Negative - Negation particle.

 

Negation is but human characteristic and it is language universal. However, languages differ in terms of negative devices and how they are used to express negation. Languages have its own syntactic, semantic and morphological devices to express negation. In the text of Grand Qur'aan we find eight elements that are used to express negation. Each is unique, syntactically and semantically. Each one has its specific uses and conditions.

The most frequently employed particle to express negation is: . Others are:

: Negative and Jussive particle. It renders the verb in jussive mood and semantically past.

: It negates nominal sentences; and perfect and imperfect - present/future verbs.  

: Negative subjunctive Particle, restricting imperfect verb to the future tense adding element of emphasis to the negation.  Recurrence: 106

: 2:113  It is defective/incomplete from the point of view that it has no Present Tense, no command verb and no passive voice.  Also from the point of view of its meanings, it is a verb of negation that is used to negate noun sentences. The subject of sentence  is called its Ism-Noun and is in nominative case/state and its predicate is in accusative case/state.

: 3:142 (6) It is also used as a particle inferring the continuous negation of the past.  Like the particle Lam, it utilizes the form of present-tense verb while converting the negation to the past.

Negative "nafia" In this function the particle is usually followed by particle "Illa". In English this construction is translated by only, 9:107 [their intention is  nothing but good] 75:25 The particle of Negation may be entered upon both nominal and verbal sentences. Some grammarians are of  the view that the meaning of negation is only found when this particle is combined with particle Illa or combined with the particle of negation Lamma-86:04. In refutation of that view others offer the following verses where no other particle is present-10:68 and 72:25

: It occurs once in 38:3

Particle: occurs with slight variation in writing with or without a space from preceding constituent:

: 812 + 658 = 1,470

: 658: Space is not given in between conjunction particle and negation particle when it is in the conjunct clause.

Depending upon the location of its use, it is also spelled as: when the preceding word is joined with it in pronunciation; as:  when the preceding word is joined with it in pronunciation; and sound elongation sign is for being followed by a vowel-ed hamza;  and as: when followed by a vowel-ed hamza.

It is employed for following functions with varying syntax and semantics:

(1) الزائدة: وتفيد التوكيد : Extraneous, it indicates emphasis - focus.  It is used to negate only a constituent.

  • This Course is other than of those upon whom culpability for criminal cognizance/arrest has become incumbent; and nor is of aberrant: those who dissolutely move out of the bounds and restraints. [refer 01:07] 

 

(2) النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ: Used to indicate categorical negation. Its particularity is that it negates something about the entire genus  represented by its subject. Its visual recognition is that it renders the following noun, which is its topic/subject, in accusative case  and the comment/ predicate nominative, just as is done by the verb-like particle: انّ  and its sisters. What was previously known as  the: مبتدأ subject/ topic of nominal sentence, it will now be called:  اسم" of "لا, the subject noun of genus negation particle; and  what was previously called: خبر the predicate, it will now be the خير "of "لا predicate of genus negation particle. It restricts focus  on a constituent, subject in general, which immediately follows it.

Its subject is always indefinite and without tanwin - nunation. Its predicate (mostly elided) is in nominative case.

  • This is the Book, you will find reading it that its contents are absolutely void of peeving substance: suspicious, conjectural, whimsical, conflicting, ambiguous, anomalous, irrational, un-certain, illusory, unsubstantiated, incongruous, biased and opinionated matter. [refer 2:02]

The predicate: itself is an elliptical sentence wherein the predicate of genus negation particle: is elided but is  conspicuously understood by the following prepositional phrase.

(3) النَّاْفِيَةُ: Simple Negation: (a) It is used to negate imperfect tense where intonation does not effect its interpretation; (b) It is  employed to negate a nominal sentence;

It negates present and future tenses. It occurs before the verb that is in indicative mood.   

 

  • General information about those who have disavowed the Creatorveiled the Truth is that:

  • Whether you the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] have cautioned them of potential consequences or have not cautioned them, the effect upon them would remain alike;

  • They believe not. [for reasons hereinafter given]. [2:06]

It does not negate perfect tenses except in "neither ----- nor" construction, it has  only one instance where it is used with perfect  verb in 75:31. There is yet another instance where it precedes a seemingly perfect verb in 90:11 but it is a subjunctive verb because this negation particle cannot precede a perfect verb. Perfect verbs are used as subjunctive verbs with negation particle to express  negative wish.

  • Thereby, he did not affirm the truth - appreciate the message - nor he paid reverence[75:31]

  • Instead, he contradicted and about-faced; [75:32]

  • Thereafter, he went towards his household, purposely swaggering. [75:33]

  • Despite that, purposely he might wish not forcing his way into the Exterior [of disastrous circle]. [90:11]

Negation of a proposition in nominal sentences:

  • We said: "You go down out of this place jointly-together.

  • Take note thenceforth whenever guidance-guide from Me would have come to you people;

  • Thereat, whoever would have followed in letter and spirit My Guidance in such manner that nothing else influences in between;

  • Thereby, fear will not overshadow-haunt such class of people.

  • Neither will they have a cause to feel sad or grieved". [2:38]

   

(4) الناهية: Prohibitive. It renders the following imperfect verb in jussive mood. It is negative imperative expressing the meanings that the activity signified by the verb should not be undertaken/carried out. It is employed to stimulate a negative focus.  

(5) المكرّرة : When it is repeated in a sentence, it indicates "neither......nor" construction. It is used both in perfect verbal sentences and nominal sentences before the subject and also in the predicate; also in adjectival clause and circumstantial clause.

