Rescue Plan of Allah the Exalted to thwart execution conspiracy against Easa alhaissalam
Background of the episode—Split in the nation comprising of the posterity- the sons of Iesraa'eel.
Clandestine planning by a group of Non-believers; and counter-plan to thwart it.
Meanings of Possessive Phrase: Neither synonym nor synonymous to death.
Meanings of sentence: which was the part of rescue plan
Meanings and effect of sentence:
Where was he given abode after rescue?
False proclamation of execution of Easa alhaissalam
Every person of the people of the Book before his individual death will accept the factual episode
Allah the Exalted has mentioned some episodes in the Grand Qur’ān, particularly those about which many people were or could be rendered in a perplexed and confused state of mind by Epistemology of Testimony. It is fact that many Psychological Manipulators distort the history and spread conjectural myths. One such Narrative is about the events faced in his life by the elevated Messenger Easa alai'his'slaam, the son of Maryam the truthful. One specific event is the clandestine scheming of Non-believing elite of the posterity- the sons of Iesraa'eel to get Easa alai'his'slaam executed which is the subject of this study.
Narrative is a Factual Recount. Narrative texts have to do with real-world events and time. The purposes of narrative may be to inform, to persuade and/or to correct the record, rectify the falsities gleaned by people from the Epistemology of Testimony.
Narrative writing uses time as its deep structure. Language features of narrative text are:
Adverb of time.
Past Tense is used except in conversations.
Time conjunction (when, then, thereat, suddenly, etc)
Specific character. The character of the episode is specific, not general.
Action verbs. A verb that shows an action.
Direct speech. It is to make the episode lively.
The vocabulary is usually everyday language, depending on the subject matter.
In Arabic, the word for Narrative- a Real-Life Event is: : It stems from Root: ق ص ص . The basic perception infolded, in the words of Ibne Faris [died 1005], is of following and tracking something, literally step by step. Lane's Lexicon portrayed this perception in these words; "to follow after one's track or footprints in pursuit; endeavour to trace or track someone".
A compilation of the sequence of happenings in the past is episode:, a part of history but distinct and of specific significance from the greater whole. Each part/segment of this compilation is unitary news, an activity; each segment is distinct static image like a mark/footprint. Each movement has and leaves behind consecutive—one after the other images-traces. The movement/activity may apparently vanish but if we had seen or recorded the activity which is nothing but saving in memory or tape-disk the images, we can see that movement again either by recalling from memory or rewinding the tape and playing it back. Therefore: denotes narrating the episode in the exact manner of its actual happening—displaying pictures of it clip by clip, image by image: the footage in present day parlance so that the activity and actual happening could be visualized by the listener and reader.
The main structural components of a narrative are the orientation, the complication and the resolution, and may include a concluding statement or comment in order to sum up the message.
Background of the episode—Split in the nation comprising of the posterity- the sons of Iesraa'eel.
Mar'yam the truthful was informed prior to her becoming Virgin-Mother that Al-Messiah, Easa, the son of Mar'yam would be:
On attaining manly maturity and appointed as Allah's Messenger, Al-Messiah, Easa, the son of Mar'yam addressed Bani Iesraa'eel:
Despite witnessing unprecedented miraculous displays one group of them responded:
Thus the nation had split in to two distinct groups:
Thereby, a group of Bani Iesraa'eel heartily believed while their other Group refused to accept and believe. [Refer 61:14]
Clandestine planning by a group of Non-believers
It is history that the ruling elite of nations felt threatened to loose authority and hegemony and demolishing of the system developed by them on falsities and myths, whenever the Elevated Messenger of Allah the Exalted addressed them. Lacking argument to rebut him and upon apprehending his influencing the society, the ruling elite started hatching conspiracies to thwart his message and to eliminate him. They repeated the history slightly differently since they were also the subjects of Romans and were not enjoying governmental powers.
Narrative writing uses time as its deep structure: Prefixed conjunction particle "فَ " + = a subordinating particle. Prefixed Particle "فَ " signifies time-ordered sequence of events and reflects cause-effect phenomenon. The suffixed Particle introduces a subordinate temporal clause which signifies the relationship between background and foreground information. It means "Consequently when". Its associated clause—termed by Grammarians as الجملة في محل جر بالإضافة—is a complete sentence: "Easa [alai'his'slaam] had felt.
