Ayah 6 to 7 comprising of 26 words is a single lengthy sentence that has clauses which are grammatically sentences but cannot stand at their own.

Type of sentence is declarative.


Concept—theme:

The kind of people who are the contra.- the opposites of: and are: people upon whom culpability for criminal cognizance/arrest has become incumbent.


Coherence:

This is continuation of linear - instant response to the individual who prayed to Allah the exalted for providing continued guidance upon the High road that keeps leading safely and stably to the destination of peace and tranquility-Ayah 1:7, which is other than of those who are declared culpable for criminal cognizance/arrest.


Verb-Like Particle: This is one of the six Particles called: الحروف المشبهة بالفعل since, in some features, they resemble with verbs. They are sentential modifiers. What was earlier known as subject in a nominal sentence, because of its presence at the outset, that will now be called "-Noun of ", which is rendered in accusative case; and the predicate will be called: خبرwhich will be in nominative case/state.

1. It is used in front of a nominal sentence only.

2. It changes the grammatical case of the subject from nominative to accusative.

3. This Particle has a truth-intensifying function when used at a beginning of statement. It emphasizes that what follows is true.

4) It helps "neutralize" the emphatic effect of bringing subject in front of a verb in the nominal sentence and thus confers a normal tone on the sentence.

: Relative Pronoun; Plural; masculine. It is the subject noun of preceding Verb-Like Particle.

: This verbal sentence comprising of third person masculine plural perfect verb and subject pronoun referring the Relative pronoun is the linkage clause. Its Root is: ك ف ر. Basic perception infolded is that of concealing, veiling, covering, hedging and denying to acknowledge a fact or favour.

The point to determine is as to what have they denied to acknowledge because the predicate of sentence reveals it is not related to denial of Grand Qur'aan and the exalted Messenger Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam? The foremost attribute of: Mutta'qeena is described:

And the opposites of them deny acknowledging the existence and presence of Allah the Exalted. The do so without any cogent reason for which people are asked:

The information given in the predicate of the Verb-like particle about such type of people who have denied to accept the existence and presence of Allah the Exalted is as under:

This sentence is also taken by syntactic analysts as parenthetic sentence in which case it is considered inverted nominal sentence with fronted predicate: a noun/verbal noun, meaning alike, two things being as one and the same thing. However, it will  not make much of a semantic difference. If it is considered parenthetic, then the last negation sentence: will be the predicate of verb-like particle, otherwise it will be explanatory sentence for: taken as the predicate of verb-like particle. Further information about them discloses the reason why in future also they will not believe:

: Its Root is: خ ت م . Famous lexicographer Ibn Faris [died-1005] described the basic perception of the Root as crossing over to the tail end of a thing. It means to conclude, end, close or finish a performance. It denotes sealing an object after accomplishment of job at the point of entry and exit in such manner that thereafter nothing can enter therein or spill over.

Lane's Lexicon says that it means to reach the end of a thing, and it is contra of inauguration; sealing, putting an impression or signet upon a thing in consideration of protection.

Grand Qur'aan itself is the Superb Lexicon since it exposes the meanings of its important words by using it in different semantic fields whereby one can perceive all its dimensions relating to substance as well accident including metaphorical aspect.

This is the scene of a group of people in wait for escort to the Paradise on the Day of Judgment. They are served exquisitely matured wine. As is the Active Participle: ; word: a Passive Participle is also from  خَتْمٌ-خِتَامٌ Verbal Noun; خَتَمَ-يَخْتَمُ Verb of Root  "خ ت م".  Let us not be lost in the aroma of this super wine; it is a long journey to get it; but move on with our study. Verbal Noun of these Participles also finds mention . A verbal noun denotes an action or a state. Sealed bottle of wine prevents its leakage, spill over holding it securely in the bottle.

How simple and straight forward is the perception conveyed by Root "خ ت م", please see it:

: First Person; Plural; Masculine Verb in indicative mood from Root "خ ت م". Their mouths will be sealed-gagged which will prevent them from speaking or crying out. This effect of sealing is that they will not be able to articulate an expression; whereby their hands will verbally orate that which they people kept doing in worldly life.

