-Munna and As-Salwa [during your stay at the right side of At-Tur till you complained that you cannot endure one kind of food-2:61].". This is the superiority of Arabic of Grand Qur’ān  that these words conveyed an exact fact to the original addresses who were physically rescued at that time, and the same words today are making us perceive unambiguously the fact of past. Each and every word of Grand Qur’ān is a proven fact for every listener and reader, irrespective of time and space he lived in.]

Where they had reached after the Exodus is the location mentioned by reference to Eastern areas and Western areas of two other lands Egypt and Mecca: 

It is thus explicit that the Exodus was accomplished by crossing over:Gulf of Suez.


4. Importance and semantic signification of conjunctive particles in the episode: and "Fa-فَ "

Another important element in the narratives is conjunctive particles that ensure information flow and interweave all the segments of episode as a coherent unit . The conjunctive particles that are used in the episode are and "Fa-فَ ". First is a Conjunction - appositive and delineation particle. It is used as Recommencing, Conjunction particle, and as Particle of state - circumstance to initiate a circumstantial clause. The second particle "Fa" conjuncts clauses; semantically signifies cause and effect relationship and shows that later is subsequent to the former in time duration natural to taking its effect. It is prefixed to the verbal sentence: signifying that the action denoted by its suffixed verb was effected after the accomplishment of the action mentioned in the main clause, of which this sentence is the subordinate/dependent clause.

Before we start studying and watching the events immediately before the Exodus, the route adopted and the crossing over the Gulf of Suez to the peninsula of Sinai, let us see why it so happened:

5. The Exodus

(a) Refusal and breaking of commitments by Pharaoh to let Bani Iesraa'eel go;

We will skip other details of history and restrict to the theme of paper, i.e. moving of Bani Iesraa'eel from Egypt. Pharaoh was told about the message and direction of Allah the Exalted to let Bani Iesraa'eel go with the Messengers out of his kingdom :

Pharaoh and his chieftains denied, and upon unprecedented disturbing happenings they requested for its removal and promised to let Bani Iesraa'eel go out of their kingdom but every time they twisted away from their sworn promise:

(b) Last days in Egypt;

Pharaoh and his Chieftains, despite having seen unprecedented nine displays and restoration of normal situation upon their commitment to release Bani Iesraa'eel, they were adamant not to relieve them:

The difficult situation for Bani Iesraa'eel worsened:

And they prayed for not rendering them as the object-crucible for subjecting those to trial and exposure who were the unjust people, and for their rescue.

(c) Departure from Egypt during night towards East;

Allah the Exalted communicated, in aforementioned revelations, to Mūsā alai'him'slaam in Egypt the following instructions for the Exodus:

(a) To travel along with the believers - "My sincere allegiants" at night;

(b) The travel direction and destination was: Gulf of Suez.

(c) They will be pursued by Pharaoh and troops.

(d) Mūsā alai'him'slaam will not fear being overtaken by enemy nor will have any other apprehension of unpleasant eventuality.

(e) What he was asked to do upon reaching the Gulf of Suez was: . And after crossing over the Gulf of Suez he was directed to leave it: . The reason of leaving the Gulf in such state was: .

Except the mechanism or method by which he could emerge a dried passage over the surface of water, the message was explicit for carrying it out and the information about the drowning of enemy was emphatic.

For retrieving the semantic information in the sentence: , let us analyze the morphology and syntax of elements and their semantic value. The first element: is a second person masculine (Mūsā alai'him'slaam) imperative verb,  prefixed with particle: "Fa-فَ ". Particle signifies  that the action was to be executed after having reached to the shore of Gulf of Suez. The direct object of verb is: : an indefinite - noun in absolute state. It stems from Root:  ط ر ق. Its primary signification is beating a thing to flatten, layered, loosen or to separate it. Beating the ground so as to render it even, or easy to be traveled and trodden. It yields a slab, a path. The indefinite noun denotes a track, being of the measure فَعِيلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ; and applied to any place of passage. The preposition phrase: "for them" signifies for whom this passage was meant for walking over to reach another point. Since the noun: is indefinite it needed specification. The prepositional phrase: related to the elided specification/ adjectival for the principal noun "passage, path", meaning "the passage which is within the Gulf of Suez - the passage in submerged state in the Sea". The second characteristic of the passage existing within the Sea was portrayed by: which is a verbal noun in the meaning of active participle that denotes an action that renders a moist object in dried up, stiff, firm state which can resist pressure.