: Verb: Perfect; Third person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-IV]; مصدر اِحْسَاسٌَ Verbal Noun. It denotes he ascertained the thing as one ascertains a thing that is perceived by the senses [See Lane's Lexicon]. What had he ascertained—it is mentioned: —Prepositional Phrase is followed by: the direct object of the preceding verb denoting what he had ascertained. The Prepositional Phrase can grammatically be considered as relating to the verb or to circumstantial clause for the direct object of verb. However, the meanings remain conspicuous "from some of them". Denial to believe is not something that needs to be ascertained. It is already an open and known matter. Therefore, the direct object of verb—definite verbal noun: denotes clandestine blaspheming undertaken by a group of the Non-believers. It was what they had clandestinely planned:
It is but rational that upon having ascertained about clandestine plan of dangerous purport one plans to thwart it by taking preparatory measures. Easa alai'his'slaam did the same:
: Possessive Phrase: Active Participle: Definite by construct; plural; masculine; nominative + Possessive pronoun: First person; singular; masculine; in genitive state. This is the delayed Subject of nominal sentence which is the Object of preceding verb—the statement he had made. : Interrogative Noun—it is fronted Predicate of nominal sentence. Prepositional Phrase: does not signify that he was enquiring for seeking support or for accompaniment for going across the boundaries of skies towards Allah the Exalted. General meaning of Preposition: is directional towards an object signifying the end point, and for signifying the meaning of [مَعَ] accompaniment.
The Prepositional Phrase: "towards Allah" can grammatically be considered either as relating to the Subject of sentence or used elliptically about elided circumstantial clause for the First Person Pronoun. We can resolve it by referring to the usual practice of the Messengers in life threatening situations:
Know it; If someone migrates in the cause of Allah the Exalted he will certainly find in the Earth many escaping places, quite open and wide.
And if someone get out of his house as migrant towards Allah the Exalted and His Messenger:
Thereafter on lapsing time after departing, the natural death follows and catches him; thereat, his reward has certainly become due and obligatory upon Allah the Exalted.
Know it; Allah the Exalted is repeatedly Overlooking/Forgiving, the Merciful. [4:100]
: This is circumstantial clause of the sentence meaning "as migrant towards Allah the Exalted". A man can move from one place to another also for employment or economic improvement. Here it is restricted that this migration is purely in the cause of Allah the Exalted. Let us see other similar situations met by other elevated Messengers of Allah the Exalted:
The phrases: and meaning on the surface as ""towards Allah—towards my Sustainer Lord" does not signify going upwards into the Skies. They both went—were saved by migration to a place on earth as is mentioned in 21:71. Allah the Exalted has taken self imposed obligation of saving not only the Messengers but along with them all the believers- see10:103.
Elision is a common feature of speech particularly in conversation—one to one talk. The speaker and audience both were aware as to what is being enquired. This was his response strategy upon having: ascertained about clandestine scheme, obviously from reliable sources that might have included his supporters and reverent in secret agencies—governmental circles. It is further evident that he is a free man—not restrained or in custody—in the company of his staunch supporters- believers. They responded:
The conversation was taking place between Easa alai'his'slaam and the group of Bani Iesraa'eel that had believed and were identified in the nation as the Hawariyun. They all affirmed to follow accompanying him. They prayed:
This episode is about clandestine scheming of elite of Non-believer Bani Iesraa'eel. Rescue Plan was made after it:
This address to Easa alai'his'slaam is at the point in time when Allah the Exalted had planned. The address comprises of three sentences which are conjunct by conjunction particle rendering them a compound sentence economizing repetition of Verb-like-particle and its suffixed Subject Pronoun.
Meanings of Possessive Phrase: Neither synonym nor synonymous to death.
The Predicate of the sentence: is a Possessive Phrase. Active Participle is of Form-V. Active Participles are formed from the Present Tense Active Voice Verb according to specific rules. One of the unique feature of an Active participle is that it has a verbal quality. It signifies that it has the same meaning as the Active Voice Verb and can even govern words in the same manner as a verb governs in a sentence. Like a verb, the pronoun of the subject will either be visible or concealed. In the Active Participle, however, the pronoun will be considered visible whenever the Active Participle containing the pronoun precedes a Subject in a sentence. When the Active Participle containing a pronoun follows the subject, the pronouns will be considered concealed. It governs like a verb when it is interpreted in the meaning of present or future-tense.
Active Participle must be used instead of the present continuous tense if the intention is to describe a current action, as was the case at the point in time of above address.