 

: Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; active;  مصدر خَتْمٌ Verbal Noun. Allah the Exalted is the Subject of verb. The prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrases: "upon the hearts of them" and: "upon their faculty of listening" relate to the Verb. It signifies that the effect of the act denoted by verb is upon their hearts and faculty of listening. And ultimate result is that a grave torment is in wait for them. This is their epilogue, the detail of outcome-inevitable consequence of what they did and earned in life. This is the concluding remark of Allah the Exalted that He has put the epilogue upon their hearts which symbolizes with sealing their self made wraps upon their hearts. The point in time for sealing an object is when it has since been wrapped in some covering, envelop. It is explained again in more simple terms:

: It is a plural noun and signifies wraps, envelops, coverings for things. The epilogue-sealing of hearts is reflective of an act and state of crossing over the ultimate end-finished-accomplished stage, which is the basic perception infolded in Root "خ ت م". People said that their hearts are wrapped in coverings which reflects a stage immediately prior to sealing an object signified by verb: . Their statement was contradicted by disclosing that their wrapped state has crossed over to the extreme stage of sealing. This is described by: "Allah the Exalted has discarded them as condemned and cursed". This is crossing the extreme end, and point of no return in any association. And the cause of this permanent condemnation is: because of their act and persistence in refusal to accept. Grand Qur'aan also uses rotational technique to highlight meaning and perception of concepts by using synonymous words about the same subject with different sentence structures:

and: is described by: "Allah the Exalted has impressed the epilogue". And here too the location is "hearts"-signifying intellectual consciousness. Its reason is the same as was given earlier: : because of their act and persistence in refusal to accept. Once the act signified by: and: is done in relation to an object, all chances and doors stand closed for entrance as well as spill over. The hearts subjected to an act: and: are like as if they are entities locked whereby nothing can enter therein.

Root of:  is "ط ب ع". Its perception and meanings are, "sealing, stamping, imprinting, or impressing; impressing a thing with the engraving of the stamp; to brand or mark". Lane's Lexicon further quotes, "accord to Aboo-Is-hák the Grammarian, طَبْعٌ and خَتْمٌ both signify the covering over a thing, and securing oneself from a thing's entering it."

Sealing, closing, wrapping, impressing the epilogue on hearts of people who deny and persist to remain in state of non-belief is finally portrayed in this Ayah:

I hope the perception and meanings infolded in Root: "خ ت م" have conspicuously surfaced. Therefore, let us revert to the topic under study.

This inverted nominal sentence begins with [wāw] the Recommencing particle. It is a  discourse coordinator that signals the speaker's identification of an upcoming unit which is coordinate in structure to prior unit. It serves as cohesive tie in the discourse. The optical faculty is the source for the people to experience awe by the awe-inducing nature scenes all around them reflecting the Divine providence and Will evidently. It is positive feeling of being in the presence of something vast that transcends our understanding of the world. But the people having veils on their optical faculty seldom experience awe:

Thus those; who have disavowed the First Cause - the Originator - the Creator Allah the Exalted, are the subject of Ayah that it little matters whether they are warned or not warned of consequences, they will believe not in Grand Qur'aan. Grand Qur'aan is primarily for those who have the minimum level of rationality—the basic instinct of mind shared by humanity that says everything needs an explanation why it is. This is the minimum, basic, primary qualification and level of rationality that must be present to render the cautioning, alarming, admonition effective:

The verbs: and stem from Root: خ ش ى that signifies emotion of Awe which is a mixture of wonder and dread - feeling of amazement and respect mixed with fear that is coupled with a feeling of personal insignificance or powerlessness. Only such people experience awe, a fundamental emotional response, who mindfully observes the environment and the universe they live in. They quickly respond to admonition while people of opposite psyche/character-the stubborn: , who see not beyond their own self, purposely avoid listening it:


The certain news given in Ayahs 2:6-7 about people of certain character and features is:

This sentence is the predicate of Verb like particle. The choice of words and structuring of sentence is such that it served as predication not only about certain people of the society of the days of revelation of Grand Qur'aan, but renders it valid for all times with reference to the people of characteristic character and traits. This predicate sentence is reiterated, as a recommencing sentence, as concluding remark in Ayah 36:10 after informing that the news given here in Ayah 2:6 stands proved for such type of people in the nation of posterity of elevated Messenger Iesma'eile/Bani Iesma'eile alai'his'slaam:

 

The information and depiction of a class of people is in the real life. Their psyche, attitude and responses are volitional acts. They are not the people who were imprisoned from childhood like those portrayed in the famous "Allegory of Cave" by Socrates. These stubborn are the prisoners of their inner self, vested interests, lusts, pride and wish to see their own reflection purposely ignoring the awe-inspiring illuminant signs all around. Like the prisoners of the "Allegory of Cave"; for whom the shadows constitute the reality because they have never seen anything else; they do not realize that what they see are shadows of objects in front of a fire, much less that these objects are inspired by real living things outside the cave, the people mentioned in Ayah 2:5-7 and 36:7-10 deliberately observe not in open light and remain engulfed in the darkness of their inner self.


