Man and the Universe

Why is the Universe the way it is?


How did the Universe begin

Philosophers and scientists have worked hard and devoted their lives in pondering and observing the universe all around them to find answers to the following fundamental questions: [Knowledge and Religious Experience-Dr.Allama Muhammad Iqbal]

  • Character and general structure of the universe in which we live;

  • Is there a permanent element in the constitution of this universe?

  • How are we related to it? What place do we occupy in it?

  • What is the kind of conduct that befits the place we occupy?

The history of pursuit for finding answers to these questions may be read in the remarkable work of learned Stephen Hawking "A brief history of time". His classic work helps non-scientists to understand fundamental questions of physics and our existence from the point of view of physicists: Where did the universe come from? How and why did it begin? Will it come to an end, and if so, how?

Earlier we have studied the answer in the Divine Discourse to the question "Where did the universe come from and about why did it begin". We will in this paper study the answer given in the Grand Qur’ān about the question: How did it begin? Though this question is more of interest for the physicists it is explained simplistically for the benefit of entire humanity who are the audience.

The irreducible semantic feature of Arabic Root: خ ل ق signifying "creation" is the will - decision taken by the living to create; and the idea - blue print - determination of measures of the object to be created and its proportionality to other things that defines interrelationships before the object takes existence:

  • He the Exalted is the Primal Originator and Accomplisher of the Skies and the Earth.

  • Be informed, Provided He the Exalted has finalized-decided-completed any matter-thing, individual event

  • Thereat, He the Exalted merely expresses verbally for that thing-matter-affair-person, saying; "You become in evident-tangibly existing state".

  • In compliance thereof that (abstract but effected thing- matter - affair - person) takes existence in physical realm (which can be known- cognizable by others). [2:117]

 

  • It was never befitting to ascribe for Allah the Exalted regarding adopting someone of procreations as a son

  • He the Exalted is above such needs/support/weakness. Infinite Glory is for Him; His pleasure is the focus of all effort

  • Subject to He the Exalted has finalized-decided about any matter, individual event:

  • Thereat, He merely expresses verbally for that affair, saying: "You become in evident-tangibly existing state."

  • In compliance thereof that (abstract but effected thing- matter - affair - person) takes existence in physical realm (which can be known- cognizable by others) --.  [19:35]

 

  • He the Exalted causes emergence of life in matter and causes death to alive.

  • Thereby, Subject to He the Exalted has finalized-decided about any matter, individual event: thereat-sequel to it:

  • Thereat, He the Exalted merely expresses verbally for that affair, saying: "You become in evident-tangibly existing state."

  • In compliance thereof that (abstract but effected thing- matter - affair - person) takes existence in physical realm (which can be known- cognizable by others).  [40:68]

: "He the Exalted finalized-decided-completed a matter-thing, individual event" results in: "an affair, matter, event that has since become decided-an ordained reality".  It is further explained and simplified by using a different set of words:    "when We intended to cause it converted";   "when He the Exalted intended to cause a thing converted".

  • Be informed, subject to Our Majesty having finalized-decided any matter-thing, individual event to take existence, the only action is that

  • We may merely express verbally for that thing-matter-affair-person, saying; "You become in evident-tangibly existing state".

  • In compliance thereof that (abstract but effected thing- matter - affair - person) takes existence in physical realm (which can be known- cognizable by others). [16:40]

 

  • Know it, the only act-affair-command of Him the Exalted is that; subject to His Majesty having finalized-decided any matter-thing, individual event to take existence

  • He the Exalted may merely express verbally for that thing-matter-affair-person, saying; "You become in evident-tangibly existing state".

  • In compliance thereof that (abstract but effected thing- matter - affair - person) takes existence in physical realm (which can be known- cognizable by others). [36:82]

: It is from Root "ر و د". The basic perception infolded is that of "going to and fro-will, wish, desire, or intend". It is Form-IV Verb from مصدر-اِرَادَةٌ Verbal noun. This is causative in meanings. It denotes a desire, or intention to cause a thing converted from its present state to a state desired or intended. Once this state alteration is intended, in respect of anything, the only action to effect it is that "We might say for that thing", "He the Exalted might say for that thing" just one commanding word: "" meaning, "You, the intended thing-event-matter-person get in the intended physical state". : Thereby, in compliance to the Command of Allah the Exalted, that intended thing and affair takes existence in Physical Realm. It becomes a Reality cognizable by all that exists in the Physical Realm.