Form-V verbs are formed by prefixing ت (ta-) to form II. The meaning this form imparts is the reflexive or passive of form II. Learned W. Right in his famous book A Grammar of the Arabic Language wrote: Quote: 48. Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second, which is more common, namely the effective. It differs from the passive in this—that the passive indicates that a person is the object of, or experiences the effect of, the action of another; whereas the effective implies that an act is done to a person, or a state produced in him, whether it be caused by another or by himself. [unquote]
Though the aforementioned peculiarities of Active participle and the signification-connotation of Form-V mentioned by the grammarians and lexicographers suffices to indicate that it cannot refer to meanings "I will cause you to die", but since almost all the translators and exegeses, including Mirza Ghulam Ahmad the fabricator of Ahmadiya group, so translated this phrase, it is necessary that we should study it further.
Its Stem—Root is "و ف ى". It is used 66 times with 40 morphological construction, all verbs, in the Grand Qur’ān. This word stemming from this Root is amongst the most debated and disputed ones. However, interesting fact is that the Grand Qur’ān has made the perception infolded in this Root abundantly evident and manifest at the very first place it has used it.
O You the Posterity of Iesraa'eel! Recall the Specific Favour of Mine which I had bestowed upon you people,
And you people incline your selves to fulfill-discharge your promise-commitment with Me. If you people do so, I would fulfill My word given to you people [since it was conditional/subject to first your discharging of obligation].
Moreover, you people fear and be mindful of none but Me exclusively." [2:40]
: Verb: Imperative; second person; masculine; plural; [Form-IV]; [و] Subject Pronoun: nominative state; مصدر-اِيْفَاءٌ Verbal noun;
: Verb: Imperfect; First Person; Singular; Masculine; Mood Jussive evident by elision of last delicate consonant; [Form IV]; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-اِيْفَاءٌ Verbal noun.
and both are Prepositional Phrase coupled with Possessive Phrase and respectively relate to preceding verb.
عَهْدٍ: It is a promise/commitment, undertaking, responsibility, and obligation uplifted by a person himself; it is a burden upon one till such time he puts it down/absolves himself by discharging his commitment/promise undertaking. Fulfilling the promise is segregating, separating, detaching the lifted burden from one's self.
Learned Ibn Faris [died 1005] has stated its perception:
الواو والفاء والحرف المعتلّ: كلمةٌ تدلُّ على إكمالٍ وإتمام. منه الوَفاء: إتمام العَهْد وإكمال الشَّرط
That it leads to the perception of completion, finalization, accomplishment and execution; accomplishing, fulfilling the promise; and completion of the condition, stipulation.
It is neither synonym nor synonymous to Root: "م و ت" meaning "dead, death, matter void of life-the antonym of life". The result/out come of natural death and martyrdom in the cause of Allah the Exalted is that such person is physically separated apart from the company of other people for reason of his burial into the grave. Notwithstanding such alienation in both cases, both are not same—one is dead while the other is NOT dead but still living as told by Allah the Exalted Who knows each and every thing while we do not know many many things- [refer 2:154;3:169].
Neither the subject of an action and the action are considered synonyms or synonymous; nor the cause and effect are ever synonyms or synonymous. Grand Qur’ān has manifestly demarcated and distinguished the perception and meanings of Root: "م و ت" and "و ف ى" through this sentence:
Verb: Imperfect; third person; singular; masculine; Mood: Subjunctive; [Form-V]; Fronted Object Pronoun: Third person; plural; feminine, in accusative state; مصدر-تَوَفِّى Verbal noun.
Grand Qur’ān is a book that is unique in all respects. It explicates and renders all its important words explicit. This verb is the source from where the Active Participle: is derived. The Subject of this Verb—the doer of action is: Verbal Noun/Noun: definite; masculine; singular; nominative; denoting the natural death.
Do we need to be linguists to perceive such a simple thing that a definite noun—doer of action signified by the verb is Entity which can never be synonym or synonymous to an action that creates an effect and a state different to the one before execution of action?
We lament, but fail to understand what went wrong with the scholars some of whom even succeeded in founding sects that they naively kept aside even the basic academic principles of interpreting a source text into target language text. It is an accepted academic practice that the meanings of a word can be resolved by taking recourse to collocates, words that tend to co-occur in similar environments. This method is quite frequently used in the Grand Qur’ān to render the meanings and perception of its important words unambiguously evident for the critical reader.