 

Other occurrences of negative particle with suffixes

Interrogative particle + Conjunction فَ  which shows cause and effect +  Negation particle . (1)2:44(2)2:76(3)3:65(4)4:82(5)5:74(6)6:32(7)6:50(8)6:80(9)7:65(10) 7:169(11)10:03(12)10:16(13)10:31(14)11:24(15)11:30(16)11:51 (17)12:109(18)16:17(19)20:89(20)21:10(21)21:30(22)21:44(23)21:67(24)23:23(25)23:32(26)23:80(27)23:85(28)23:87(29)28:60  (30)28:71(31)28:72(32)32:04(33)32:26(34)32:27(35)36:35(36)36:68(37)36:73(38)37:138(39)37:155(40)43:51(41)45:23(42)47:24 (43)51:21(44)88:17(45)100:09=45  

Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause and effect +  Negation Particle. (1)2:22(2)2:38(3)2:86(4)2:102(5)2:132(6)2:147(7)2:150(8)2:158(9)2:187(10)2:193(11)2:197(12) 2:229(13)2:229(14)2:230(15)2:230(16)2:232(17)2:233(18)2:233(19)2:234(20)2:240(21)3:60(22)3:160(23)3:175(24)3:188(25)4:20(26)4:23(27)4:34(28)4:46(29)4:65(30)4:89(31)4:128(32)4:129(33) 4:135(34)4:140(35)4:155(36)5:03(37)5:26(38)5:44(39)5:68(40)5:69(41)6:17(42)6:35(43)6:48(44)6:68(45)6:114(46)6:136(47)6:150(48)6:160(49)7:02(50)7:35(51)7:99(52)7:150(53)7:186(54)7:195 (55)8:15(56)9:28(57)9:36(58)9:55(59)10:49(60)10:88(61)10:94(62)10:107(63)10:107(64)11:17(65)11:36(66)11:46(67)11:109(68)12:60(69)12:69(70)13:11(71)14:22(72)14:47(73)15:55(74)15:68 (75)16:01(76)16:74(77)16:85(78)17:23(79)17:33(80)17:48(81)17:56(82)18:22(83)18:70(84)18:76(85)18:105(86)19:84(87)20:16(88)20:108(89)20:112(90)20:117(91)20:123(92)21:37(93)21:40(94) 21:47(95)21:94(96)22:67(97)23:94(98)24:28(99)25:09(100)25:52(101)26:213(102)28:28(103)28:35(104)28:84(105)28:86(106)29:08(107)30:39(108)31:15(109)31:23(110)31:33(111)32:17(112) 32:23(113)33:32(114)33:51(115)33:59(116)34:51(117)35:02(118)35:02(119)35:05(120)35:08(121)36:43(122)36:50(123)36:76(124)40:04(125)40:40(126)43:61(127)46:08(128)46:13(129)47:13 (130)47:35(131)51:59(132)53:32(133)55:35(134)58:09(135)60:10(136)68:08(137)68:42(138)72:13(139)72:18(140)72:26(141)75:31(142)87:06(143)90:11(144)93:09(145) 93:10=145                             

Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause and effect +  Negation Particle, with sound stretching sign.  (1)2:173(2)2:182(3)2:203(4)2:203(5)10:104(6)23:101(7) 56:75(8)69:38(9)70:40(10)81:15(11)84:16=11                                                         

Interrogative Particle + Negation Particle (1)9:13(2)9:49(3)12:59(4)24:22(5)26:11(6)26:25(7)26:106(8)26:124(9)26:142(10)26:161(11)26:177(12)37:91(13)37:124(14)39:03(15) 39:05(16)51:27(17)67:14(18)83:04=18 

Interrogative particle + Conjunction وَ  +  Negation particle. (1)2:77(2)9:126(3)19:67=                                                                      

= +Subordinating conjunction, Subjunctive particle + Negation Particle.(1)2:229(2)2:229(3)2:246(4)2:246(5)2:282(6)2:282(7)3:41(8)3:64(9)3:170(10)3:176(11)3:183 (12)4:03(13)4:03(14)4:03(15)5:08(16)5:71(17)6:119(18)6:151(19)7:12(20)8:34(21)9:92(22)9:97(23)11:02(24)12:40(25)14:12(26)15:32(27)17:02(28)17:23(29)19:10(30)19:24(31)20:89(32)20:93 (33)20:118(34)26:03(35)27:25(36)27:31(37)41:14(38)41:30(39)46:21(40)53:38(41)55:08(42)57:10(43)57:29(44)80:07=44

+Subordinating conjunction, Subjunctive particle + Negation Particle, with prolongation sign. (1)19:48=1

Prefixed particle of purpose + [المصدريّة], Subordinating conjunction, [ناصب] Subjunctive particle + [النافية] Particle of Negation. (1)2:150(2)4:165=2

Prefixed particle of purpose + [المصدريّة], Subordinating conjunction,  Subjunctive particle + Particle of Negation. (1)57:29=1

  Particle of purpose + Gerundival Particle indicating reason; that renders verb in subjunctive and futuristic connotation+ Negation particle. (1)3:153(2) 57:23=2               

  Particle of purpose + Gerundival Particle that renders verb in subjunctive and futuristic connotation + Negation particle. (1)22:05(2)33:50=2

Progressive number of grammatical units: = 10,547 + 1,470 = 12,017

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