It may be noted that the Object of Verb: , are and .  And then these objects are Subject-doer of both verbs "" and . Therefore, they are already a "Reality" who are the recipients of commanding Word: "". The intended action is that they convert and emerge as a Reality in a different Realm-Physical Word. They are directed to become in a known and perceivable state to the Existents of Physical World.

It is thus evident that Allah the Exalted is referring to, let us presume for convenience of our perception, an "idea/thought" of a thing that has yet to emerge in its physical shape-existence as an "object". It indicates that the "image" or "verbal specification" of the object-thing exists prior to its physical manifestation. This also holds true for such human creators who develop or invent something from the already existing matter, though it may be vague at idea stage.

Our knowledge is dependent upon the existence of matter and awareness of its name-code, which verbally mirrors it through words composed with letters and consonants of a language making us cognizant of it. Cognizant is he who can verbally mirror the image of that thing for others. This being the ground reality, We could not say with certainty regarding whether thought-idea-image-name-word mirroring the physical object is the first in existence, or the object mirrored by that Word was first in existence. Grand Qur’ān has clarified for us in simple words that the idea, thought, wish and will of a Living Being precedes the emergence of a physical reality. The idea, thought and perception and verbal description of the thing precedes its taking physical existence. It comes into Physical Realm only in compliance to a Word.

The verb: has the prefixed conjunction particle "Fa- فَ" , which conjuncts clauses, semantically signifies cause and effect relationship and shows that later is subsequent to the former in time-duration natural to taking its effect.

  • Indeed the Sustainer Lord of you people is Allah the Exalted Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe]; [Refer 7:54; and 10:03]

 

  • Moreover, He the Exalted is the One Who created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [time reckoned in outside this/your universe].[Refer 11:07; without waw 57:04]

 

  • He the Exalted had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe];  [Refer 25:59]

 

  • Allah the Exalted is the One and only Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe];  [Refer 32:04]

 

  • And indeed Our Majesty innovatively created the Skies and the Earth and all whatever exists in between the two of them in a time duration of six days [time reckoned in outside this/your universe];

  • And nothing touched Our Majesty from weariness [which could necessitate rest as some people keep conjecturing]. [50:38]

The creation of the Skies and the Earth and all that exists between them is stated to have been accomplished in six days and this is also mentioned six times. And seventh time it is mention by sticking: comprising of  Emphatic Particle + [حرف تحقيق] Particle of certainty. It renders the verb as present perfect; also gives an emphasis and denotes certainty to the meaning of the verb. And the myth of taking rest after accomplishing the gigantic task of creation of the Universe is also negated. It is again negated:

  • Have they not reflected that Allah the Exalted is the Only

  • Who innovatively created the Skies and the Earth

  • While He the Exalted did not feel any fatigue with their creation[Refer 46:33]

 

  • Were Our Majesty then weary with the originating creation?

  • No, there was even not the slightest weariness as earlier told you [46:33] the fact is that they feign being in confusion about the modern/latest creation - resurrection. [50:15]

The entire process of creation of the universe was accomplished in six days. Obviously the time reference cannot relate to the time reference of the object, the universe, which was itself undergoing the process of creation and its own time had yet to come into motion. How did the universe begin and the break-up of time consumed in structuring three entities of the universe is also mentioned:

  • He the Exalted is the One Who had created that which is present in the Earth, all together for you people

  • Afterwards (lapse of determined time-span), He the Exalted intended towards equating the Sky

  • Thereby, creating seven skies He the Exalted proportioned them.