The Grand Qur’ān, while giving injunctions and options with reference to situations arising in the life of married couples, has these two sentences, identically worded, in 2:234 and 2:240:
Placing aside with immunity the basic academic principles what scholars did was that they firstly substituted the verb: in the original text with the verb: and then translated the original text in target language text as "they who die". The only similarity between the two is that of third person masculine plural. The verb in the text is Passive Voice tense while the substituted verb selected for translation purposes is Active Voice tense. Actual Verb is of Form-V having reflexive effective connotation as discussed earlier, while the substituted one is of Form-I in Indicative mood. They stem from different Roots relating to distinct semantic field or semantic domain.
The Root of: is "م و ت" and basic perception infolded therein is that of matter, void of life, and termination of life of a living creature by a natural cause. The termination of life of a living being, animal and man, accidentally or willfully by another rational being is described by the words made from Root: "ق ت ل", to kill, to murder, assassinate, execute. Both the Roots signify two distinct things and are not interchangeable though both may apparently have a similar effect/end result.
The apparent effect-consequence of both unintentional and intentional individual's murder or killed in war by the enemy, and natural death is that the concerned person is alienated from the company of other people and from wife if he was a married man. However, assassination of a particular person may not result and cause the termination of his life though it will also cause the alienation of that person from the company of people and his wife if he is a married man. Allah the Exalted informs about this fact:
Allah the Exalted has not used the word: "those who die natural death" in 2:234 and 2:240 quoted above since there are married men who leave behind their wives: while going for confronting war in the cause of Allah the Exalted which involves the act and possibility of killing and getting killed. The man if killed while confronting war in the cause of Allah he does not die but remains alive whereby he cannot be included amongst the subjects of word: . Therefore, if we substitute the word used in Grand Qur’ān with a word of different import and signification, there will be factual contradiction in the translated text that may cause confusion for those who are not well conversant with the Arabic.
The Proxy Subject pronoun of Passive Verb: and Subject pronoun of active voice verb: refer to the same persons. Those who are effected by the action denoted by the passive verb are simultaneously the doer of the active voice verb. That effect upon them is causing the action denoted by the active voice verb: . Its Root is "و ذ ر ". The basic perception infolded is that of a small peace of flesh which is detached—moved away—alienated from the bone, or that which does not contain bone. Its primary signification is to leave or abandon a thing. Its use with reference to wives left behind, in case of natural death or killed by the enemy while engaged in war in the cause of Allah the Exalted seems quite pathetic. Thereby wife becomes "a peace of flesh" without or detached/alienated from the bone which is reflective of strength like husband.
Thus the effect of segregation from the company of people at one place will cause those men to leave behind their wives. Both the verbs complement each other in exposing their meanings. The verb: is of Form-V and from its active voice is the Active Participle: . Thus evidently the meanings of first sentence: are "I am about to get you segregated".
Meanings of sentence: which was the part of rescue plan.
When a rescue—exit plan is devised for another person, he needs to be taken into confidence and told the sequence of executing that plan. Hierarchically, this is conjunct to earlier sentence that unfolds the Plan to elevated Messenger Easa alahissalm. Here also: is a Possessive Phrase: Active Participle: definite by construct; Singular; Masculine; nominative + Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; masculine; singular, accusative state—referent to Easa alahissalm. Use of Active participle instead of a verb reflects that the action denoted by earlier Phrase: and that by it were concurrent.
It stems from Root: ر ف ع. The basic perception infolded in the Root; as is explained in Classical Arabic Lexicons and Lane's lexicon, is that of raising—to lift some object or person to a place higher in relation to its current location; contra of dropping—lowering. In abstract domain, its equivalent is to exalt: raised or elevated, as in rank or character, quality; and to praise somebody highly.
The Prepositional Phrase: denotes "towards Me" where the Object Pronoun of preposition is referent to Allah the Exalted and signifies the same perception as is conveyed by phrases: and discussed earlier. Thus it: explains the earlier sentence as to where would he be segregated—and moving you to elevated place for My cause. This is mentioned in a declarative sentence later: On the contrary; Allah the Exalted had given him refuge at higher location for His cause. [Ref 4:159]
Meanings and effect of sentence:
Hierarchically, this is the last conjunct to earlier sentence that unfolds the rescue Plan to elevated Messenger Easa alahissalm. This explains the ultimate effect upon him.