The upshot of these people is also disclosed:

This is inverted nominal sentence. The prepositional phrase relates to the fronted elided predicate. The basic principle of ellipsis is that nothing can be omitted unless it can be recovered from the preceding elements. But it must be transferred to the target language text otherwise a reader non-conversant with the source language will feel ambiguity. The best way to avoid translational losses that might create ambiguity in target text is to incorporate the elided element by taking it from another statement of Grand Qur'aan. The delayed subject is Adjectival Phrase. The elided element that I have mentioned in the translation above is mentioned later on:


Recurrences:

: Recurrence:(1)2:06(2)2:161(3)3:04(4)3:10(5)3:90(6)3:91(7)3:116(8)4:56(9)4:167(10)4:168(11)5:36(12)8:36(13)22:25(14)40:10(15)41:41 (16)47:32 (17)47:34(18)98:06=18

: (1)2:07(2)36:10=2

: (1)2:07(2)3:176(3)16:106(4)24:23=4

 : Adjectival Phrase: Recurrence: (1)2:07(2)2:114(3)3:105(4)5:41(5)8:68(6)16:94(7)16:106(8)24:11(9)24:23=9

(1)3:176 (2)5:33(3)24:14(4)45:10=4

 

Grammatical Notes about new elements introduced in Ayah 6-7

We have encountered following elements for the first time, therefore, we should try to understand them deeply which will enable us smooth pursuit of upcoming discourse.

Verb-Like Particle. This is one of the six Particles called: الحروف المشبهة بالفعل since, in some features, they resemble with verbs. They are sentential modifiers. What was earlier known as subject in a nominal sentence, because of its presence at the outset, that will now be called "-Noun of ", which is rendered in accusative case; and the predicate will be called: خبرwhich will be in nominative case/state. Please also note it as noun identifier that the word that follows it is always noun, pronoun, relative pronoun or pronoun of fact and that will always be accusative case or if accusative sign is not there, it will be estimated in accusative state.

1. It is used in front of a nominal sentence only.

2. It changes the grammatical case of the subject from nominative to accusative.

3. This Particle has a truth-intensifying function when used at a beginning of statement. It emphasizes that what follows is true.

4) It helps "neutralize" the emphatic effect of bringing subject in front of a verb in the nominal sentence and thus confers a normal tone on the sentence.


Appositive Particle: It is of two types:

(1) Conjunctive particle [مُتَّصِلَةٌ]

(2) Disjunctive [مُنْقَطِعَةٌ]

It is that which is enquired about, by means of the particle, in distinguishing one of two matters while the inquirer is knowledgeable of the establishment of one of the two in an unambiguous manner. It is in variance to أَوْ  و إِمَّا where the questioner originally does not know establishment of one of them.

Conjunctive particle [مُتَّصِلَةٌ]: Conditional in its usage are three matters:

(a) That hamza occurs before it,

(b) That which follows it is similar to that which follows hamza, meaning if a noun follows hamza, then likewise following it is a noun. If it was a verb, following this particle it is likewise.

(c) That establishment of the one of the two matters is realized with the questioner who is only asking regarding distinguishing one of these two matters. Due to it is required that the reply to it distinguishes one of the two matters, unlike Naam-yes or La-No answers.

Conjunctive particle [مُتَّصِلَةٌ]; This indicates an exclusive option, one or the other, but not both or all.

(2) Appositive Particle-Disjunctive  [مُنْقَطِعَةٌ]; When combined with hamza, it is in the meaning of بَلْ . ie. when you intend to disclaim the first information and initiate another question anew.

When it is followed by a word beginning with consonant ب and م it will be without "Jazem-" and when followed by ساكن/أل consonant it will be having vowel sign [ـِ] to break اجتماع الساكنين the cluster of vowel-less consonants.


By just inculcating this Particle in memory that it always comes before imperfect verb in Jussive Mood, we will conveniently recognize 366 verbs in Grand Qur'aan by mere glance, even if we do not know/see the sign indicating jussive mood.

When is prefixed to an imperfect verb, it causes the following changes:

(1) The meaning of imperfect verb are changed into a negative past tense with emphasis.

(2) The indicative mood of the imperfect verb [مُضَارِع مَرْفُوعٌ] becomes jussive mood [مُضَارِع مَجْزُومٌ] which means replacement of vowel sign  ـُ on the last consonant of the verb by placing a small sign [] called [جَزْمٌ] as we see here on the last consonant ر of the verb .

(3) The consonant and vowel [نَ,نِ] termed as نُون إِعْرَابِي is dropped or elided from the imperfect verb; [these are seven; (1) third person masculine dual (2) third person masculine plural (3) third person feminine dual, (4) second person masculine dual, (5)second person masculine plural, (6) second person feminine singular, (7) second person feminine dual].


إعرا ب القرآن Syntactic Analysis

1

Verb-Like Particle.                                   من الأحرف المشبهة بالفعل ينصب الاسم ويرفع الخبر، ويفيد التوكيد  

42

2

Relative Pronoun; Plural; masculine; Recurrence: 974                      الاسم الموصول-جمع-مذكر

في محل نصب اسم إن

3

 Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Plural; Masculine; [و] Subject Pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-كُفْرٌ Verbal Noun.