  • Realize it; He the Exalted is intrinsically and eternally the Knower of each and every thing - about entire physical realm. [2:29]

Here the reference is of all that which was created for the audience of the Book, the humanity, within the Earth. The Earth was created and then everything of service and utility for the humanity was created therein. Having created Earth and all whatever is in it, the next action is mentioned after the conjunction particle: . This connective particle is an adverb that indicates a sequential action, coming later in time than the action in the preceding sentence or clause.

It is ordinarily translated with English words "and", or "then" by considering it synonym/synonymous {مرادف,مترادف} of conjunction particles "و" and "ف".  But, Grand Qur’ān  has explained and used it in a manner distinct in all respects from "و" and "ف".

The word "and" or "then" as a substitute of  "ف" ,"و" are conjunction, denoting order and a delay giving the perception of a sequence "after that, afterwards, next, as a consequence". It also gives informal perception of "in addition to, as well as, along with, coupled with, combined with, furthermore, likewise". These particles show a connected series. And "ف" reflects the relationship of cause and effect.

Both these English words and the Arabic particles reflect a sequence of happenings/things which are interrelated. And one does not perceive the distance of time between the two things mentioned before and after the use of word "and" or "then". It reflects the continuity in the two things conjunct by them though delay in the order of happenings is evident with respect to the thing occurring after them in relation to the one occurring before them.

But particle: is used in a distinct manner. It emphasizes the sequence between two structurally independent statements. It occurs as conjunction between two things different from each other in nature and reflects a break and time gap between both, not continuity. It does not reflect the perception of relationship of cause and effect.

After a lapse of time, not disclosed, having finished the creation of Earth and other materials placed in it, attention was paid to the Sky (singular) which makes it evident that it was already existing as singular entity. Next sentence starts with conjunction particle "Fa" prefixed to verbal sentence: Verb + subject pronoun third person masculine singular referent to Allah the Exalted. It means "thereby, He the Exalted proportioned them, feminine pronoun referring to seven skies mentioned as circumstantial clause by indefinite accusative noun in possessive phrase. Conjunction particle reveals that the Sky which was earlier one whole, it was made to exist by further creative work into seven skies, say stretching and expanding, where after seven were proportioned. The point is rendered explicit:

  • It (Qur’ān) has been sent gradually and successively by Him the Exalted Who had created the  Earth and the upper-higher Skies: six above Sky of Earth. [20:04]

This is the only statement where the mention of creation of Earth precedes mention of creation of skies but the skies are qualified by upper ones. One Sky already existed before the creation of the Earth and other wherewithal in it. We will find the mention of exact point in time when the Sky was made to exist as seven skies in the consolidated disclosure about how did the universe came into being:

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] pronounce: "Do you people in fact deny Him Who created the Earth in two days? [of reckoned time beyond your Universe]

  • And you people ascribe and declare miscellaneous participatory lords for Him the Exalted?

  • [there is no equal and partner] He is the Sustainer Lord of the Worlds-All that exists. [41:09]

The Earth, as it was at the time of original creation, was brought into existence in a time-span of two days. It is obvious that the time reference is not of our universe but of domain beyond its frontiers. Zero-hour of our universe was still faraway

  • And He the Exalted inserted in her (the Earth) firmly grounded anchors (mountains) characteristically visible above her surface, and He the Exalted permanently and relatively fixed/pegged them inside her;

  • And determined in her (the Earth) its foods, nourishments, sustenance, provisions of it.

  • He the Exalted proportioned all of them, the Earth and the creative works relating to her wherewithal in a period of four days; appropriately proportioned for the would-be-seekers-creatures. [41:10]

The phrases: a prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrase relates to elided verb of a new sentence. The elision of verb is evident from the following cognate adverb: (مفعول مطلق لفعل محذوف). A cognate adverb is a gerund with a meaning very similar to a mentioned action. Their governing words are often dropped, provided the purpose of the adverb is not emphasis.  People who seldom care to analyze the grammatical structuring of sentences of the discourse to understand a concept get confused by the word "four days". The previous clause of creation of the Earth in two days is conjunct with another independent clause by particle "waw" which starts with: meaning "He the Exalted inserted" instead of: "He created".