: Active Participle: definite by construct; Singular; Masculine; nominative [Form-II]; مصدر-تَطْهِيرٌ Verbal noun + Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second person; masculine; singular, accusative state. It stems from Root "ط ھ ر". The basic perception infolded in it is to make something clean or pure from dirt or filth. The basic job done is to segregate oneself, a thing from the impurities clung to it/around it. Form-II verbs have also attributive meanings; it makes an attribution to object; to consider someone to be something. From what type of people and surroundings he was about to be segregated? It is told: by departing from those who have since denied to believe. The preposition: indicates motion proceeding from or away from a place or persons; the local point of departure, departure from a place; hence it is connected with verbs which convey the idea of separation, departure, holding oneself or another aloof from any person or thing, liberating, preserving, fleeing, or frightening away. The local point of departure was from those people who had denied to believe in him and were illicitly planning to get him executed.
The rescue plan is explained by using Active Participles portraying the ascending sequence of the process: ,, which signifies concurrent actions. There is no time interval involved.
Where was he given abode after rescue?
It is strange that we are not inquisitive or interested in searching and knowing the localities where the Messengers and believers were rescued before infliction of catastrophe and annihilation of many earlier civilizations whose narratives find mention in Grand Qur’ān. It is however stated that he was rescued and given refuge at a place higher in altitude:
This is the third place where Easa alai'his'slaam lived during his life and is markedly different from the place of his birth-19:22-25. He and his mother were made to move out towards a safe and protected mountainous place. Its other features were that it was suitable for long safe stay and was verdurous- flourishing with springs.
Refuge is needed to escape—migrate from a place where life threatening circumstances have surfaced. : Verb: Perfect; First person; Plural/Sovereign Singular; Masculine; [Form-IV]; Subject Pronoun; nominative state + Suffixed Object pronoun: Third person; dual, in accusative state, with prolongation sign; مصدر-اِيْوَاءٌ Verbal noun. It is from Root " ء و ى". It means "Our Majesty had provided refuge to both of them". It is similarly used for providing or taking refuge in life threatening situations in Ayahs 8:26; 8:72; 11:43 and 18:10.
This refuge established the news that were given to her prior to becoming Virgin Mother about his to-be-born son Easa alai'his'slaam. The news given at that point in time was:
: It is a complete verbal sentence—Verb-Subject-Object. The subject pronoun refers to yet-to-born Easa alai'his'slaam at that time. Prepositional phrase: relates to elided circumstantial clause for the subject of verb; denoting a state of milk-sucking baby in the cradle. This news was proved when he talked to elders of her mother's nation [see detailed narrative in Virgin Birth]. The second circumstantial clause about him with conjunction particle is: meaning he will be talking to people in his old age.
The first was of course a startling news since human experience had no precedent of a newly born baby verbally arguing with people. But what could be estimated as news by Syeda Maryam since she knew men in old age do talk to people. What could be so special in otherwise an ordinary well known information? She could observe this news proving true and factual if she were to live till such time her-yet-to born son had after birth reached to his later age. Life span for both was confirmed and ensured to her even before birth of her child.
Cradle to late age are two extremes of corporeal life-span and cover intermediary states; and use of conjunction particle "Waw" between two extremes of life-span denotes corporeal continuity without break. The break in two states can be reflected only by other conjunction particles, " فَ" which connects two clauses in time sequence and some internal link like cause and effect; or by particle if two clauses are to be connected where there is time lapse and both clauses differ in substance.
The veracity and sanctity of a news is established only when it is proved to the person whom it was given. Allah the Exalted proved His Word to Maryam the truthful. She saw both these news turning into reality. This fact would be reminded on the Day of Judgment as grace/favour upon his mother Syeda Maryam; it could be termed grace/favour upon her only because she witnessed both things happening in her life. The conversation on the Day of Judgment depicts that he lived only once along with her mother:
Know it, the day when Allah the Exalted would have said: "O you Easa son of Maryam!
Recall My favour-blessing upon you and upon your mother when I protected you through Archangel Gibraa'iel [RoohulQudd's, in migration to safe abode defeating the execution conspiracy-23:50].
Recall you used to speak-converse with the people in the cradle/as milk sucking baby in the lap of your mother and in later part of your life-old age. [Refer 5:110]
Easa alai'his'slaam while lying in the mother's cradle, a milk-sucking infant had talked to the elders of her mother saying inter alia;
Moreover, He the Exalted has declared me securely established, safe and sound at whatever place I might be present as long as I am alive.
