o


 

 

 

Separate particles; not in an interrogative sentence.

2:12,13,214

 

2:12,13,17,48,68,71,71

It is preceded by an, followed by subjunctive

2:22,38

الناهية

2:22,

general statement.

2:38,

=45

2:44,76;3:65;4:82;5:74;6:32, 50,80;7:65,169;10:03,16,31; 11:24,30,51;12:109;16:17; 20:89;21:10,30,44,67;23:23, 32,80,85,87;28:60,71,72;32:04, 26,27;36:35,68,73;37:38,155; 43:51;45:23;47:24;51:21;88:17; 100:09=

2:77

2:163

2:173

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a) Total occurrences: 1728

b) No of constructions:

01:07; 02:02,06,11,18, 26,30,32,35,38,41,41,42,48, 48,48,60,62,62,68,71

and nor; Neither ... nor ...

Laa  is used in Arabic to say "neither...nor..."

 01:07;2:38,48,48,48,62,62,68,71,

"negating of genus laa" لا النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ.

2:02,

for negation of imperfective verbs in the present tense.

2:06,18,26,30

general statement.

2:32,

الناهية

2:11,35,41,41,42,60

 

is a particle. The particle, preposition and conjunction are called harf.  It is that word which is used with noun or verb to complete the meaning of the sentence; its meaning will depend on the word with which it is used. The word for "no, not" in Arabic is .

is of two types:

1) [لا النافية] Particle of Negation,

 

The word for "no" in Arabic, laa is the official word used for negation of imperfective verbs in the present tense. In standard usage, it comes before the verb and not the subject of the sentence.

هُوَ لا يَعْرِفُ شَيْئًا

huw(a) laa ya"rif(u) shay'a(n)

 = he not knows a thing

Translation: HE doesn't know anything

 

لا يَعْرِفُ شَيْئًا

laa ya"rif(u) shay'a(n)

 = not (he) knows a thing

Translation: he doesn't know anything

 

إِنَّهُ لا يَعْرِفُ شَيْئًا

'inna-h(u) laa ya"rif(u) shay'a(n)

 = it is true that him not knows a thing

Translation: he doesn't know anything

 

لَقَدْ أَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّهُ لا يَعْرِفُ شَيْئًا

la-qad 'akhbartu-k(a) 'anna-h(u) laa ya"rif(u) shay'a(n)

 = (I) have told you that truthfully him not knows a thing

Translation: I told you he doesn't know anything

 

إِنْ ذَهَبَ لا يَجِدُ شَيْئًا هُنَاْكَ

'in thahab(a) laa yajid(u) shay'a(n) hunaak(a)

 = if (he) went not (he) finds a thing there

Translation: if he went, he wouldn't find anything there

The imperfective in the last example served as a subjunctive verb. We mentioned in the verb section that this is common in Arabic.

 

General negative, the context renders it allowable to suppress it subject and sometimes the predicate, when known is suppressed. [Lane's Lexicon]

Before Subjects

When laa precedes the subject instead of the verb, it will work either like lays(a) (i.e. it will require an adverb in the accusative case following it), or like 'inna (i.e the subject will be in the accusative case). However, the subject and the predicate must be indefinite when we use laa before the subject.

The first usage (like lays(a)) is a rather unusual way to use this particle in Arabic.

Example:

لا مَطَرٌ هَاْطِلاً

laa matar(un) haatila(n)

 = is/exists not a rain falling

Translation: no rain is falling

= it is not raining

OR: it is not rain which is falling

 

لا رَجُلٌ فِيْ الْبَيْتِ

laa rajul(un) fee ('a)l-bayt(i)

 = is/exists not a man in the house

Translation: there is no man in the house

OR: the man in the house is not a man

 

The second way of using laa before nouns (like 'inna) is much more common. laa  is usually used in this way to make a general statement. Whereas the previous way of using laa (like lays(a)) should be used when making a more specific statement.

لا أَحَدَ فِيْ الْبَيْتِ

laa 'ahad(a) fee ('a)l-bayt(i)

 = not a one (is) in the house

Translation: no one/nobody is in the house

As a norm in the second case, the subject after laa will usually not be Noonated, although it will still be indefinite. As we have mentioned already, the subject and the predicate must be indefinite when using negative laa before the subject of a sentence.

In Arabic grammar, when laa works like 'inna it is called:

"negating of genus laa" لا النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ.

and nor; Neither ... nor ...

Laa  is used in Arabic to say "neither...nor..."

 01:07

لا ... وَلا...

laa ... wa-laa ...

Neither ... nor ...

 

لا هَذَاْ وَلا ذَاْكَ

laa haathaa wa-laa thaak(a)

 = not this and not that

Translation: neither this nor that

 

لا رَأَيْتُ وَلا سَمِعْتُ

laa ra'ayt(u) wa-laa sami"t(u)

 = not (I) saw and not (I) heard

Translation: neither did I see nor did I hear

 

(a) and Particle of Denial before the imperfect indicative, with Present and Future meaning [like-I do it not or I shall not do it].

2) Prohibitive/Negative Imperative [الناهية]. When comes before second person conjugations of imperfective verbs, it will mean a negative command. When is used in this way (to give a negative command), it becomes a jussive particle and the imperfective verb after it must be in the jussive mood.

2:22

112. The Absolute Negation. It was mentioned earlier that one has to use some form of  لَيسَ to negate the Arabic equational sentence. However, Arab grammarians have also defined a rather "strong" semantic environment where you have to use   instead. They called this method  لا النافية للجِنس. Check the following examples:

1. There is a man in the house.             في البَيتِ رَجُلٌ.

 

2. There is no man in the house. لـَيسَ في البَيتِ رَجُلٌ.

 

3. There is a no man in the house.   لا رَجُلَ في البَيتِ.

As a norm in the second case, the subject after laa will usually not be Noonated, although it will still be indefinite. As we have mentioned already, the subject and the predicate must be indefinite when using negative laa before the subject of a sentence.

In Arabic grammar, when laa works like 'inna it is called:

"negating of genus/class/species laa" لا النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ.

 

"     negating of genus laa" لا النَّاْفِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ

   

 

Prohibitive [لا الناهية]

 

do not i.e. with prohibition

4 ) Negative Imperative:

Neither ... nor ...

Laa  is used in Arabic to say "neither...nor..."

The negative imperative is formed by the second person, preceded by  .

01:07; 02:02,06,11

    ولها عدد من الأقسام :

1 لا النافية .             2 لا الناهية .         3 لا الزائدة .

أولاً : لا النافية :

     وتنقسم إلى ثلاثة أقسام :

1 ـ لا النافية للجنس : العاملة عمل إن وهي الدالة على نفي الحكم عن جنس اسمها بغير احتمال لأكثر من معنى واحد

     وتعرف بلا الاستغراقية ، وذلك لاستغراق حكم النفي لجنس اسمها كله بغير احتمال . كما تعرف بلا التبرئة لأنها تدل على تبرئة جنس اسمها كله من معنى الخبر ، نحو : لا محاباة في الدين .

     ومنه قوله تعالى ( لا إكراه في الدين )(1) .

     وقوله تعالى ( لا ريب فيه )(2)

أ إما أن يكون مفرداً نكرة ، وحكمه البناء دائماً في محل نصب .

     كقوله تعالى ( شهد الله أنه لا إله إلا هو )(3) .