Ayahs 21-22 comprising of 38 words is a single lengthy sentence that has many clauses which are in itself sentences but they cannot stand at their own. It resembles a complex sentence in English. It is Imperative/Injunctive sentence. Injunctive-directive text consist of discourse where a speaker speaks his will that a specific act be done by another person. Directive texts are concerned with concrete future activity. Central to these texts are imperatives; or forms which substitute for them, such as polite questions or suggestive remarks. Directive discourse is often accompanied by some kind of information as well as argumentation. Argumentation can consist of the communicative purposes of informing and expressing opinions which serve the purpose of convincing the recipient of the value of complying to the directive. 


Ayahs relate to the main segment of the thesis statement of Divine Discourse: ; and to its primary objective which is also the purpose of entire creation of physical realms: "You people be the subjects/subservient/allegiants to Me alone."; and it renders the human beings: who are truly the endeavourers for perpetual success - salvation - returnees to original abode-Paradise as its real owners, not guests.


Key words: -

The chapter started with a Demonstrative pronoun without an antecedent reference to introduce the Book to its individual reader, and to respond to the prayer of the believers in 01:6-7 by narrating characteristics of three categories of people they referred. For a smooth cohesive transition from an individual reader and the believers to address the entire humanity, a vocative particle along with attention seeking particle is used to continue the discourse: O you the Mankind, listen attentively;


This first direct address to humanity comprising of two ayahs with just thirty eight words encompasses entire philosophical pursuit undertaken prior to its revelation till date; and answers simplistically. Philosophy deals among other things with these questions [Knowledge and Religious Experience-Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal]:

A man on attaining reflection capability confronts physical and social world and wants to enquire about it. These two unitary verbal passages address and answer above questions. The test of  the Book considered Guide in time and space coupled with lofty declaration as void of conjectural substance is that a reader like me of ordinary prudence be not confused or perplexed in perceiving what is stated; otherwise he might loose interest in the Book. Moreover, if the Book makes a demand upon reader, it must give him a plausible reason to admit and obey that.

The kind of conduct that befits the place we occupy in the Universe is mentioned first in the address to humanity. No philosophical puzzles. Just one verbal sentence: "demonstrate subservience and allegiance to your Sustainer Lord". : It is an Imperative Verb; Second Person; Plural, originating from Root: "ع ب د" denoting a relational signification that can be translated as "slavery-servitude-subject" in reference to his Master: Sustainer Lord which is the object of verb. This noun also is a relational word. Both signify nature and responsibilities of relational units. However, this relationship is unique since it is not merely Master/Lord-Slave/Subject equation but a relationship of the Creator and the Created.

It is important to note the delicacy of choice of a word as the object of the verb: along with possessive pronoun, denoting the Sustainer Lord of you people. At other places the same command is:  meaning "demonstrate subservience and allegiance to Allah the Exalted". Words of personal relationships appeal to passion of the audience even when it are command to do a certain act.

 : This is the Adjectival Clause for the preceding noun, the object of verb, denoting that your Sustainer Lord is He Who created you people. This is the first relationship which every rational human being is supposed to realize, the first cause of one's existence.

   : It conjuncts with the verb in the previous clause. The prepositional phrase coupled with possessive phrase relates to the linkage clause for the preceding relative plural pronoun, meaning, and your Sustainer Lord had created the people who lived prior to your creation.

: The objective of the command is for your benefit; this allegiance acknowledging your selves as subjects might let you protect yourselves by adopting rational conduct and avoiding unrestrained moves in reverence of your Creator and Sustainer Lord. Obeying it will help you to enter in the company of: the endeavourers for perpetual success - salvation - returnees to original abode-Paradise as its real owners, not guests.

: The previous clause also started with the same Relative Pronoun and its reiteration maintains the cohesion of the sentence; and reflects that the following information is relevant to earlier information in a different perspective. In previous clause the linkage verb is: "He created" and here the linkage clause is: a doubly transitive verb, "He rendered". The Prepositional phrase: relates to the verb denoting that this was done solely for you people, it was for no other purpose. The delicacy in its objects:   is the that the first noun is definite while the second noun is indefinite in absolute state, its sign is Tanween. The second noun depicts the state in which the Earth was rendered.

: It stems from Root: ف ر ش. Ibn Faris [died-1005] stated:يدلُّ على تمهيد الشَّيءِ وبَسْطه  That it leads to the perception of preparing, arranging, settling a thing and outstretching, outspreading, flattening it. It thus signifies rendering an object to have a flat open space/surface. Semantically this Root describes only the exterior state of an object, not its interior. The floors also have inner surfaces:

 It is reiterated with different structure:

: This and the previous sentence constitute a compound sentence with conjunction particle.

This clause beginning with repetition of earlier used relative pronoun and a different verb denoting rendering some thing in a particular condition makes conspicuously clear for us that the Earth was not like as we see it today but was so rendered from its different original condition.