Furthermore, He has enjoined upon me regards performing Ass-sa'laat: Time Bound Protocol of Servitude and allegiance, and for paying Az-zakat: financial liability for uplift of society, as long I am alive. [19:31]
"Moreover, tranquility and safety is ensured upon me, the day I was born, and the day I am caused to die natural death, and the Day I am resurrected as living being." [19:33]
Since birth he knew that he will die a natural death and announced it while in mother's cradle. Her mother also knew it that she will also not die until he reaches old age and she watches him talking to people as was she told before his birth.
Every exalted Messenger of the Supreme Sovereign Lord and every true believer with good conduct has only three phases; birth, death and resurrection.
We conspicuously observe
alai'his'slaam living safely
before his natural death at three locations on the Earth:
1- Birth place: An oasis - a place in a desert with presence of water-stream beneath her feet: water level raised to ground surface in oasis where his mother was at that point of time.- palm-tree with ripen dates;
2. Amongst Bani Iesraa'eel discharging responsibility of the Messenger of Allah the Exalted;
3. Refuge: an elevated-mountainous place; characteristically a place of long safe stay and verdurous- flourishing with springs.
Orientation: Easa alahissalm, two groups of the posterity- the sons of Iesraa'eel—believers Hawariyun and Non-believers/Jews
Complication: Clandestine planning of Non-believers to get Easa alahissalm executed.
Resolution: Easa alahissalm timely ascertained the clandestine blaspheming undertaken by a group of them- the Non-believers and took believers into confidence. Allah the Exalted planned and informed him about it. He and his mother were provided refuge at a mountainous locality where they would have lived and died.
Let us listen the Recap about the life of Easa alahissalam till this point in time he was rescued and provided refuge beyond the reach of his enemies; narrated by Allah the Exalted to him on the Day of Resurrection in Ayah 5:110:
And recall the execution conspiracy when I restrained the hands of Bani Iesraa'eel from reaching you/rescued you from their hands;
It was the time when on your showing to them unprecedented displays the non-believing group had said:
"This is nothing except an evident illusion." [Refer 5:110]
False proclamation of execution of Easa alhaissalam
The long charge sheet for the condemnation and cursing of Bani Iesraa'eel incorporated in Ayahs 4:156-161 includes, inter alia, their false proclamation about the execution of Easa alhaissalam :
And because of their proclamation announcing for the public: "Be informed that we have undoubtedly killed Al-Maseiha, Easa the son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah".
Know the infallible fact, neither had they executed him nor crucified him [as the Christians allege the Jews by conjectural myths]. Nevertheless, a state of confusion did occur for them.
And the fact about those who vehemently differed in the infallible statement is that they are just in skeptical mindset about it;
Not at all an iota of evidence-based authentic knowledge for this opposition is available for them; but the reason is they purposely pursue conjecture-supposition.
Take note, they-the Romans did not execute him, it is absolutely sure case. [4:157]
On the contrary; Allah the Exalted had given him refuge at higher location for His cause. [see also 23:50].
Know it; Allah the Exalted has eternally the absolute command-Dominance; All Wise-Knower of hidden-secreted. [4:158]
This statement; quoted verbatim in Grand Qur’ān by the Ever Listener Allah the Exalted, is not of people roaming in streets but is a proclamation issued by the ruling/upper class/clergy of that time. Watch the words, their own confusion and uncertainty is evidently reflected by the words they chose. For giving news about current occurrence, no one uses the words of certainty "indeed, undoubtedly" for breaking the news. Such words and issuance of proclamation is needed and intended to clarify and convince only when general public is doubtful about some happening. They had not accepted Easa alai'his'slaam as Al-Maseihea and the Messenger of Allah but they used the title, name and status by which he was generally recognized in the society to remove the doubts and convince people that he has been executed.
Ayahs 4:157-159 constitute what is termed paragraph in English language that is around seven to ten sentences long. The refers to its overall structure, which is a group of sentences focusing on a single topic. This paragraph is additive to what is stated in sentences of Ayahs 4:155-156, adding new information as to why Allah the Exalted has impressed the epilogue-sealed the wraps upon their hearts-intellectual consciousness.
Topic is the public statement issued by elite Jews claiming "We have executed Al-Maseiha, Easa the son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah". Their public announcement used a general word "" meaning "we have killed" without qualifying the specific manner out of many that were employed by Romans to execute persons. The most common were by beheading and crucifying depending whether the person was a Roman citizen or otherwise.