It is the most interesting information about which we are still not aware and sure in the 21st century about the formation of plate tectonics and formation of rocks/mountains. However, general belief is that different set of processes that shaped the surface of Earth started after quite sometime the Earth was in existence.

But the Divine information is that the: firmly grounded anchors were not created in the universe but were inserted in the Earth which means it were the materials "imported" into the Earth. They were inserted and placed in such manner that they are over her surface and firmly grounded within the Earth. What are the firmly grounded anchors? It is explained:

  • And the Earth, Our Majesty did spread/stretch her

  • And Our Majesty placed-dropped therein anchored/stabilizing mountains

  • And Our Majesty sprouted in her (Earth), each and every thing mutually equated and balanced [15:19]

 

  • And Our Majesty inserted in her (the Earth) long and far reaching anchors

  • And We provided you to drink the palatable water. [77:27]

 

  • Have Our Majesty not rendered the Earth as spread plain, even and smooth? [to make your sojourn comfortable] [78:06]

  • And Have Our Majesty not rendered the mountains -rocks as firmly pegged? [78:07]

 

  • And as for the mountains, He the Exalted anchored - firmly grounded them. [79:32]

 

  • And look not atstudy the Mountains as to how they are fixed/erected; [88:19]

It is nowhere mentioned that the Anchors - Mountains were created. For them verb: "He created" is NOT used. Instead verb: "He inserted" and verb: Form-IV, perfect, third person, masculine, singular, and hidden subject pronoun referent for Allah the Exalted. The verb signifies causing something to be placed before or within something. It is thus evident that like dark matter, white light, and water anchors/rocks/or tectonic plates are the matter imported from somewhere else into our universe during its making.

And again verb "He created" is not used in 41:10 quoted above, but it is: "He the Exalted determined - quantified" its object: which is a possessive phrase with first plural noun and the suffixed pronoun is referent for the Earth that means "her sustenance - provisions - materials of preservation." The creation of Earth and other works were a progressive work as is evident by the choice of conjunction particle and different verbs, and the progressive time duration for the completion of works relating to the Earth is mentioned by progressive total of days consumed. This quantification of sustenance and provisions were appropriately proportioned for the needs of would-be seekers of sustenance.

The next distinct phase of creation of the universe was continued after a lapse of time afterwards the creation of the Earth and other jobs and processes:

  • Afterwards, having created the Earth and its wherewithal, He the Exalted attended-directed towards the Sky, she was existing in gaseous state.

  • Thereby, He the Exalted said to her (the gaseous Sky [singular]) and the Earth: solid mass-matter: "You both develop relationship either of attraction-tug-pull or repulsion".

  • They (Sky and the Earth both feminine) said: "We have assembled like those who develop relationship of pull-affection-attraction desiring proximity". [41:11]

This declarative - informative statement is conjunct to the previous clause by: that reveals the different nature of antecedent activity and the activity mentioned later and a time-gap between the two. The focus of activity is mentioned as the Sky (singular) and in what condition was it then is mentioned as gaseous state.

It is explicit that at the time of and during the creation of the Earth and insertion of other materials in it One Sky was already present in gaseous state. These were two independent components at that point in time. Allah the Exalted gave an option to the Sky and the Earth (both feminine objects) to make an assembly - a relationship either of attraction-tug or repulsion. This shows that the matter too has some phenomenon of "consciousness - perception - intelligence". They, the two feminine objects replied they have come like those who develop relationship of mutual pull-affection-attraction desiring proximity.

At this point in time two component units (both feminine) had become assembled as we generally assemble components while manufacturing/creating an object. What followed:

  • Thereby, applying of stretching in layers [firmaments one above the other] He the Exalted completed them seven skies within two days.

  • And He the Exalted assigned to each of the layers of the Sky her specific task.

