Contents: (1) Translation of Ayahs; (2) Sentence by structure and meanings; (3) Concepttheme; (4) Coherence; (5) Explanation of Ayah 28; (6) Explanation of Ayah 29; (7) Recurrences (8) Morphology and syntax of each word.


2. : Ayah 2:28-29 comprising of 34 words is a complex sentence with clauses that are grammatically sentences but cannot stand at their own due to linkages with previous clauses. The text is argumentative.


3. Concepttheme:

It relates to thesis statement of the Divine Discourse. Minimum level of rationality expected of a human being is the awareness of First Cause, the Creator of his existence and acknowledging Him.


4. Coherence:

The address to the humanity continues and specifically targets those people mentioned in 2:6 who deny the first cause in contrast to the

first characteristic trait of: in Ayah 2:3.

Key words:


The question sentence: links back in linear coherence to: : "The first characteristic feature of Mutta'qeena is: they heartily accept and believe in the presence of the Unseennot in their sight: their Creator: Allah the Exalted" of Ayah 2:3; and to: : "General information about those who have disavowed the Creator" of Ayah 2:6.

: This verbal sentence is circumstantial clause to remind the subject of preceding verb about their past state, their origin.

: It is the predicate of preceding deficient verb. It is feminine plural noun. It stems from Root:  م و ت. Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

الميم والواو والتاء أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على ذَهاب القُوّة من الشيء. منه المَوْتُ: خلاف الحياة

That it leads to the perception of a thing void of strength, vitality; it thereby refers to inanimate contra. of life.

Inanimate signifies never having been alive and having none of the characteristics of a living thing. The Root firstly refers to all sort of matters. The peculiarity of matter is inertia: inability to move or act; resistance to change: the property of a body by which it remains at rest or continuous moving in a straight line unless acted upon by a directional force. The order of the creation of physical realm was matter to life:

It is a compound sentence describing the ascending order of creation, the matter and life.

The Root: م و ت describes the characteristics of matter which is specifically described by the Root: ش ى ء. Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass. Because of its mass, all matter has inertia and weight, if it is in gravitational field. Volume is a measure of the amount of space occupied by an object. It is inanimate: never having been alive and having none of the characteristics of a living thing. It is void of vitality, life which has the desire and force, capability of activity, exerting force and directing self and others. Life has the desire of growth, continuity and accomplishment that renders it distinct from its origin, the matter. It retains in it all the qualities of matter except inertia. Thus life is a creation; independent of the creation of matter, something abstract that is inserted into a certain combinations of matter yielding a creature.

Majority of translators have rendered the meaning of the sentence as "your were dead". English word "dead" refers in common parlance as having passed from the living state to being no longer alive. However it also means inanimate. It is therefore appropriate to convey the intended meanings by "inanimate objects" for the convenience of the people of ordinary intellectual level. Next sentence with prefixed conjunction particle also reveals that earlier to having been rendered alive people were in the state of lifeless inanimate objects. Matter was the first creation in the physical realm.

Death prior to life has no meanings. Death is only to life. Man, on creation, is the possessor of life. But he is not created from what is other than of matter. What is other than of matter? Obviously Life! Statues sculpted by people from clay and stones and then introduced as godheads by assigning them imaginary names are noting but inanimate objects contra of vivified ones. though in appearance they may look like human beings, with faces, ears, eyes, hands and legs. Allah tells:

After the creation of a living entity it remains alive for a certain period of time and it is caused to die a natural death. The state after death of a living entity is not described as matter but as dead body denoted by word: naturally dead mammal; and: dead body of a naturally died person.


Death is inevitable after lapse of pre-determined life duration:

The conjunction in between the fact of vivifying us and causing us to die is particle: . It has 339 occurrences. We should be clear about its semantic features because confusing it or equating it with two other conjunction particles "و" and "ف" can lead to erroneous conceptualization of a topic/subject/phenomenon.

: It is a conjunction particle. It is ordinarily translated with English words "and", or "then" by considering it synonym/synonymous {مرادف,مترادف} of conjunction particles "و" and "ف".  But, Grand Qur'an  has explained and used it in a manner distinct in all respects from "و" and "ف".