Allah the Exalted reveals the factual position that neither they the ruling Romans executed—behead him nor crucified him. Then an adversative relationship is mentioned: . Particle: is termed حرفَ ابتداء واستدراك by Arabic grammarians meaning rectifying—retraction particle; used between two types of expressions-speech dissimilar in words and meanings. The relation that takes the form of a contrast or a concession can be realized by this particle. It is like English conjunctives such as however, on the contrary, and nevertheless. : It is Passive Perfect Verb: Third person; singular; masculine; Passive; [Form-I1]; Proxy subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-تَشْبِيهٌ- Verbal noun. It signifies confusion and perplexity in arriving at a distinct thought and perception. Form-II verbs have Attributive-Estimative/Declarative: makes an attribution to object; to consider someone or something to be something. Prepositional phrase: relates to verb and object pronoun refers to people who had made flimsy statement about execution.
In following supporting sentences revelation is about those who differ the stated fact that they differ just because of skepticism. They who differ and those who had made a flimsy statement have no concrete knowledge-evidence about it except purposely following conjecture-guess work-opinion without evidence.
Concluding revelation is about main idea that he was not killed, and circumstantial accusative: calls it a conclusive fact.
Every person of the people of the Book before his individual death will accept the factual episode
Their false claim that rendered their followers in confusion and skepticism is rebutted in the strongest words and emphasis. Thereafter, Allah the Exalted declares:
Know it; there is not a single person of the people of the Book that before his personal death will but certainly believe in it.
Know it; He: [Easa alai'his'slaam] will give testimony as witness upon them on the Day of Judgment. [as recorded in 5:116-117] [4:159]
Despite elisions, the first sentence is quite explicit in conveying the meanings. It is a declarative sentence.
The central point of the sentence is the verbal sentence: —Prefixed Emphatic Particle لَ that gives further strength to the veracity of following statement as if stated under oath—Verb is Imperfect; Intransitive; Third person; singular; Masculine; Mood: Indicative; [Form-IV]; Suffixed Emphatic/Heavy Noon [نَّ] and its source is مصدر-اِيمانٌ Verbal Noun—Subject pronoun hidden which is referent for each individual belonging to the People of the Book—Jews and the Christians. The emphatic Noon renders the verb futuristic. It means not a single individual in timeline is excepted from doing the action denoted by the verb who existed or exists after this proclamation.
The verb signifies believing by one's own will-pleasure without coercion. What would they certainly believe in is indicated by: : Prepositional Phrase: Inseparable preposition: بـِ is used with this verb to signify "believe in". The suffixed third person singular masculine could be referent in the text for "he or it-that".
Earlier exegeses like: تفسير البغوي , تفسير القرطبي:, تفسير الطبري: تفسير ابن كثير state that its antecedent is Easa alai'his'slaam; they stated more or less similarly:
معناه: ومن من أهل الكتاب إلا ليؤمنن بعيسى قبل موت عيسى عليه السلام
"It means that every member of people of the Book will certainly believe in Easa alahissalm before the death of Easa alahissalam."
They did not state how they resolved to consider it as the most suitable entity to be antecedent for the said anaphor. They opined this:
وذلك عند نزوله من السماء في آخر الزمان فلا يبقى أحد إلا آمن به حتى تكون الملة واحدة ، ملة الإسلام.
"This occurs after 'Isa returns from the Sky in the end days, thereat none will be left but believe in him until there becomes only one community of Islam.''
However, it was also stated that the anaphora third person pronoun is referent for Allah the Exalted in these words:
وقيل : هي راجعة إلى الله عز وجل يقول : وإن من أهل الكتاب إلا ليؤمن بالله عز وجل ، قبل موته
That the pronoun refers Allah the Exalted whereby it means that everyone of them would believe in Him the Exalted, before his death.
If we agree with those scholars who considered the object pronoun of prepositional phrase and suffixed possessive pronoun, third person singular masculine, as referent to Easa alai'his'slaam they give us the meanings of the sentence as "There is not a single person of the people of the Book that will but certainly believe in him- Easa alai'his'slaam before his- Easa alai'his'slaam death." The presumption tagged to this understanding is that he will descend to the Earth in end times and die natural death after a while.
The point to be determined is as to what would he believe before dying? The subject of discussion in these Ayahs is the statement of Jews that they had executed Easa alahissalam. It is vehemently denied as false. A counter proclamation is made that neither he was executed nor crucified. It is obvious that presently he does not believe in the factual proclamation and is skeptical about it. He is presently vehemently differing and opposing it. He will believe in it certainly at the time before his death.
