Ar'Reh'maan: the Proper Name of Allah the Exalted
: Ar'Reh'maan: This unique personal name of Allah the Exalted has widely been discussed by scholars; Muslims, Jews and Christians included, for determining its meanings by considering it an attribute of the Sustainer Lord of the Universes.
George Sale had translated it as "the most merciful" and John Medows Rodwell as "compassionate". The other translators in timeline have merely copied them and likewise translated it as an adjectival:
George Sale: (London, 1734) In the name of the most merciful God.
John Medows Rodwell:
(London, 1861) In
the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
Grand Qur'aan is perhaps the only book about which scholars, both believing and non-believing, seldom adhered to otherwise well accepted norms of behaviour - academic discipline of transferring a book of one language to another language. Just one example suffices to prove it. We have in academics means and methods to distinguish a Proper Noun - Personal Name in a lengthy text. None seems to have cared to resolve whether Ar'Reh'maan is the Proper Noun - Name of Allah the Exalted, despite the fact that it finds mention for fifty-seven times in the text of Grand Qur'aan; fully declinable, in all cases, nominative, accusative and genitive..
With regard to nouns, the basic distinction in languages is common noun and proper noun. The perception of the contents of source text may be distorted extensively if it is not resolved about a noun as to whether it is a common noun or proper noun, and whether it is descriptive or non-descriptive.
Proper noun is a name of a particular, individual person, place, community, or thing who/which is usually unique; it has a singular reference. A common noun on the other hand is a name in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica; "a name is a word or group of words used to refer to an individual entity (real or imaginary)" (vol.24, p.733).
The name is the code that gives basic cognition of existence and presence of a thing and person. Hence, name is the introduction for apparent/initial cognition of a thing and person. Cognition of the code/name of a thing or person is the first step in gaining knowledge about the thing or person. Name of a thing or person gives it or him a vivid distinction from all other things and persons and makes it or him distinguished, identified, definite and isolated [معرفة]; and grants ability to others to identify, and describe/remember/recall and/or mention-refer it or him to others. The name/code serves as a basis/foundation for others to enquire and study about it to gain further knowledge.
Attributive names/adjectival descriptions - epithets give further information, insight and knowledge about the thing or person introduced by a Personal Name-Proper Noun. These are complimentary in nature and help acquaint others about the inner-self [بَاطِن] of the named object or person/being. Every person and thing/object has two aspects; the one evidently apparent [ظَاهر] notwithstanding whether or not it is in the range of focus of someone, and the other is the inner-self, hidden, infolded, not apparent but invisibly embedded therein: بَاطِن.
The evidently apparent [ظَاهر] is the reflection of the fact of existence, and its cognition and reference is by the Name. The pursuit-journey of knowledge is from cognition of existence/Name towards knowing and perceiving the inner-self [بَاطِن] of that which exists and its relationships and equations with all that exists. We cannot have the absolute knowledge of anything and person/being unless we know its/his inner-self [بَاطِن], after its cognition, introductory knowledge of its Name.
Once we know the inner-self, all that is secreted, hidden and its relationships with everything else, we know and recognize that thing and Person in near absolute sense. Thereupon, it or He becomes more visible and apparent than the shining Sun in a bright day, even without being in visual sight—the [ظَاهر] aspect of Him. Therefore, we know Him/him with such conviction, which is the absolute-exalted end of the knowledge. This type of knowledge, with reference to personalities, can be attained only about two, Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted; and Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam—the mercy Personified, since the: بَاطِن of both is quite extensively visible to us all around, and through the courtesy of Grand Qur'aan.
Personal names are never translated in any language of the world. Proper names must be transcribed in the alphabet of other languages in the manner that a non-native produces the same - as-near sound as is in the original language. We fully know that the Exalted Personalities have cognition by their Proper Name. Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam is the guide lord for humanity, he is advised to tell us:
We call/address persons by the status, or position held by him or calling by his personal name. In between: and is: which means "or, alternate-interchangeable-appositively, either"; and thus it is reflected that both are the exclusive distinct Names of the Being Who is The Only Iela'aha: Sovereign Lord of the peoples.
Important to note and remember: The Personal Name: is unique; exclusive; no dual, no plural, no feminine equivalent. Personal Name that introduce and grant cognition of an existing personality, unlike attributive-adjectival names-descriptions, never have duality and plurality. Neither there is any process/phenomenon/rule in the Arabic language for “feminization” or "masculinization" of proper nouns/names. Moreover, first two letters in the Proper Names: and should never be considered and equated with Definite Article: since it is the intrinsic and inherent part of the Names.