  • And Our Majesty have adorned the lowest Sky of Lowly World-Earth with Comets, and have rendered it protected;

  • These are the equations-measured settings of relations-relativity determined by the absolutely Dominant, Infinitely Knowledgeable - the setter of sciences. [41:12]

This clause is conjunct to the preceding clause by particle "Fa" that indicates the sequence of happenings. After the assemblage of the Sky and the Earth, the Sky was converted into seven skies, and distinct task was assigned to each one. Another classification was made as the Sky of the Lower world and the Upper Skies.

About the manner of creation of the Skies it is informed:

  • He the Exalted is the One Who created seven skies, vertically layered one above another in harmony/adjoining one above another.

  • You will not see any incongruity/lack of proportion/rift in the creation of Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted

  • Thereby, to verify, you focus the vision. Do you see any gap - rift? [67:03]

  • Afterwards you again focus your eyes second time/alternatively

  • The Vision will itself turn back to you totally failed and in a fatigued condition. [67:04]

 

  • Have you people not seen how Allah the Exalted has created seven skies, vertically layered one above another in harmony/adjoining one above another.  [71:15]

  • And He the Exalted rendered the Moon in all of them as reflector of visible light

  • And He the Exalted has rendered the Sun as Prominent Figure. [Shining, grandeur, grace, beauty, attraction] [71:16]

The creation of the unified universe was thus accomplished in a period of six days of some other domain before the zero moment when the newly created universe was set into motion or spin.

  • Is it that they who disavowed have not observed - studied

  • That the Skies and the Earth were once in a sewn state - united leaving no aperture. Thereby, Our Majesty disjointed both.

  • Be informed, Our Majesty have rendered a segment of the water as each and all entities that have qualitative distinction of life.

  • Will they thereby on knowing these facts not believe? [21:30]

Earlier we have read that the Sky and the Earth had joined and then the Sky was proportioned and completed into seven skies and their state had become: as two things are sewn leaving no aperture. Then it happened: . It is a complete sentence comprising of prefixed conjunction particle signifying presence of reason and effect, perfect verb, subject pronoun and suffixed object pronoun dual feminine. The skies is a plural broken feminine noun which is grammatically singular. Also the relation is in fact between two, the Sky and the Earth. 

How and when the newly created universe had become operational? Here seems the answer:

  • Are you people more strong with regard to construct- creation or the Sky is more strong? He the Exalted constructed her. [79:27]

  • He the Exalted raised  "سمك": her (Sky) ceiling and thereat proportioned her; [79:28]

  • And made dark her (Sky) night. And He the Exalted brought out her shine producing heat and light. [79:29]

  • And after this discharge of heat of the Sky, He the Exalted rendered the Earth like the communal ostrich pit for spawning. [79:30]

Allah the Exalted had raised the "سمك" ceiling of the Sky which resulted in: "Thereby, Our Majesty disjointed both", which earlier being two separate entities [gaseous and solid matter] had been brought in the state/relation/condition of: as two things are sewn leaving no aperture. The "سمك" means "Interior uppermost part, a thing with which a thing is raised, elevated, upraised or uplifted. It signifies the extent of anything from top to bottom. Camel's hump; a pole of a tent with which tent is raised from the centre".

The fact of raising high the Skies finds mention with additional information:

  • Allah the Exalted is He Who has raised high the Skies. This elevation is circumstantially with supports other than pillars. You people are seeing them elevated as such without pillars.

  • Thereafter, He the Exalted ascended to the Supreme Sovereign Seat/Throne [beyond Skies of universe] [refer 13:02]

 

  • He the Exalted created the Skies. Its creation is circumstantially with supports other than pillars. You people are seeing the Skies elevated as such without pillars. [refer 31:10]

 

  • And by the Canopy raised high[52:05]

 

  • And look not atstudy the Sky as to how she is raised high; [88:18]

Further it is mentioned that the structuring of the Sky was done with application of strength and force, and that the phenomenon of expanding it is ongoing:

  • And the Sky, Our Majesty have structured it with strength, and indeed We are its expansionary. [51:47]

The raising of the Sky accomplished the harmonization of the Universe as a single entity:

  • And He the Exalted has created the Sky, He raised it high and He made evident/apparent/established/appropriated the Balance/Equilibrium[55:07]

  • Know the fact; the number of months determined by and recorded in the Mother/Principal Book in safe custody of Allah the Exalted ever since the Day He created the Skies and the Earth is twelve, each as distinct month;

  • Four sacred months are so declared amongst these twelve Lunar months.