The word "and" or "then" as equivalent of  "ف" ,"و" are conjunction, denoting order and a delay giving the perception of a sequence "after that, afterwards, next, as a consequence". It also gives informal perception of "in addition to, as well as, along with, coupled with, combined with, furthermore, likewise". These particles show a connected series. And "ف" reflects the relationship of cause and effect.

Both these English words and the Arabic particles reflect a sequence of happenings/things which are interrelated. And one does not perceive the distance of time between the two things mentioned before and after the use of word "and" or "then". It reflects the continuity in the two things conjunct by them though delay in the order of happenings is evident with respect to the thing occurring after them in relation to the one occurring before them.

But particle: is used in a distinct manner. It emphasizes the sequence between two structurally independent statements It occurs as conjunction between two things different from each other in nature and reflects a break and predetermined time gap between both, not the natural time flow that is understood in the continuity or cause and effect relationship. It does not reflect the perception of relationship of cause and effect.  At its very first occurrence in the Quran, the meanings of it have been made quite evident, and distinct.

The conjunction between: and: is by prefixed conjunction particle: فَ  in the verbal sentence: . But once the man is a living entity, thereafter, his life-span is determined and appointed for him by Allah the Exalted. In between: and: the conjunction particle: signifies a time-span determined and decided for individuals by the Creator:

Life cycle is again described in Chapter 22 with similar structure:

Whenever the death after life is mentioned the conjunction particle is: to emphasize that life-span is determined and fixed by the Sustainer Lord for each individual:

Similarly, whenever there is mention of revival of life after death—resurrection the conjunction particle is: signifying a determined duration of time that will end at a specific moment:

: It denotes reverse calendar: a calendar that starts with the deadline and thus by passing moment it comes nearer and nearer.

After mention of resurrection again there is conjunction particle before the next clause: which signifies a determined time duration between the resurrection and escorting us for presentation before Him the Exalted for accountability. And this is the purpose of the creation of matter and life:


It is linked to:. The discourse is primarily argumentative to persuade the audience to realize their obligations towards their Sustainer Lord Who has done all that the Lord is expected to do for His subjects. Side by side information about creations is also gradually being unfolded without compromising with the persuasive aspect of the discourse.

It is the second time occurrence of verbal sentence: . Previously it was used with reference to creation of audience, we the living humanity, and second time it is again about the creation done for us whatever is present on-in the Earth. The Prepositional Phrase: relates to verb signifying that the referred creation was for the benefit and service of you people. The object of verb is following Relative Pronoun: which is followed by a prepositional phrase relating to elided linkage clause, signifying whatever exists in the Earth is created for the service and benefit of you people. Last word: is circumstantial adverb relating to Relative Pronoun. It emphasis that whatever exists in the Earth is all together for your benefit.

The Divine Discourse concatenates facts in perfect sequence and chronological order. After the clause describing the creation not of the Earth but of whatever exists in the Earth, the next clause is conjunct with particle: signifying a determined time lag in between, and later mentioned activity as distinct from the one previously mentioned.

: This is a verbal sentence. Verb: is perfect, third person, masculine, singular with hidden subject referent to Allah the Exalted. It is of Form-VIII which has reflexive causative meanings;  مصدر-اِسْتِوَاءٌ Verbal noun. It is a result/accomplishment verb. Most result verbs also describe events that take time, but these events have an inherent temporal endpoint: the time when the result state comes about. The duration of the event up to the endpoint is taken up by the process that leads up to this result state, though it is left unspecified by the verb. Its Root is: س و ى. It signifies to fashion in a suitable manner, make adopted to exigencies or requirements; perfect a thing, to put a thing into right or good state, equation. The prepositional phrase: with directional preposition signifies the object of the intent upon which result is desired. Since the verb is not of motion, the directional preposition indicates only the object of preceding result verb.