This name is unprecedented, this has no parallel:
About the unique name: Ar'Reh'maan a question is asked to answer in yes or no that none other has this name:
Without the code/name, existence of a thing is not acceptable, it is non-existent. Equally, without existence of a thing/matter or person in actual reality, any name/code assigned for such imaginative thing/existence is of no significance and is merely meaningless utterances of the mouth [أَفْوَاهِهِمْ].
Rules of Arabic language signify it only as Personal Name.
The nouns in Arabic, whether Proper Nouns or Common Nouns, in their default state are always "Nominative"; in Arabic مرفوع : its visual recognition is the presence of vowel sign ـُ on the last consonant of the noun.
A peculiar and distinguishing feature of Arabic language is that; unlike other languages, say English and Urdu in which the adjective comes first-prioritized than the described one, the مُوْصُوف/the one being described/portrayed is always mentioned first followed by the صِفَة/Adjective. Arabic, the language of our guide lord Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, is a language of truth and fact. مُوْصُوف: the one being described/portrayed is mentioned first since he is First in Existence, and it is always the مُوْصُوف who has either inherently and intrinsically the mentioned صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, or has acquired/adopted it. Hence, Proper Noun/Personal Name NEVER find a place at a secondary place as an adjective in the Adjectival Phrases.
Personal Names are also not the first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases [الاضافة]. They are always second noun [مضاف اليه] in possessive phrases. One will never find: : the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted as first noun [مضاف] of possessive construction/genitive phrases.
The fundamental simple features and grammar of Arabic language vividly reflect that: has no other denotative and connotative ascription except that of the Proper Name. The Grand Qur'aan unambiguously explains in various references and contexts that this is but Unique and Exclusively the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of all that exists.
Though no further argument is needed in support of it being Proper Noun, but finding that almost all the translations and exegeses have erroneously rendered it adjectival, we will further study its use by reference to collocating context for its recognition-classification as Proper Noun and NOT as adjective. A habitual word combination is called collocation.
The recognition of Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is: such Lord who maintains Aloneness. It is interesting that this recognition is firstly mentioned in accompaniment to the Personal Name: Ar'Reh'maan:
There is an interesting and apparent contradiction in the psyche of those who, instead of accepting as being the: , associate other hand made/sculpted statues by assigning them conjectural/imaginative names and declaring to their under influence people as their various iela'aha, but they have never pronounced these imaginative iela'aha as: of the people. The first people of dominance, in the society and their coteries pseudo intellectuals, who innovated the concept and idea of various imaginative iela'aha,: godheads were "intelligent" enough not to proclaim publicly that these so called various iela'aha had any feature of acting as sustaining lord. Had they done it their deception could not last long.
(2) Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted is to be recognized as the Sustainer Lord of peoples and of all in the physical realm.
The recognition of Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted: رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ the Sustainer Lord of the universes - all that exists.
In the phrase: رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ the first noun expresses a relation based on love, care, caring, and cherishing combined with authority and mastery of holding the subjects accountable. "Lord" is less expressive word, therefore, it is better to render it as the Sustainer Lord. Few Ayahs are reproduced below that indicate that the Sustainer Lord is mentioned by Proper Nouns: Allah and Ar'Reh'maan:
Indeed the Sustainer Lord of you people is Allah the Exalted Who had innovatively created the Skies and the Earth in a time duration of six days [reckoned outside your universe]; [Refer 7:54; 10:03]
(3) Creator of things is identified and referred by Proper Name, be it an individual person or a company, organization. We do not usually refer a creator by an adjective because a listener can immediately ask for as to who is being referred since adjectival traits can be shared by many at a time. The complete perusal of Grand Qur'aan reveals that the Names, Allah the Exalted and Ar’Rehmaan refer the Creator of everything that exists:
(4) The Subject [عَبْد plural عباد] is identified only by the Proper Name of his Lord Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. The complete perusal of Grand Qur'aan reveals that Slaves-Servants-Allegiants-Subjects are declared only with reference to proper Names, Allah the Exalted and Ar’Rehmaan:
In the days of gradual revelation of Grand Qur'aan the rational people paid more attention to the substance and avoided indulging in discourses and discussions about grammar and morphology etc. Moreover, such things are of interest and necessity for a non-native/non Arab. In addition, the claim in the Grand Qur'aan is that it is easy for comprehension and understanding of humanity irrespective of language barrier. It is thus evident that even without knowing the depth and niceties of language, grammar etc one can grasp the substance and essence of the message merely by acquaintance of Arabic. Therefore, without delving deep into the debate spread over thousands of pages, we plainly keep asking the Grand Qur'aan to make us understand whether: is the Personal Name of our Sustainer Lord or is it His Attributive Name reflecting His infinite mercifulness.