  • This is the primordial straightly settled, permanent discipline, ruleoperative system.  [Refer 9:36]

Ever since the day of creation of the Skies and the Earth the time-calendar is by the number of twelve lunar months in a year. The calendar is of twelve months and four of them are declared since beginning as sacred; and we know that the sacred months are with reference to lunar year. The Calendar from the beginning of Universe; created primarily for the test of human beings; is Islamic in accordance with the chosen "Deen": the code of conduct: Constitution of Universe: Islam: surrender, peace and harmony.

After () the raising of the ceiling of the Sky and making adjustments for harmonizing                              the night of the Sky is mentioned and then its heat and light was released, meaning the first day-time of newly created universe. After the release of heat and light the Earth was rendered like the communal ostrich pit for spawning.

Lunar day and month starts at the moment of the beginning of night which was the Zero hour of the Universe. After raising the Sky some adjustments were made that does indicate some amount of time for synchronizing the system immediately before the start time - zero hour of the universe. This might help the scientists finding where an object [sun, moon and earth] was located in terms of Space-Time Continuum [four-dimensional description of  length, width, and height and time] immediately before the spin-Zero Time of our Universe.

Grand Qur’ān has mentioned twelve months of the year but has not referred to the number of days in a year. The consistency is of twelve months but the number of days in the year could vary in time and space. The information my be useful for Planetary Scientists who are in the pursuit of knowing the Earth-Moon dynamics. On the first  lunar day's sunlight the Earth got spread and with this the water stored therein was taken out which occupied the major portion of the Earth.

Start time of the Universe is the night. Time is reckoned in relation to night and day. We find throughout the Grand Qur’ān that night finds mention first and then the mention of day. We will study the phenomenon of night and day mentioned in Qur’ān in a separate paper. Similarly we will study separately about detailed information regarding the Earth, the Sky and other celestial bodies to grasp the entire universe.

Recap: A brief synopsis of the process of creation of our universe unfolded by the Grand Qur’ān:

(a)  Earth and all other material inserted and quantified in/on it was created in four days, a period of universe external to under construction universe. Anchors - mountains were inserted, also Water in measured quantity was placed in it. These materials seem to be imported ones into our universe. 

(b)  After this and lapse of unspecified time, attention was paid to the Sky which already existed in gaseous state.

(c)  Sky (Gaseous) and Earth were "asked" to develop a relationship either of love/attraction or hatred/repulsion. Both (feminine) opted the relationship of attraction which resulted in "sewing" of the Sky and Earth without any cleavage/gap/aperture/vacuum. This state has been described by the word {رَتْقاً}.

(d)    Sky was divided into seven parts, one above another one, exactly fitting in each other. This partitioning and assigning of specific task for each of them took two days, a period of universe external to under construction universe. Thus the total period consumed in the construction of our universe matter and material was equal to six days of some external universe because internal time of the proposed universe had not as yet begun. Everything  was set and placed in equations to set and maintain the balance which afterwards became evident, displayed to view.

(e)    The "سمك" ceiling of the Sky was raised upwards. The Sky and Earth were parted/disjointed. This was the beginning of a new universe. It created simultaneously the Time of our Universe. The first night was rendered darkened and after that the light and heat of the day was brought out.

(f)     After the discharge of heat and light on the first bright day, the Earth of newly constructed universe was expanded - stretched.

(g)    Neither the above process of creation of our universe could make any body infer that the creation of universe was from zero volume nor that it was the result of some "Bing Bang". Grand Qur'an has nowhere informed the humanity that there was a "Bing Bang" at the time of creation. But there will certainly be a "Bing Bang" to be heard by people when the Time of  our universe is to be brought to a halt which we will study next to find the answer to question: Will the universe come to an end, and if so, how?

 

   Will the Universe come to an end, if so how?