This clause: after the clause about creation of all that exists in the Earth explicitly indicates the prior existence of the Sky. She existed before the creation of all that in the Earth. It needed to be fashioned to equate it to the new creation of Earth and other objects in it. All those opinions are patently incorrect that regard the Earth to be first in the order of creation. The verb: and: are used for such object only which is already created/existing:

 

The act of proportioning, equating is subsequent to creation:

 

 : This is the subsequent action clause that was intended in preceding clause, conjunct with particle "فَ". The object pronoun is feminine plural referring to the stage when the one existing sky was layered into seven and each layer was equated and proportioned. This layering of the Sky into seven parts and their proportioning was after the Creation of Earth and its wherewithal.


Recurrences:

: (1)2:28(2)3:101=2

 : (1)2:28(2)22:66(3)30:40=2

(1)2:28(2)39:44=2

   (1)2:29(2)6:73(3)11:07(4)21:33(5)25:54(6)57:04=6

(1)2:29(2)41:11=2

 (1)2:29(2)6:101(3)57:03=3


إعرا ب القرآن Syntactic Analysis

1

Interrogative noun, also used adverbially to indicate manner in which action is performed or takes place. [Recurrence: 67 First occurrence in 2:28]                                   [اسم استفهام]

439 في محل نصب حال

2

Verb: Imperfect; Second Person; Plural; Masculine; Indicative evident by "نَ"; [Form-I]; Subject Pronoun in nominative state; مصدر-كُفْرٌ Verbal Noun. (1)2:28(2)2:85(3)3:70(4)3:98(5)3:101(6)3:106(7)4:89(8)6:30(9)8:35(10)36:64(11)46:34(12)60:02=12

[                                                   فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل/جمع مذكر حاضر]

 

3

Prepositional Phrase: بِ Inseparable Preposition  + Allah, the Exalted-Proper Noun: Genitive. Recurrence: 139                 جار و مجرور = بِ حرف جر + لفظ الجلالة مجرور للتعظيم و علامة الجر الكسرة

متعلقان بتكفرون

4

 Circumstantial/Conjunction particle                                                                      [حالية]  

 

5

Verb: Perfect; second person; plural; masculine + Attached subject Pronoun [اسم كَانَ]; nominative state. [Recurrece:158; First occurrence 2:23]

                     فعل ماضٍ ناقص مبنى على السكون لاتصاله بضمير الرفع المتحرك/ ضمير متصل في محل رفع اسم كان/جمع مذكرحاضر

الجملة في محل نصب حال

6

Noun: Indefinite; masculine; plural; accusative. (1)2:28(2)77:26=2                اسم: منصوب-جمع-مذكر

خبر

7

= Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause/reason- and effect/ consequence + Verb: Perfect; Transitive; Third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV];  Subject pronoun hidden  + Suffixed Object pronoun: Second person; plural; masculine, in accusative state; مصدر-اِحْيَاءٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:28=1

           حرف فَ + فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح المقدرعلى الألف للتعذر/الفاعل:ضميرمستترجوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحدمذكرغائب-باب افعال

                                                                                 ضمير متصل في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع مذكر حاضر

 

8

Conjunction particle. It occurs as conjunction between two things different from each other in nature; and reflects a break and time gap between both, and not continuity. It does not reflect the perception of relationship of cause and effect, which is indicated by prefixed conjunction " فَ".

 

9

Verb: Imperfect; transitive; third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV]; Mood: Indicative by vowel sign ـُ ; Subject pronoun hidden; Suffixed Object pronoun: Second person; plural; masculine, accusative state; مصدر-اِمَاتَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:28(2)22:66(3)30:40(4)45:26=5                                                           فعل مضارع مرفوع بالضمة-الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب
كُم-ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع مذكر حاضر-باب افعال  

 

10

Conjunction particle.

 

11

Verb: Imperfect; transitive; third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV];  Mood: Indicative; Subject pronoun [هُوَ] hidden; Suffixed Object pronoun: Second person; plural; masculine, in accusative state;  مصدر-اِحْيَاءٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:28(2)8:24(3)22:66(4)30:40(5)45:26=5

فعل مضارع مرفوع-الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب
كُم-ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به/جمع مذكر حاضر-باب افعال

 

12

Conjunction particle.