It is our common perception and approach that whenever we introduce or mention a slave/servant or subject we do not say, "he-so and so is slave or subject of "merciful ", "powerful " etc. On the contrary, we refer the Personal Name of his master/Lord. Similarly, the relationship between the Person and the thing is that of Creator and the created. Creator is the Lord  of the created things and the created things are the slaves  of their Creator. Both the words reflect a two-way relationship.
In the like manner of our perception and practice, Allah never referred about His slaves/created living persons  with relation to His attributes. He the Exalted always calls them as: by Personal Name.
Grand Qur'aan is a discourse of Proven Facts; the First : allegiant mentioned in the Grand Qur'aan is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam. About 550-600 years before his corporeal appearance Easa alai'his'slaam had informed about him as the Only Messenger to appear after his natural death and mentioned at that point in time: "His name is Ahmad" [61:06]. Beginning is with the Personal name: of Allah the Exalted and immediately after beginning/creation is: "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah"; and for the one who praises someone intensively and extensively it is said that his name is .
Grand Qur'aan is in absolute chronological sequence exposing facts relating to temporal and pre-temporal era. The perception and concept of: is not something that could exist in isolation. It can emerge only when there is an Object for it and another person of will and intellect to act as doer/subject of performing it. There has to be the Praised One and the Praiser/Admirer when: the Praise, the Admiration will become a reality. The First -the Slave-the Allegiant-the One at the service of Allah is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the great creation.
The words: - can never appear as the first noun of possessive phrase - أَلإضَافَةُ ٱلْحَقِيقِيَّةُ with second noun which is adjective/descriptive word. That will be invalid phrase in Arabic. This fact also reconfirms that: Ar’Rehmaan is Proper Noun.
(5) Prostration-obeisance is before and for the Person, and not for his traits.
One pays obeisance, and gesture of extreme adoration and submission is made before and for the Person or object referred by Proper Noun, and not by adjectival names/traits. The concept of Obeisance and Prostration is embedded in Arabic Root: س ج د . The original, basic meanings are the feel of lowliness, humility, submissiveness by one for someone else, which is manifested by lowering of one's head in the state chin moving towards chest along with eyes going downwards, or bending oneself down. The basic perception unfolds that this is a relational word-it happens or takes existence only when there are two entities. Moreover, evidently it is not an abstract or theoretical proposition but a physical act; something expressed, conveyed, and submitted through body language instead of verbal expression. This act signifies and demonstratively portrays-parallels one's thought of surrender and submission reflecting acceptance of his relative humble state and position as against the exalted, honoured, elevated stature, and glory of other. This gives us its initial perception and meanings as obeisance, homage, respectful, saluting gesture and behaviour towards/for someone else.
The relational aspect, physical nature and the reflection of the relativity in stature, position and elevation of the subject and the one for whom this act is done is explained at first instance of use of this Root in the Qur'aan:
The relational aspect is conspicuously evident, that one is the performer and the other is the one for or before whom the act is performed. The sincere feel and passion, paralleled by the physical gesture of body parts bowing, reflects willful and affectionate acknowledgement of the greatness, grandeur and superiority of the one for or before whom one demonstrates it. The essence, or the inherent consideration for the performance of this act, at one's own inclination, before or for someone is to seek his attention, acknowledgement, and thereby become nearer to the exalted.
The act of Ieb'lees and his state of mind, when he demurred to comply with the command, further reflects the denotation of the act signified by this verb. He was obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority. What impression and message is conveyed, and is gathered by onlookers watching this physical gesture, body language? It is quite vividly disclosed by quoting the plea/so called logic of Ieb'lees for holding himself back in paying obeisance for Adam alahissalam:
Notwithstanding that Ieb'lees is perhaps the first pseudo-intellectual; his understanding of exposure and manifestation, which is caused by: "you pay obeisance", discloses the essence embedded in this bodily act-gesture-body language. It is visibly concrete exposure of feel and acceptance of relative humility, smallness, less importance, and inferiority in state, position and honour than the one whom obeisance is paid. He, in his own assessment, weighed himself as superior/better than the one whom he was asked to pay obeisance. Therefore, he did not find it befitting to pay obeisance to the one whom he thought inferior to his self. His support argument and "logic" for presuming himself superior, indicating that rather he is more deserving to be paid obeisance, was the base material of their respective creation. He did not become a reverent for the one whom Allah the Exalted dignified and honored upon him. This is reflective of his act: "he made his own self obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority".
It thus conspicuously reveals that the state of mind, i.e. the feel precedes the gesture - its expression by body language. The Root has been used at other occurrences also where the relational field restricts its meanings to its basic-initial signification, i.e. feel of humbleness with head down on chin in humility posture.
The Root and the Word; on entering in the relational field when the Revered is the Only One-The Absolute-The Only Independent-The Self Subsisting-The Creator-The Supreme Exalted-Sovereign Sustainer Lord of the Universes, and the Reverent are all objects and living-all that exists in the created realm, denote meanings from beginning to its exhaustive-absolute limit. Beginning is the recognition of elevated stature, grandeur, honour, glory, that serves as stimuli for someone to submit in humility and praise, compelling him to compromise his self esteem by bending downwards for or before another Entity. The intensity of the recognition and feel will get reflected from respectful and submissive posture of lowering the head with chin going towards chest to the last exhaustive limit of bending, lowering and surrender reflected by the forehead placed for and before someone on Earth. Moreover, it reflects acceptance of one's limitations/limitedness as against the self-feel of grandeur and self-sufficiency.
Since this is a physical act, therefore, the cause or the feel, which is its stimuli, can either be sincere, affectionate, reverence oriented, or because of compulsion of coercive circumstances forcing one to surrender and bend in humility:
If we skim the Divine Discourse we will not find that the prostration collocates with any adjectival - epithetical word. Apart from Proper Noun Allah the Exalted, it is stated to prostrate for: :
(6) One is mentioned by Personal Name who adorns the Throne/Seat of Sovereignty; and not by adjectives.
It is our common perception and a well-known practice that we mention the Name of the person who takes over and adorns the seat of power-sovereignty/throne. We do not mention him by adjectival traits and attributive names. Likewise, in Grand Qur'aan only the Proper Name, Allah and Ar'Reh'maan is mentioned with regard to adorning the Sublime Seat of Authority-Sovereignty Who is its Sustainer Lord. Moreover, it is beyond limits of seven skies of our Universe. This is above water.
(7) A person makes a promise. Promise-maker finds mention by title or personal name.
A promise, commitment, undertaking, and obligation are that of a person/being. The Title or Personal Name always refers him with reference to the promise made by him. We never refer a promise by the adjectival trait/attributive names of the undertaker of that promise and commitment.
Allah the Exalted has promised.
Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted has promised
The promise of Allah the Exalted.
(8) An agreement, contract, covenant, pact is with reference to party's Title or Personal Name.
A contract, bond, covenant, in legal parlance, creates an obligation which is binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are the parties who have legal capacity to make a contract reflecting mutual assent. In general, contract may be oral or written. It is thus evident that the contracting parties shall find mention by respective Title or Personal Name. Its very nature prohibits that the reference of the parties shall not be by adjective/attributive names. In Arabic, the equivalent word is .
The attributive names of Allah the Exalted never find mention in the Divine Discourse with reference to semantic field of this word denoting something enjoined, solemn pledge, contract, obligation, binding commitment, covenant. Its mention is in relation only to Proper Nouns: and .
(9) Mention of Permission, Authorization, and Proclamation is always by the Name of the authority.
The grant of permission, authorization and a notification, proclamation is by a person in authority. The permission, authorization, notification and proclamation find mention in writing only by reference to the Proper Name of the concerned authority. The semantic domain for permission, authorization, approval, announcement, declaration, proclamation the Root is " ء ذ ن" , words like , .
With the explicit permission/consent/authorization of Allah the Exalted.
(10) People relate a son [very as well adopted] with Personal Name of the one with whom they relate a son.
We relate a son to a Proper Name and not describe this relationship by adjectives/traits of person with whom we relate a son. It is common practice in all languages. Since Allah and Ar'Reh'maan are Proper Nouns, conjectural fabrication of a son is mentioned by these proper nouns:
(11) The Unitary Verbal Passages and other signs are related to Allah and Ar-Rehman, the Exalted; not by adjectival noun - epithet.
(12) Awe is associated with Allah the Exalted as well with other proper name: Ar'Reh'maan.
The Root of verb: is خ ش ى. The Root is used for two converging meanings, awe and dread. Emotion of awe is a mixture of wonder and fear - feeling of amazement and respect mixed with fear that is coupled with feeling of personal insignificance or powerlessness.
The optical faculty is the source for the people to experience awe by the awe-inducing nature scenes all around them reflecting the Divine providence and Will evidently. It is positive feeling of being in the presence of something vast that transcends our understanding of the world. Experiencing awe is fundamental emotional response of those who mindfully observes the environment and the universe they live in.
Every particle in the universe is awesome that transcends us to the perception of the existence of its Creator, Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. This gives us the feeling of "small-self"; not in relation to awesome manifestations in nature, but in relation to our Mighty and Sublime Sustainer Lord, Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted.
We have noticed that the Divine Discourse is explicitly explicative. It was the lapse of exegetes who blindly followed and copied the erroneous thought of their forerunners, pseudo-scholars George Sale and John Rodwell, by rendering a Proper Noun in the very first Ayah of Divine Discourse as adjective.