                             فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الضم لاتصاله بواو الجماعة/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرغائب

الجملة صلة الموصول

4

Noun [verbal]: Indefinite; nominative.                                                                          اِسم مصدر:مرفوع

خبر

5

Prepositional Phrase; Preposition with attached/suffixed object pronoun: third person; plural; masculine.                                          جار و مجرور = حرف جر+ ضمير متصل في محل جر-جمع مذكر غائب

متعلقان بسواء

6

Equalization/Interrogative particle + Verb: Perfect; Second Person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-IV]; Subject Pronoun: in nominative state + Object Pronoun : third person; plural; masculine, in accusative state; مصدر-اِنْذَارٌ Verbal Noun. (1)2:06(2)36:10=2

همزة التسوية + فعل ماضٍ مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير المخاطب

التاء- ضمير متصل مبنى على الفتح في محل رفع فاعل/باب افعال/ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به-جمع مذكر غائب

الجملة بتاويل مصدر فى محل رفع -مبتدأ مؤخر

7

Disjunctive particle.                                                                                                       حرف عطف للتسوية/مُتَّصِلَةٌ

حرف عطف

8

Negative/Jussive Particle.                                                                        حرف جزم و قلب و نفي

 

9

Verb: Imperfect; Second Person; Singular; Masculine; Mood: Jussive; [Form-IV]; مصدر-اِنْذَارٌ Verbal Noun; Subject Pronoun hidden + Attached Object Pronoun : third person; plural; masculine, in accusative state. (1)2:06(2)36:10=2

فعل مضارع مجزوملفاعل ضمير مستتر فيه-أَنتَ/باب افعال/ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به-جمع مذكرغائب 

 

10

Simple Negation Particle.                                                                                     حرف نفي

 

11

Verb: Imperfect; Third person; plural; masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ; [Form IV]; Subject Pronoun in nominative state; أ  م ن Root. [Recurrence:87; First occurrence: 2:03]                                [فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكر غائب/باب افعال]

52

1

Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; active; Verbal Noun مصدر خَتْمٌ [Form-1] (1)2:07(2)6:46(3)45:23=3                                                                                            فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/واحد مذكر غائب    

53

2

Allah: Proper Noun: Nominative. Recurrence: 973                         لفظ الجلالة مرفوع للتعظيم بالضمة  

فاعل

3

Separable Preposition.                                                                                   حرف جر

متعلقان بختم

4

Possessive Phrase: Noun: Definite; Plural; Masculine; Genitive + Suffixed Possessive Pronoun: Third Person; Plural; Masculine, in genitive state.

                                                           الإِضَافَةُ-اسم مجرور- جمع مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل-جمع مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

5

Appositive/Conjunction particle.                                                                             [حرف عطف]

 

6

Separable Preposition.                                                                                          حرف جر

 

7

Possessive Phrase. Verbal Noun: Definite; Genitive + Suffixed Pronoun: Third Person; Plural; Masculine; Genitive state. (1)2:07(2)16:108=2

                                                          الإِضَافَةُ-اسم مجرور- واحد مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل-جمع مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

معطوف

8

Recommencing/Conjunction particle.                                                                         اِستئنافية

 

9

Separable Preposition.                                                                                          حرف جر

متعلقان بمحذوف خبر مقدم

10

  Possessive Phrase. Noun: Definite; Plural; feminine; Genitive + Possessive Pronoun: Third Person; Plural; Masculine; Genitive state.  (1)2:07(2)2:20(3)16:108(4)24:30 =4

                                                         الإِضَافَةُ-اسم مجرور- جمع  مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل-جمع مذكر غائب في محل جر-مضاف إليه

 

11

Verbal Noun/Noun: Indefinite; Nominative. (1)2:07=1                                      مصدرمرفوع

مبتدأ مؤخر

12

Recommencing/Conjunction particle.                                                                           اِستئنافية

 

13

لَ Prefixed Preposition + Personal Pronoun: Third Person; Masculine; Plural, genitive state.                                                            جار و مجرور = لَ حرف جر+ ضمير متصل في محل جر-جمع مذكر غائب

متعلقان بمحذوف خبر

14

 Noun: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; Nominative.                                          اسم -مرفوع- واحد-مذکر

مبتداء مؤخر

15

  Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure [عَظْمَةٌ base]: Indefinite; Singular; Masculine; Nominative.                                                                      الصفة المشبهة بروزن فَعِيْلٌ (عَظْمَةٌ) مرفوع-واحد-مذكر

67 صفة

   Ayah 2:8-20