 

13

Prepositional Phrase: Separable preposition + Suffixed personal pronoun: third person; singular; masculine; in genitive state. جار و مجرور = حرف جر + ضمير متصل في محل جر-واحد مذكرغائب

متعلقان بالفعل بعده

14

Verb: Imperfect; second person; plural; masculine; Passive; Ergative/Proxy Subject Pronoun, in nominative state;  مصدر-رَجْعٌ Verbal noun; Root: ر ج ع  

فعل مضارع مبنى للمجهول-مرفوع بثبوت النون/الواو ضمير متصل في محل رفع نائب فاعل-جمع مذكر حاضر      

452

1

Personal pronoun: third person; masculine; singular; definite.

                                                                                         ضمير رفع منفصل مبنى على الفتح واحد مذكر غائب   

453 مبتدأ

2

Relative Pronoun: [definite] singular; masculine;                                اسم موصول مبنى على السكون

خبر

3

Verb: Perfect; Third person; singular; masculine; active; هُو Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-خَلْقٌ Verbal noun                                                 فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب   

صلة الموصول

4

Prepositional Phrase: لَ Prefixed/Inseparable preposition + Personal Pronoun: Second person; masculine; plural; genitive state.          جار و مجرور = لَ حرف جر/الاختصاص + ضمير متصل في محل جر-جمع مذكر حاضر 

متعلقان بخلق

5

  Relative pronoun;                                                                                 اسم موصول مبنى على السكون

مفعول به

6

Separable Preposition.                                                                                              حرف جر

متعلقان بمحذوف صلة الموصول

7

Noun: Definite; Feminine; singular; genitive. [Recurrence: 327-First Occurrence in 2:11]

                                                                                                             اسم مجرور-معرفہ باللام-واحد-مؤنث

 

8

Adjective resembling participle on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure: [Quasi active participle; also adverbial meaning all together, entirely]: Indefinite; masculine; accusative. [from جَمْعٌ on فَعِيلٌ pattern]                                                                                                                                                    الصفة المشبهة-منصوب-واحد مذكر 

حال من اسم الموصول ما

9

Conjunction particle. It occurs as conjunction between two things different from each other in nature; and reflects a break and time gap between both, and not continuity. It does not reflect the perception of relationship of cause and effect, which is indicated by prefixed conjunction " فَ".

 

10

Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-VIII], with prolongation sign; Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-اِسْتِوَاءٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:29(2)28:14(3)41:11=3

فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح المقدرعلى الألف للتعذر/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب/باب اِفْتَعَلَ

 

11

 Separable preposition.          

حال من اسم الموصول ما

12

Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Genitive. [Reccurrence:86; First occurrence 2:19]                                                                                                                                          اسم: معرفہ باللام -مجرور-واحد-مؤنث

 

13

Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause/reason-sequence and effect + Verb: Perfect; Third Person; Singular; Masculine; [Form-II] + Subject pronoun hidden + Object pronoun: Third person; feminine; plural, in accusative state;  تَسْوِيَةٌ Verbal noun. (1)2:29=1

فعل ماضٍ مبنى على الفتح المقدرعلى الألف للتعذر/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكر غائب/باب تفعيل    

هُنَّ- ضميرالغائبات فى محل نصب مفعول به     

 

14

Noun: Masculine to count seven feminine articles/persons; accusative.                          اسم عدد

مفعول به ثان لسوى

15

Noun; Indefinite; plural; Feminine; Genitive. (1)2:29(2)41:12(3)65:12(4)67:03(5)71:15=5

                                                                                                                                                          اسم:مجرور-جمع سالم-مؤنث

مضاف إليه

16

Recommencing/Conjunction particle.                                                     [اِستئنافية]

 

17

Personal pronoun: third person; masculine; singular; definite.             ضمير رفع منفصل مبنى على الفتح 

مبتدأ.

18

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: Singular, masculine; genitive;

جار و مجرور = بِ حرف جر + اسم مجرور-واحد-مذكر     

متعلقان بالخبر عليم

19

Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; genitive. Recurrence:177             اسم-نكره-مجرور-واحد-مذكر

مضاف إليه

20

 Intensive Adjective resembling participle: Indefinite; singular; masculine; nominative.                                                                                                                                                         اسم المبالغة-مرفوع-واحد-مذكر

472 خبر

   Ayah 2:30-33