This compound sentence has recurrence with change of one object: of verb to convey a different scientific information:

: It is a Verbal Noun. It stems from Root: ق ر ر.  Ibn Faris [died 1005] stated:

يدلُّ أحدهما على برد، والآخر على تمكُّن.

That it leads to the perception of rendering something cool and later signifies making a comfortable and safe living place.

It is known that the words stemming from a Root necessarily contain the basic semantic element of the Root, that is their irreducible semantic feature. It is thus clear that the Earth originally was hot and later rendered cool to make its surface a safe and comfortable living place for Man.

The coolness yields calmness, tranquility and comfort. It is therefore used to denote such consent which is sincere and without reservation:

It is known that the words stemming from a Root necessarily contain the basic semantic element of the Root. This Root also produces a word: which signifies crystals.

The word "crystal" is derived from an ancient Greek word that means both "ice" and "rock crystal".

The irreducible semantic feature of this Root is to be pleasantly cold. Let us see its another use:

Sperms are made in the testes. The testes work best at temperatures slightly less than core body temperature. Heat causes them to descend, allowing cooling.

Let us revert to the next sentence of under study Ayah:

: It is a verbal sentence, the hidden subject pronoun is referent to the Sustainer Lord. Water is a unique matter. It is the source element of life and vital for sustaining all forms of life on the Earth. It is prime element for humanity and finds mention first.

: It is a possessive phrase coupled with adjectival phrase. In English some secondary ideas, such as those of the whole, the part, the like, and the different are usually designated  by adjectives, prepositions, or compound words. In Arabic these are expressed by substantives, taking the primary substantives to which they are attached in the genitive, such as .  When  it is indefinite, means each, every. Every living creature has its origin in water, no exception in view of the information given by their Creator. 


Man is asked to study water and be mindful of many possibilities about it that would render their lives difficult.

[For further study: The First Atlas of Clouds in Qur'aan]

: It is conjunct to the preceding sentence with particle that indicates sequencing of events in natural order. Thereat, with this Water, He the Exalted brought out a variety of fruits-shrubs, as means of subsistence for you people.

Character and general structure of the universe in which we live is depicted as is visible to naked eye. The Earth, the Sky, Water which is also the source of botanical produce that serves as sustenance for humans is what the universe is all about outwardly. The character and structure of universe is finite as captured by mere observation. This yields a logical understanding of a coherent universe. Everything is interrelated, they are just one unit. Earth and Sky are interrelated, Sky and water are interrelated; and water and the produce of earth have interrelationship.

The permanent element in the constitution of outwardly universe is vividly evident by our own observation since people before us lived in the same universe. Men disappeared, universe is still there.

We are not related to finite Universe enclave in a sky and earth. We are not for the universe. Universe is meant for us. It owes its existence because of us. It is visible to naked eye and to logical understanding of "the wise men" that the Universe is coherently structured to relate and serve us. This reflects what place we occupy in it. We are not infinite but are not that sort of finite as the universe is.

The characteristic feature and responsibility of Sustainer Lord is to meet the physical and honour needs of subject. He the Exalted has done it by fashioning the universe we are in to serve our physical and honour needs. Now it is our turn to willfully and affectionately demonstrate as allegiants of the Sustainer Lord. Depending upon sincerity of thought its effect is: , adopting a rational conduct avoiding unrestrained moves, in reverence and fear of  the Creator and Sustainer Lord. This is the sublime manifestation and effect of: , exercise of one's will and freedom of self governance aligned maximum to the desire and will of the Sustainer Lord. This will enable us perceive our invisible "Self" and align it with outer world. This alignment will eventually qualify us for ascension beyond the horizons of finite universe.

This willful surrender and obedience to the Sustainer Lord will not compromise our honour and self respect. Where we can compromise our dignity and place we occupy in the Universe, we are cautioned: "Therefore, you people should not ascribe equals for Allah the Exalted; : while you people are in a state of logical understanding". It is observed reality that Man and multiple unities of universe are a singular coherent unit.

Hereafter in the Divine Discourse each concept and unities, visibly and invisibly present in the Universe, will be unfolded in such explicit manner that all might be observed except the Creator Who is the only invisible to human observation; yet known more than visible reality since He the Exalted has manifestly exposed His Hidden Self. We know an object and Person in absolute sense not by Vision but by knowing the invisible characteristics and their relations with others. The existence of Allah the Exalted can be felt by observing the minutest particle of His Creation, no need of so called "spiritual-mystic" exercises and experiences to "meet" Him the Exalted. Our guide lord Muhammad [صلى الله عليه وسلم] never did anything mysterious in his life before and after revelation of Qur'aan, as portrayed therein, yet was taken beyond the horizons of our universe. Certainly we are finite but beyond the finiteness of universe. What he did before Qur'aan; he was advised to suggest the same to humanity:

[Allah the Exalted so willing we will discuss all scientific facts in a separate book titled: Man and the UniverseWhy is the Universe the way it is?]


: Recurrence: (1)2:21(2)2:168(3)4:01(4)4:170(5)4:174(6)7:158(7)10:23(8)10:57(9)10:104(10)10:108(11)22:01(12)22:05(13)22:49(14)22:73 (15)27:16 (16)31:33(17)35:03(18)35:05(19)35:15(20)49:13=20

:Recurrence: (1)2:21(2)2:63(3)2:179(4)2:183(5)6:153(6)7:171=6

: (1)2:22(2)40:64=2

: (1)2:22(2)14:32(3)20:53=3


  [الجملة الإسمية فى محل نصب حال] Nominal sentence-circumstantial clause. Recurrence:(1)2:22(2)2:42(3)2:188(4)3:71(5)8:27=5    

Grammar notes

Verb-like particles- is one of the   "Sisters" of . [2:06]

1. It changes the grammatical case of the subject from nominative to accusative.

2. Like it may start a sentence as well as a clause. If it is followed by a verbal sentence, the subject of the verb must reduplicate itself in the form of a pronoun prefix attached to .

3) This particle has mostly the implication of hopeful expectation.

4) It has occurred 129 times. 126 times suffixed with a pronoun, and three times without suffixed pronoun which apparently also shows its role as verb-like particle by the presence of following accusative noun:






=Vocative Compound word  يَآ Vocative Particle + Noun, in accusative state, peculiar person(s) who is/are being called-attention is being sought-confronted + هَا Attention particle. (1)                                                                                        يَآ :أداة نداء + أَيُّ: منادى مبنى على الضم فى محل نصب + هَا: حرف للتنبيه زائدة



Noun: Definite ; Plural; Masculine; nominative. [Recurrence: 42; First Occurrence in 2:13]                                                                                                                                          اسم مرفوع بالضمة-معرفہ باللام- جمع  مذكر 



Verb: Imperative; Second Person; Plural; [و] Subject pronoun, in nominative state;  عِبَادَةٌ Verbal Noun

فعل أمر مبنى على حذف النون لأنَّ مضارعه من الأفعال الخمسة/و:ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة/جمع مذكرحاضر



Possessive Phrase; Noun: Singular; masculine; accusative + Possessive Pronoun: Second Person; masculine; plural; genitive state. (1)2:21(2)4:01(3)7:54(4)10:03(5)10:32(6)20:39=6

                                                          الإِضَافَةُ-اسم: منصوب- واحد مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل-جمع مذكرحاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه

مفعول به


Relative Pronoun: singular; masculine.                                                  الاسم الموصول-واحد-مذكر

في محل نصب صفة


 Verb: Perfect; Third person; singular; masculine; active; Subject pronoun hidden [هُوَ] + Suffixed Object Pronoun: Second Person; Plural; masculine, in accusative state. (1)2:21(2)16:70(3)26:184(4)30:40(5)37:96(6)41:21(7)64:02(8)71:14=8   فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب

                                                                         ضمير متصل مبنى على الضم في محل نصب مفعول به-جمع مذكرحاضر

صلة الموصول


Appositive/Conjunction particle.                                                                       [حرف عطف]



Relative Pronoun; Plural; masculine. Recurrence: 974                            الاسم الموصول-جمع-مذكر

في محل نصب معطوف على الضمير الكاف في الفعل خلقكم


  Separable Preposition                                                                                          حرف جر

متعلقان بمحذوف صلة


Possessive Phrase; Noun: Singular; masculine; genitive + Possessive Pronoun: Second Person; masculine; plural; genitive state.

                                                         الإِضَافَةُ-اسم: منصوب-واحد مذكر/مضاف + ضمير متصل-جمع مذكرحاضر في محل جر-مضاف إليه



Verb-like particle + Attached pronoun: second person; masculine; plural; accusative state.                                                                         حرف مشبهة بالفعل + كُمْ: ضمير متصل فى محل نصب اسم لَعَلَّ /جمع مذكرحاضر

جملة لعلكم تتقون تعليلية


  Verb; Imperfect; second person; plural; Mood: Indicative; [form VIII]; [و ] Subject Pronoun-nominative state; مصدر-اِتِّقَاءٌ Verbal Noun.

                                               [فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرحاضر/باب  اِفْتَعَلَ]

272 الجملة في محل رفع خبر لعل


Relative Pronoun: singular; masculine.                                                  الاسم الموصول-واحد-مذكر

273 في محل نصب صفة لربكم


  Verb: Transitive; Perfect; third person; plural; masculine; [هُوَ] Subject pronoun hidden;   مصدر جَعْلٌ Verbal Noun.                                   فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب

صلة الموصول


 Prepositional Phrase: لَ Prefixed/Inseparable preposition + Personal Pronoun: Second person; masculine; plural; genitive state + Vowel sign ـُ  for اجتماع الساكنين reason of two consecutive vowel-less consonants.                                                  جار و مجرور= لَ حرف جر+ ضمير متصل في محل جر-جمع مذكرحاضر

متعلقان بجعل


Noun: Definite; Feminine; singular; accusative.                                 اسم معرفہ باللام منصوب-واحد-مؤنث

مفعول به أول


Verbal Noun: Indefinite;  accusative. (1)2:22=1                                                                  مصدر: منصوب

مفعول به ثان


Appositive/Conjunction particle.                                                                                 [حرف عطف]



Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Accusative (1)2:22(2)6:06(3)11:52(4)17:92(5)21:16(6)21:32(7)21:104(8)22:65(9)37:06(10)38:27(11)40:64(12)41:12 (13)51:47(14)55:07(15)67:05(16)71:11(17)72:08=17

                                                                                                                                                اسم: معرفہ باللام منصوب-واحد-مؤنث 



Noun: Indefinite; singular; accusative.  (1)2:22(2)40:64=2                                          اسم: منصوب-واحد-مذكر



Appositive/Conjunction particle.                                                                                [حرف عطف]



Verb: Perfect; third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV]; [هُوَ] Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-اِنْزَالٌ Verbal noun.                         فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب/باب افعال 



Separable Preposition with added vowel-sign.                                                             حرف جر

متعلقان بأنزل


Noun; Definite; Singular; Feminine; Genitive. [Reccurrence:86; First occurrence 2:19]                                                                                                                                                اسم: معرفہ باللام -مجرور-واحد-مؤنث



Noun: Indefinite; masculine; accusative.                                                                       اسم جنس: منصوب-مذكر

مفعول به


Prefixed conjunction فَ which shows cause and effect + Verb: Perfect; third person; singular; masculine; [Form-IV]; [هُوَ] Subject pronoun hidden; مصدر-اِخْرَاجٌ Verbal Noun. (1)2:22(2)14:32(3)20:88=3                             حرف فَ + فعل ماضٍ مبني على الفتح/الفاعل:ضمير مستتر جوازاً تقديره:هُوَ-واحد مذكرغائب/باب افعال



Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition  + Personal Pronoun: Third person; singular; masculine.                                                      جار و مجرور = بِ حرف جر + ضمير متصل في محل جر-واحد مذكرغائب

متعلقان بأخرج


Separable Preposition with added vowel-sign.                                                           حرف جر

متعلقان بأخرج/أو بمحذوف حال من رزق


Noun: Definite; plural; feminine; genitive.                                         اسم: معرفہ باللام -مجرور-جمع-مؤنث



Noun: Indefinite; singular; masculine; accusative.                                                     اسم: منصوب-واحد-مذكر

مفعول به


Prepositional Phrase: لَ Prefixed/Inseparable preposition + Personal Pronoun: Second person; masculine; plural; genitive state.              جار و مجرور= لَ حرف جر+ ضمير متصل في محل جر-جمع مذكرحاضر   

متعلقان بمحذوف صفة لرزق


Prefixed conjunction فَ  which shows cause and effect +   Prohibitive particle. حرف فَ + حرف نهي



Verb: Imperfect; second person; plural; masculine; Mood: Jussive indicated by absence of  نَ [Form I]; Subject Pronoun; nominative state; مصدر جَعْلٌَ Verbal Noun. (1)2:22(2)2:224(3)4:144(4)24:63(5)51:51=5                                     فعل مضارع مجزوم و علامة جزمه حذف النون-و- ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-والألف-فارقة



Prefixed Preposition لِ [for, indicating exclusive prerogative] + Proper Noun, masculine; genitive. [Recurrence: 129; First occurrence in 01:2]                      جار و مجرور = لِ حرف جر + لفظ الجلالة مجرور للتعظيم

متعلقان بحال من أندادا أو بالفعل تجعلوا


Noun: Indefinite; Masculine; Plural; masculine; Accusative.                             اسم: منصوب-جمع  مذكر

مفعول به


 Circumstantial/Conjunction particle                                                                                   [حالية] 



Personal pronoun: second person; masculine; plural.                       ضمير منفصل مبني جمع مذكرحاضر

في محل رفع مبتدأ


Verb: Imperfect; Second Person; Plural; Masculine; Mood: Indicative evident by نَ [Form I]; [و] Subject Pronoun, nominative state; مصدر-عِلْمٌ Verbal Noun.

                                                                                فعل مضارع مرفوع بثبوت النون/و-ضمير متصل في محل رفع فاعل-جمع مذكرحاضر

298 الجملة خبر المبتدأ أنتم والجملة الاسمية في محل نصب حال