It is evident that all the elements of verbal sentence refer to a pre-existing dried passage in submerged state within the Gulf of State. The only action to be taken by Mūsā alai'him'slaam was: . It stems from Root: "ض ر ب" The basic perception, meanings and signification infolded in this Root as stated in Lane Lexicon is, [quote] "accord. to Er-Rághib, الضَّرْبُ signifies the making a thing to fall upon another thing;" [unquote] The conceptual meanings of the Root evidently reveal that its meanings in the real-world experience will be reflected by the collocates or other words associated with it in the context. It reflects that its effect may necessarily not be of causing hurt. It reflects an instance; an illustration or an occurrence. The most equivalent word in English vocabulary to describe the basic perception and its various uses in different semantic fields is verb "strike". "Strike" denotes; to fall or shine on something; to make something noticed; and to remove something away-displace.

Something lying within the Sea is not noticeable. It is in submerged state. Thus striking a dried passage within the Sea would signify nothing but rendering it noticeable, emerged on surface of water to become visible for walking over while remaining safe from the reach of water.

He was specifically ensured: "You will not have fear of being overtaken, nor you will dread." Notwithstanding the chase by Pharaoh and his troops, the possibility of overtaking - seizing by them was declared out of question. The other assurance was about dreading something. We dread, our adversary; when we know him superior in power; and distrust of strength, makes us dread. It seems as if it was a clarification not to distrust the strength of the passage.

The second command relates to the timeframe when they would have crossed over the Gulf off Suez. He was instructed to leave the Sea: "And you (Mūsā alai'him'slaam ) abandon the Gulf of Suez". It is thus evident that he was to first let others to land on the shore and then he was to step on the shore leaving behind the Sea. The verbal noun: is the circumstantial accusative signifying in what state of the Sea/passage he was to abandon it. It stems from Root: ر ھ و. Classical Lexicons state that it signifies making a space between two legs, easy pace and a place which experiences a state of elevation and a state of depression.

The reason to leave without disturbing the ridged state of the passage was told: Indeed they are the troops that will be drowned." It was made clear that they will follow their footsteps on the emerged-and-then left as ridged passage; and they will be rendered drowned. What caused the drowning of well trained regular troops would further highlight the nature of the dried passage that served as a bridge for the Messengers and a group of Bani Iesraa'eel (all civilians) to cross over to the other side of Gulf of Suez.

(d) Pharaoh, on knowing their departure, calls the troops from encampments and chases them.

We have earlier stated that to grasp the flow of information and to remain abreast with the sequencing of happenings we must focus upon the conjunctive particles to fill in the gaps left to maintain succinctness and literary beauty of the discourse. In Egypt, he was told:

Further information is mentioned in a subordinate clause beginning with "Fa-فَ " which reveals about what had happened after their departure from Egypt during a night:

Pharaoh received the intelligence reports about the leaving of the Messengers and a group of people accompanying them. Instead of chasing them with the Army unit that would have been available in or near his Palace, he sent message to Army Encampments. This shows how coward was he from within that he could not gather courage trying seizing a small band of unarmed civilians. In fact all dictators are coward within. What he wrote to army commanders was this:

Having assembled, they marched towards East to seize the departed group of people:

They chased and: is the Circumstantial accusative (حال). Some general rules of حال include the following:

1-The حال will be in the accusative state and its governor will be a verb

2-The حال will usually be a participle;

3-The ذو الحال he/those whose state is being described will usually be definite and the حال indefinite, as is the case here.

4-The حال usually closely follows the ذو الحال

5-The حال can describe the state of the subject, the object, or even both and together حال and ذو الحال will form a phrasal structure.

The circumstantial adverb (حال) is that component of a verbal sentence that describes the state under which the verb is enacted. The act is chasing, they were the chasers in the direction East of their start point, the Palace of Pharaoh. On their East was Gulf of Suez.


(e) Bani Iesraa'eel having reached bank of Gulf of Suez notice Pharaoh with troops approaching them.

The next event is that the companions of Mūsā alai'him'slaam and the chasing troops observed the presence of each other from a distance. The companions of Mūsā alai'him'slaam panicked:

What they said was: Emphatic Particle-distanced + Passive participle: Indefinite; sound plural; masculine; nominative; [Form-IV]. It was something the fear of which was already negated to Mūsā alai'him'slaam in Egypt: : "You will not have fear of being overtaken." He ensured his companions:

This is the point in time when he is sure of receiving guidance about carrying out the command he was given in Egypt for emerging a submerged dried passage in the Gulf of State. 

(f) The dried passage (Fringing and other Reefs) is made to emerge over the surface of water;

He was expecting guiding instruction how to emerge the submerged dried passage in the Sea. He received it, and might have noticed that he was just standing on the outer edge of the dried passage.

In Egypt he was already told: , therefore, its repetition would have been waste of words. Only the instrument was mentioned with the help of which the submerged passage would emerge. The next verbal sentence is a subordinate clause beginning with conjunction particle "Fa-فَ " signifying cause and effect relationship with the preceding and subsequent clause. The act of striking with his stalk resulted in: . The verbal sentence comprises of verb:  Perfect; Third person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-VII]; Subject pronoun hidden;  مصدر-إِنْفِلاَقٌ Verbal noun. The subject pronoun is referent for the Dried Passage which was henceforth in submerged state. It is Form-VII verb which has passive meanings. Measure VII Passive Meaning - Indicates that he received the action of the verb without a doer, or it happened on its own.

It stems from Root: ف ل ق , Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الفاء واللام والقاف أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على فُرْجةٍ وبَيْنُونةٍ في الشيء، وعلى تعظيمِ شيء.

That it leads to the perception of fissure and split, division, separation, triangular spacing-aperture-gap, disunion in a thing; and to express exaltation for a thing.

Its meanings are rendered explicit in Grand Qur’ān by the collocates:

The irreducible semantic feature of this Root is emergence and becoming prominent. Anything invisible, non-prominent, below the surface or in depth is out of its ambit. The Dried Passage had emerged over the surface of water of Gulf of Suez and NOT in its bed.

What was happening that day is further mentioned in the next dependant clause starting with conjunction particle "Fa-فَ " revealing to us that emergence of the entire dried passage took some time and that it was not one continuous path but was comprising of many parts joined together giving it an appearance of a single track: ; The subject noun of deficient perfect verb is a possessive phrase: which means each of all the parts - segments of the Dried Passage. And: can be taken as possessive phrase with  كَ as Exemplifying Noun standing as predicate of deficient verb, or it can grammatically be considered as prepositional phrase relating to the elided predicate. Semantically it will not much of a difference.

The definite possessive/object noun of phrase: signifies something stationed firmly, high and tall, ascending. It is adjectively portrayed by a definite Adjective resembling participle (الصفة المشبهة): . It stems from Root: ع ظ م. Lane's Lexicon states that primarily it signifies He was, or became, great in his bone: then metaphorically said of anything كَبِير [or great], whether an object of sense or of intellect, a substance or an accident:; said of a thing as meaning it was, or became, great, big, or large, in length and breadth and thickness:

The Adjective resembling participle, or termed as Verbal Adjective, is a noun derived from an intransitive verb in order to signify the one who establishes an action or state with the meaning of permanence. It is a noun which indicates on the root meaning being an attribute. And this attribute is usually perpetual or intrinsic.

Firstly it is told that the passage submerged in the water was expressed by: a verbal noun in the meaning of active participle that denotes an action that renders a moist object in dried up, stiff, firm state which can resist pressure. And interestingly, its Root also refers shank-bone. Afterwards, when it emerged on the surface of the water of Gulf of Suez it was in the state of interlinked parts, each of which was like a big bone-skeleton firmly established at its respective location.

All the verbs and nouns used in this episode have not at all a semantic reference within their ambit about a passage in the bed of the Sea. All verbs and nouns signify something emerging above the surface, becoming prominent, above the reach of water, not moist but dried up, more like great skeleton. Bone appears to be non-living thing, and interestingly the Greek word from which English word skeleton is derived also corresponds to Arabic word: a moist thing dried-up.

The irreducible semantic features of all the verbs and nouns used in the description of events of famous Exodus lead us to the conclusion that the dried passage, which served as a bridge to cross over the Gulf of Suez, was the result of emergence and assemblage of different Reefs with no lagoon (wide band of water that lies between the shore and the main area of reef development, and contains at least some deep portions) in between the parts of the bridge.

Mūsā alai'his'slaam and his companions were on this side of the shore. Fringing reef is that reef that grows directly from a shore. There is no lagoon between the reef and shore though there may be areas of shallow inter-tidal or sub-tidal sand bottom lying between the beach and the inshore edge of coral growth.

The fringing reef served as the first part of the bridge to leave the shore and enter into the sea territory. And other reefs connected to it, in total they were at least three in number, becoming a dried track like floating bridge in the Gulf of Suez. Later we will watch how Pharaoh and his troops were submerged and drowned in the Sea and see that it was the bridge that forcibly drowned them. 


(g) Pharaoh and his troops follow their footsteps and were drowned;

We have just seen that the dried passage had emerged whereat they walked over it to reach the other shore. At that time Pharaoh and his troops were approaching them and both had observed each other at a distance.

The clips of an ongoing event show that Mūsā alai'him'slaam and his companions are already on their move across the Sea when the Chasers were brought nearer. When they had arrived nearer, Allah the Exalted safely rescued Mūsā alai'him'slaam and whoever was with him over the floating bridge to other side of the Sea. What happened after a lapse of considerable time signified by the conjunction particle: is that He the Exalted drowned the other party. This particle used only once in the episode of Exodus shows a time-lag and not continuous flow of same event. The time-lag indication shows that Pharaoh and his troops had reached the Shore while those whom they wanted to seize were still on their way on the dried passage within the sea. This particle shows some other details of the event are not mentioned which happened before they were drowned. Those details were mentioned earlier:

It shows that Fir'aoun/Pharaoh took the lead to step on the Dried passage and his troops marched behind him. The next informative sentence also begins with conjunction particle "Fa-فَ " which signifies that the following event happened when they all were on the floating bridge like dried passage. The verbal sentence: comprises of Prefixed conjunction فَ  + Verb: Perfect; Third person; Singular; Masculine; Suffixed  fronted Object Pronoun: Third person; plural; masculine, in accusative state;  مصدر-غِشَاوَةٌ/غِشَاءٌ Verbal noun. The Subject of the verb is Relative Pronoun: and its relative clause is same verbal sentence: . The verb signifies to come over somebody suddenly and overpowering effect. Verb and the subject signify the object that submerged them. The prepositional phrase: relates to the verbal sentence signifying that the object which covered them had emerged from the Gulf of Suez. The preposition: indicates motion proceeding from or away from a place. The object had earlier moved from the Gulf over the surface of water. When somebody is forcibly submerged in the sea the preposition: is used as was earlier mentioned:

The verbal sentence: comprising of conjunction particle, verb, subject and object. Verb is Perfect; First Person; Plural/ Sovereign Singular; Masculine; Transitive; Subject Pronoun in nominative state + Suffixed Object pronoun: Third person; plural; Masculine, in accusative state; مصدر-نَبْذٌ-باب ضرب Verbal noun. The primary signification of verb is to throw, fling something esteemed of no account or importance. He was thrown from a place into the Gulf of Suez. This verb also reveals he and his troops were on the dried passage from where they were thrown into the Sea.

And what was the manner of execution of verb: "Thereby Our Majesty seized him"? It is elaborated:

In the sentence the verbal noun: is Cognate adverb (المفعول المطلق) from which the preceding verb is made. Cognate adverb explains the manner and multitude/intensity in which the action took place. It is the first noun of adjectival phrase, adjective is: Active participle: Indefinite; singular; masculine; accusative. It stems from Root: و ب ل which signifies intensity and extremity; used to signify the extremity of scapula and old days staff of the washer man with which he used to beat the dirty clothes. This also shows that heavy skeleton like structures had struck them wounded and sluggish and eventually submerged in the Gulf of Suez.

(h) Pharaoh submits to Islam before being submerged into the Sea;

The culminating moments of the Exodus witnessed this:

But it was too late, he was responded:

(i) Mummy identified as of Ramses II is not of Pharaoh of Day of Exodus

He was further told:

Scholars and general public have taken interest and referred much this Ayah of Grand Qur’ān ever since the find of a Mummy stated to be that of Pharaoh named Ramses II. Following Verbal sentence along with elided circumstantial clause indicated by prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrase is cause of interest and finding linkage with the find of Mummy:

This is the last scene of famous Exodus. Pharaoh is in the Gulf of Suez, he has perceived imminent drowning and end of him. He is feeling helpless and despairing. He voices having believed that there is not at all iela'aha: godhead except the Only in Whom Bani Iesraa'eel have believed. In response, turning down his implied prayer, he was reminded of his immediate and earlier conduct in life. He was further told: 

: Particle "Fa" conjuncts clauses, semantically signifies cause and effect relationship and shows that later is immediately subsequent to the former in time. His hope and possibility of rescue has already been declined. Suffixed time adverb relates to the following verb and denotes the Day of Exodus.

: This verbal sentence comprises of Verb: Imperfect; First Person/Sovereign singular; Masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-II]; Subject pronoun hidden; Suffixed Object: Second person; masculine; singular, in accusative state; مصدر-تَنْجِيَةٌ Verbal noun.  The irreducible features embedded in the Root and form of the verb are rescuing a person from a dangerous and unpleasant situation to a safer place and render him a saved person. Form-II adds attributive-Estimative/Declarative connotation: it makes an attribution to object; to consider someone or something to be something.

In straight and literal sense it therefore unambiguously means: "Our Majesty will rescue you, O Pharaoh". But in the context, it is evident that these are not the intended meanings, notwithstanding the sentence means so. This is what in the figures of speech is called Irony. This figure of speech is mostly used in the Grand Qur’ān in the context of afterlife, the day of resurrection and the upshot of criminals.

Therefore, we will have to estimate sardonic meaning running contrary to the first apparent meanings. Pharaoh was about to die. Thereby, the sardonic meaning of: will be "Our Majesty will render your dead body preserved." Truly, irony is an insult conveyed in the form of a compliment.

The circumstantial clause relating to his preservation was: :  بـِ Inseparable preposition is used for accompaniment, in Arabic لِلمُصَاحَبَةِ,  and its object noun: بَدَنِ is the head noun of possessive phrase, and "كَ" is second person masculine pronoun, referring addressee Pharaoh. Verbal sentence and this circumstantial clause would literally mean; "Our Majesty will render your dead body preserved in the state your بَدَنِ is accompanying."