It may be noted that anaphora resolution was not by reference to the text of episode in Grand Qur’ān but was based upon conjectural stories of Jews and Christians. Such presumptive statements are patently erroneous in view of the ground reality that the majority of the people of the Book already believe in Al-Maseiha, Easa the son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah the Exalted.
Arabic is an agglutinative language, the pronouns can occur as suffixes of nouns, verbs or prepositions. Therefore, Anaphora Resolution is vital to understanding the meaning of Grand Qur’ān. It means the problem of resolving what a pronoun refers to. In written or oral text anaphora can be thought of as “pointing back or referring to something or someone mentioned earlier”. The entity to which it refers is called its antecedent. The process of determining the antecedent of an anaphor—lexical entity is called anaphora resolution. It is contrasted with cataphora that refers forwards, not backwards.
Pronouns form a special class of anaphors because of their empty semantic structure; they do not have an independent meaning from their antecedent. Thus they will refer a singular entity.
The question is whether it can be considered as referent for Easa alai'his'slaam or for Allah the Exalted as was opined by earlier scholars? Prepositional phrases functioning adverbially modify and elaborate the verb.
The main subject of discourse is not about believing or disbelieving in Easa alai'his'slaam by the people of Book. The issue under discussion is whether or not he was executed and crucified. Both the opinions of beheading him and crucifying him are negated. Thereby, there is no logic to relate the object pronoun with him. This pronoun has already twice been used in this sentence;
: It is a declarative-informative sentence with emphasis. The prepositional phrase: "in it" relates to the preceding perfect verbal sentence—"they vehemently differed"—that is the linkage-clause for preceding plural relative pronoun which is the Subject noun of Verb-like-particle. The object pronoun of preposition is referent to the: infallible statement about him that he was neither beheaded nor crucified in the preceding sentence. The news given about these people is: —a prepositional phrase; suffixed with emphatic particle signifying added emphasis on predication, relates to elided predicate; : Prepositional Phrase: Separable Preposition + Attached pronoun: Third person ; singular; masculine; in genitive state; it relates to: and the pronoun refers to infallible statement. This verbal noun when used as a substantive signifies doubt, or absence of conviction-certainty about a matter-concept-idea-information-statement. "Doubt" takes existence in mind only when someone receives some information about some object or subject that he considers not enough to grant him the feel of sureness and certainty. This state of mind, generally referred as "doubt", reflects one's lack of decision about the veracity of information reaching him.
Let us see a comparable statement wherein the same prepositional phrase occurs and the pronoun refers to factual statement:
Further Information about the mindset of those who vehemently differed with the given information about non-execution is this:
: Not at all an iota of evidence-based authentic knowledge for this opposition is available for them; but the reason is they purposely pursue conjecture-supposition.
The episode-narrative is all about the events happened in the life of Easa alahissalam and the conduct of Bani Iesraa'eel. They vehemently differed with the narrative giving infallible information negating their conjectural opinion of execution of him. To differ is their mindset:
Indeed this Grand Qur’ān verbally relates upon Bani Iesraa'eel step by step—event by event—footage of real life events of past/their history about most of which they keep vehemently differing. [27:76]
Verbal sentences: and are from the same verbal noun: مصدر اِخْتِلاَفٌ of Form-VIII. This verb has reflexive causative meanings and indicates a stronger role of the Subject as a performer of the action involving painstaking, meticulous effort. Such type of effort is always backed by a well-thought purpose. Thus, the said verbs have built-in adverbial connotation of vehemence and purpose in differing with the narratives incorporated in the Grand Qur'an.
We are discussing this sentence: Know it; there is not a single person of the people of the Book that before his personal death will but certainly believe in it.
: These are two Possessive Phrases mentioning the time of action signified by the preceding verb. Verb is futuristic and time frame is for the subject of preceding verb that relates to every individual of the people of the Book. The verb denotes that he will heartily believe, will gain: اِيمانٌ, whereby he will become a believer immediately before his death. Adverb of time is definite by construct. Thereby, it does not cover the time-duration of his life before death but restricts the point-in-time of believing immediately before his death.
It is a simple fact mentioned that every human being on seeing death—at the time of dying accepts to have become believer. All Jews and Christians at the time of death accept/believe so they accept all facts including this mentioned in the Qur’ān-See 4:18;6:158;10:50,90; 26:201-202;34:52-53;40:84-85]. Same will be the case for all the Jews that will living on the Last Day: