Beginning is with Allah's personal name Ar'Reh'maan Who is The Fountain of Infinite Mercy.













Lane's Lexicon















































































































































































































































Root: ب ح ر 

Words from this Root in the Grand Qur'aan:

a) Total occurrences: 42

b) No of constructions: 9

The basic perception infolded in the Root is to slit, trench, or cleave lengthwise. Since the beds of  river, sea, ocean are naturally trenched on a large area of  land in length and width which become the flowing route of reservoirs of waters, therefore, the word refers and signifies either the Sea, Lake or the River. The Rivers end up, or we may say the trench continues to join another trench of bigger size, in Lakes and Seas. From this, we can see the concept and perception of a global interconnected trench enabling flow and serving as reservoir of water.

However, the Sea and River have some features that are common for both, and some peculiar characteristics are such that signify both as distinct entities. Therefore, we must take care of the characteristics and relationship with other words, wherever we find mention of: , to arrive at exact conclusion whether it refers to River or certain Sea over the surface of the Earth/Landforms or a trench beneath the Earth wherein water reservoirs flow. This is also necessitated if the word is prefixed with the definite article.


1- Where it refers to Gulf of Suez.

  • Moreover, recall the point in time when Our Majesty rendered the Gulf of Suez [refer 20:80].separated to assist you people to cross over [the dry passage, central passage like line in human skull];

  • Thereby, We rescued you keeping safe above the surface-reach of water; [skeleton like dried passage/emerged fringing reef-see 26:63]

  • And We caused the drowning of the Pharaoh-folk; [army equipped with arms].

  • While you people were watching them drowning [from other bank of Gulf of Suez after having crossed over the emerged fringing reef that served as bridge-dried passage]. [2:50]

Verb: Perfect; First Person; Plural/Sovereign Singular; [نَا] Subject pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-فَرْقٌ Verbal noun. This verb unambiguously identifies its object as the peculiar Sea: since the act and its effect related with this Verb cannot be thought or perceived in relation to a River.

  • And Our Majesty helped Bani Iesraa'eela safely cross over the [dried passage-fringing Reef] Gulf of Suez;  [Recurrence:(1)7:138(2)10:90=2]

Verb: Perfect; First person; Plural/Sovereign Singular; Masculine; [Form-III]; [نَا] Suffixed Subject Pronoun; nominative state;  مصدر مُجَاوَزَةٌ Verbal Noun.

  • Know the fact that We had communicated to Mūsā [alai'his'slaam in Egypt] that;

  • "You travel by night with My servants.

  • Thereupon reaching there [and because of chase by enemy-26:52], you strike emerging a passage for accompanying people in the Gulf of Suez. The characteristic feature of this passage is that it is dried up: skeleton - Fringing reef.

  • You will not have fear of being overtaken, nor you will have apprehension of other unpleasant eventuality." [20:77]


Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. It is the adjectival description of a passage that was to emerge. A verbal noun signifies an action or state only.

This direction and information was communicated when Musa  [علیہ السلام] was in Misr-in Arabic Country of Two Lands-known in West as Egypt. The other update of this Exodus Episode is when they had arrived at Gulf of Suez and were still on Western bank when they observed at distance the chasing troops.

  • Thereby, We conveyed to Mūsā [alai'his'slaam]:

  • That "Strike the Gulf of Suez with the help of your stalk emerging [for them the dried up passage/Fringing reef-as earlier told 20:77]".

  • He struck uplifting the dried up passage; whereby it: the dried-passage itself emerged becoming visible.

  • Thereat, each segment - assemblage of its parts was like the Big Bone-Skeleton [Fringing reefs] stationed firmly at its position. [26:63]

Prefixed Conjunction particleفَ  [Cause and effect indicative] + Verb: Perfect; Third person; Singular; Masculine; Active; [Form-VII]; Subject pronoun hidden referring to Dried Passage;  مصدر-إِنْفِلاَقٌ Verbal noun. Form-VII verbs are reflexive which means that the subject/performer of the act is also the recipient/object of the verb. Further this Form is passive in meanings.

This was relating to the instructions when they were on this side of the Gulf of Suez. What was he to do after crossing over to other bank leaving the Gulf of Suez?

  • Thereat he was told, "You [O Musa] travel by night with my servants.

  • Indeed you people will be consciously chased. [44:23]

  • And [after having crossed over to the other side of Gulf of Suez on the Dry Bridge/Passage] you abandon the Gulf of Suez, leaving it in the ridged state.

  •  It is a fact that they are the troops that will be caused to be drowned". [44:24]

Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. It is the circumstantial accusative in the sentence; ridged state.

Why in these Ayahs - Unitary verbal passages that are mirroring the events of the Episode of Exodus, the word: is translated by me specifically as Gulf of Suez? The definite nouns of Arabic relate and identify a specific and recognized object both by the Speaker and the listener/addressee. For others, Grand Quraan makes such definite words known by explanations at other places with regard to it. We are told about the direction they went and were followed during this Exodus:

  • Thereupon, [on gathering in response to Pharaoh's call], they: Pharaoh and gathered troops purposely chased them, they were heading towards East. [26:60]

: Active Participle: Indefinite; sound plural; masculine; accusative. [Form-IV]. It is unfortunate that the majority of Translators have opted to translate it as the time of Sunrise after the night of Exodus. However, inaccuracy of this thought is evident from the facts mentioned immediately before this, that it was not the Sunrise of the following dawn of the Night of Exodus, but the route followed in Easterly direction. 

  • Thereupon, on reports of their having left city, Fir'aoun [Pharaoh] sent gatherers into the Forts-Army Encampments [with the message] [26:53]

  • "Indeed these are a band separated from main group, small in number.

  • And indeed they for us are certainly arousers of rage; [26:55]

  • And We are certainly a multitude, well equipped." [26:56]

Noun: Definite; plural; feminine; genitive; denotes the Cities, the Fortresses.

The Exodus took place during the darkened night. Fir'aoun gets the intelligence reports of their departure, whereupon he sent gatherers towards various Army Encampments to bring troops. This shows how coward was he, that despite knowing about them as unarmed small band of people he could not pick up the courage to immediately start the pursuit by taking an Army Unit immediately available in his palace. He sent people to various Encampments. Should we still remain under the false impression that they followed immediately on Sunrise after the Night of Exodus despite the information given in 26:53 above?

In the Eastern side of Misr/Egypt is the Sea, the specific name of which is Gulf of Suez. They safely crossed over it. Where did they land after Exodus?

  • They were reminded: "O you the posterity of Israel! Our Majesty deliveredrescued you in the recent past from your enemy;

  • And We have appointed for you a period [of asylum] on the right side of At-Tur [Mount in Sinai];

  • And We have intermittently sent to you al-Munna and As-salwa: excellent food. [20:80]


In the entire globe there is no At Tur by the bank of a Sea except the one on the Eastern shore of Gulf Suez.

2. : Recognized as Sea by the relational words/trait.

  • You the Messenger [Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] confront people: "Name Who saves you people in the layers of darkness-clueless locations-bewilderment of the Desert and the Ocean-Sea?

  • You call upon Him in humility and privately-secretively,

  • In case He rescued us from this life threatening situation, we will certainly remain obliged and grateful" [6:63]

  • Moreover, He the Exalted has arranged for you people the Stars [Pointers and North Pole]

  • So that you people might guide yourselves in finding direction by them in the layers of darkness-clueless locations-unmarked spaces-bewilderment of the Desert-Land and the Ocean..

  • Our Majesty has made the Aa'ya'at: verbal passages conveying information, facts and knowledge about things-concepts as vividly distinct-demarcated-isolated-alienated-crystal clear for the people in pursuit of knowing-understanding. [6:97]

[Read with 6:97]

Or, who guides/rescues you people in the layers of darkness/clueless locations-unmarked spaces-bewilderment of the Desert/Land and the Ocean/Sea. [Refer 27:63]

Here the definite noun has occurred describing a situation where the man traveling in it is caught up in a state of bewilderment-layers of darkness-clueless not knowing as to how to get a lead/direction/guidance and help to escape the bewildered state. Can anyone imagine this state occurring while man is traveling in River? This happens only in Ocean/Sea. Who comes to their rescue to indicate them the direction to get out of bewilderment while they are lost in darkness traveling in a desert and ocean? Only the Pointer Stars and Northern Pole Star. This fact is known to human beings from centuries, and in the above Ayah, the information is that this was done by Allah, the Exalted.

3. recognized as Sea/Ocean by the surrounding metaphors and picturesque depiction of scenes:

One Sub-set of the Verbal Passages of Grand Qur'aan are , Active participle [Form-VI], signifying that they keep performing the job of mirroring hidden facts/scientific realities mentioned in the Qur'aan for the benefit of humanity through metaphors, as is done by the Scientists.

  • He the Exalted is the One Who enables you people to traverse in the Land and the Sea.

  • For this purpose you people are at times on board the Ships.

  • And the Ships sailed carrying them on board with pleasant breeze, and they rejoiced the pleasant moments.

  • Thereat, a wind overtook the Ship. One [masculine active participle] Twister who makes things revolve and spread is laden within her/Wind.

  • And the Waves reached them from all sides.

  • And they apprehensively assessed that they have certainly been surrounded by it from all sides.

  • They called upon Allah the Exalted, acting as sincere devotees-allegiant in physical conduct for Him the Exalted, praying;

  • "We swear that if You the Exalted rescued us from this life threatening situation, we will certainly be obliged and grateful people". [10:22]

This picturesque depiction of an happening leads us to know certainly that refers only to ocean/sea.

  • Take note, when dangerous hardship touches you in the Ocean all those are forgotten, whom you people otherwise keep calling in tranquil circumstances, except He the Exalted, exclusively.

  • In response to your prayers and promises, when He the Exalted rescued you people towards the Coast you knowingly refrained from being obliged and thankful.

  • The historical fact is that the Man is generally ungratefully disobedient. [17:67]


  • Or have you people felt secured that He might occasion your going into the sea another time?

  • Thereat, He the Exalted might send upon you people a smasher cascading from the Wind.

  • Thereby, He the Exalted might drown you people for reason of your ungrateful denials.

  • Afterwards, you might not find a claimant and affectionate follower to plead for you before Our Majesty. [17:69]


People caught up in a dangerous hardship/life threatening situation whereupon, to the exclusion of all, they sought help from Allah, the Exalted, giving promises of becoming grateful allegiants. However, some afterwards having been rescued adopt their old tradition. They are reminded and warned that a situation can  occur when again they are in the sea/ocean. The situation that they might face is the sending of a tornado/ waterspout from within a peculiar wind is a phenomenon that occurs only in the Sea/Ocean.

  • Or the similarity of their acts is like layers of progressing darkness within a sea. It has a swell-raised level of water at a point.

  • A Wave rises and covers the surface of sea.

  • A wave ascends and departs from its-wave's upper surface

  • A dragger drags it from over its surface.

  • These are the successive layers of darkness. Their characteristic feature is that some are darker than others;

  • that when he took out his hand he was not near to see that hand.

  • And if Allah the Exalted makes not Visible Light for some one,  thereat  no part of  Visible Light is there for him. [24:40]

  • Have you not visualized/understood/given a thought that the ship sails/moves in the Sea with the blessing of Allah, the Exalted so that He may show to you people some of His visible tangible signs.

  • Indeed in it are certainly evident signs for each and every persistent coolly perseverant, ever thankfully obliged. [31:31

  • And the moment waves wrapped over them like the overshadowing canopies,

  • They called upon Allah the Exalted, acting as sincere devotees-allegiant in conduct for Him the Exalted.

  • In response to their prayers, when He the Exalted rescued them surviving and safe towards the land-shore, thereat some of them make themselves moderate.

  • Take note that none denies deliberately and publicly about Our Aa'ya'at-Verbally communicated passages except each and all ungratefully disobedient betrayer. [31:32]

Such scenes can be witnessed only in the Seas.


Diminutive Noun: Indefinite; plural paucity;  feminine; genitive. (1)31:27=1

                                                                                                                         اسم :مجرور-مع مكسر مؤنث

Smaller oceans

Noun: Definite; broken plural; feminine; accusative. (1)81:06(2)82:03=2

                                                                                                          اسم:معرفہ باللام مرفوع-جمع مكسر مؤنث


Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; accusative.  (1)2:50(2)7:138(3)10:90(4)  16:14(5)26:63(6)44:24(7)45:12=7                                                           اسم:معرفہ باللام منصوب-واحد مذكر


Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; genitive. (1)2:164(2)5:96(3)6:59(4)6:63(5)  6:97(6)7:163(7)10:22(8)14:32(9)17:66(10)17:67(11)17:70(12)18:61(13)18:63(14)18:79(15)20:77(16)  22:65(17)27:63(18)30:41(19)31:31(20)42:32(21)52:06(22)55:24=22

                                                                                                                   اسم:معرفہ باللام مجرور-واحد مذكر


Noun: Definite; singular; masculine; nominative. (1)18:109(2)18:109(3)31:27=3

                                                                                                                    اسم:معرفہ باللام مرفوع-واحد مذكر  


Noun: Definite; dual; masculine; nominative. (1)35:12=1

                                                                                                                    اسم:معرفہ باللام مرفوع-تثنية مذكر  


Noun: Definite; dual; masculine; accusative/genitive. (1)18:60(2)25:53(3)  27:61(4)55:19=4                                                                            اسم:معرفہ باللام مجرور/منصوب-تثنية مذكر  


Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; genitive. (1)24:40=1     اسم: مجرور-واحد مذكر


Noun: Indefinite; singular; feminine; genitive. (1)5:103=1   اسم: مجرور-واحد مؤنث


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