Noun: بَدَنِ is from Root: ب د ن. Classical Lexicons give us its meanings as:

(مقاييس اللغة)

الباء والدال والنون أصلٌ واحد، وهو شخص الشيء دون شَوَاه، وشَواهُ أطرافُه. يقال هذا بَدَنُ الإنسان، والجمع الأبدان

لسان العرب

والبدنُ من الجسدِ: ما سِوَى الرأْس والشَّوَى،

الَبدَنُ الدرعُ القصيرة

That it is the apparent form - body of a thing other than head and limbs: torso: the human body excluding the head and limbs; trunk. His definition in relation to animals matches carcass: body of slaughtered animal for meat, with the head, limbs, and entrails removed.

This signifies small armour: coat of mail worn on torso.

It is thus evident that it refers only a part of human body that is torso and not human body as a whole for which is the Root: ج س د . Torso is only a sub-category of human body.

It is evident from the imagery of scene that it does not refer to torso of Pharaoh but to his precious scale armour on his torso, which was distinction and recognizing symbol when crowded by people. The pharaohs often wore scale armour with inlaid precious stones. Often the use of scale armour was symbolical or for ostentation.

All English translators have rendered this verbal sentence as was done by pioneer translators:

George Sale: This day will We raise thy body from the bottom of the sea.

John Rodwell: But this day will we rescue thee with thy body.

Words "with thy body" are redundant with "rescue" since it is already in it.

Classical exegeses did mention its one meaning as: درعك "your corselet"

تفسير ابن كثير: وقال أبو صخر بدرعك

تفسير الجلالين: فاليوم ننجيك) نخرجك من البحر (ببدنك) جسدك الذي لا روح فيه

فتح القدير:وقد اختلف المفسرون في معنى ببدنك، فقيل معناه: بجسدك بعد سلب الروح منه، وقيل معناه: بدرعك، والدرع يسمى بدنا

They however erred when they opined that: ببدنك means:  جسدك الذي لا روح فيه your body without soul: dead body. It was error since: جسد refers the whole body of a man whether alive or dead, while بدن signifies only torso of human body.

Thus it is self evident that: has only one meanings "with your scale armour".


This information explicitly negates the belief of considering the embalmed mummy discovered from a royal cache, tagged as that of Ramses II, to be of that Pharaoh who was drowned while pursuing Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] on the day of Exodus. Only that dead body would be considered of that Pharaoh whose immediate cause of death is determined as by drowning. He was drowned in the gulf of Suez.

(j) What could be the immediate cause of collapsing of the dried passage, perhaps the resonance phenomenon.

It is told that in the instance of drowning them there is a sign - pointer. When Mūsā [alai'his'slaam] and his companions had safely walked over the dried passage what made it collapse while Pharaoh and his troops were chasing them? The plausible reason is the pace of civilians and unison march of the troops on bridge. Some events of collapse of long suspension bridges is believed to be the unison march of soldiers due to resonance phenomenon.

The drowning of Pharaoh and his troops is declared as certainly having a sign - a pointer - a phenomenon. Accidents of collapsing of bridges while troops were marching on it who were also drowned has indicated to us that sign related to the dried passage of famous Exodus.

(k) The most ill-fate aspect of the end of Pharaoh.

None would be more ill-fated than Pharaoh and his troops:

This is the upshot of a dictator and his accomplices that not a single tear was dropped. It is dreading.


(m) What was the number of people accompanying Mūsā alai'his'slaam?

There are myths about the number of people who crossed over to Peninsula of Sinai on the day of Exodus. Some claim their number in millions. Let us listen Pharaoh since he was having first hand information about the number of people who had moved out of Egypt:

They were called: Prefixed Particle of Emphasis + Noun: Indefinite; Masculine; singular; nominative. It is the predicate of verb-like particle and denotes a small company or number of people. Its adjectival portrayal by: which is Adjective resembling participle, further confirms that they were not a large group what to say of thousands and millions. It was the statement of Pharaoh. Allah the Exalted has informed earlier:

In view of explicit information there is no sense in believing junk stories about the exodus.