[آقائے نامدار رسولِ کریم ﷺ نے ارشاد فرمایا]
ا للہ تعالیٰ کے اسمِ ذات الرحمٰن سے ابتدا ہے جومنبع رحمت ہیں۔

Statistical Information:

1) Preposition: 1 بـِ Inseparable preposition

2) All words are Nouns: 4 (i) One common noun (ii) Two Proper Nouns; (iii) One Hyperbolic Participle/Intensive Adjective

3) Prepositional Phrase: 1

4) Possessive Phrase: 1

5) Adjectival Phrase:  1

6) Grammatical Units [like Codon of messenger RNA]:  2

Features:
Elliptical sentence
Simple; Declarative of universal import beyond time and space.

Sentence recurrence: (1)1:1(2)27:30=2

Recurrence of grammatical units:  : (1)01:01(2)27:30(3)11:41=3 ---: (1)01:01(2)01:03(3)27:30(4)41:02=4

Summary:

1. The first Ayah comprises of a simple elliptical sentence; semantically it is declarative, expressing a fact that is not bound in time and space. It is as such even before the physical realm was made to take existence.

2. Its four words comprise of a preposition and four nouns. Pedagogical lesson is to first learn about prepositions and nouns and their mutual differences. It has all the three more common phrases in languages. The second pedagogical lesson is to learn identifying phrases in the Divine Discourse which can conveniently be distinguished visually.

3. All translations are erroneous that render the Proper Noun: as adjectival.

 

Reading involves visual fixation on successive locations across the page or screen. The par excellence text is therefore that which might control saccades: rapid jerk-like movements of the eyes that direct the gaze to a new location and redeploy the region of high visual acuity centered on the fovea. Allah the Exalted and the infinitely knowledgeable have informed:

Reading text is a cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning in written text. Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written. Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly.

Fixation or visual fixation is the maintaining of the visual gaze on a single location. Reading is an intensive process in which the eyes quickly move to assimilate text. Very little is actually seen accurately. Around the fixation point of gaze only four to five letters are seen with 100% acuity. We will notice that in the text of Grand Qur'aan there is no fixation point of gaze where there are more than five letters on a single location.  The text of Qur'aan is superbly arranged with choice of words that the fixation point of gaze has only four to five letters. Where there is a cluster of more than five letters, the syllable system of Arabic and provision of vowel between boundaries of words with consecutive vowel-less consonants helps retain 100% acuity at every fixation point of gaze. Thereby the text of Qur'aan controls the saccadic eye movements of the reader to subserve vision by redirecting the visual axis to a new location.

Eye movement in reading involves visual processing of words.  Eyes do not move continuously along a line of text, but make short rapid movements (saccades) intermingled with short stops (fixations).] Visual fixation is never perfectly steady: Fixation eye movement occurs involuntarily. Humans also do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead fixate to some words while apparently filling in the missing information using context. The notable exception is being in smooth pursuit.

Grand Qur'aan tells us that its Aa'ya'at: verbal unitary passages were written on papers and were in circulation when it was communicated; and that its text needs to be carefully listened and seen with eyes. Grand Qur'aan informs about those who used their gaze in smooth pursuit of the text scattered on the page:

Deafness relates to listening in which ear's audibility plays the major role; and blindness relates to eyes that act as seeing instrument. We should emulate them utilizing both faculties simultaneously to quickly grasp and understand Arabic and comprehend what has been said in its Aa'ya'at. We will soon find that the act of seeing the Arabic text plays a major role in making the learning process easy and rapid for non-natives.

Smooth pursuit eye movements allow the eyes to closely follow a moving object. Grand Qur'aan is made facilitative to read and comprehend. The choice of words and their arrangement controls the rapid jerk-like movements of eye balls and smoothly pushes forward gaze to the next point of fixation. The text of Qur'aan is the only text that facilitates humans in smooth pursuit of its moving text. The words of its text are also like moving objects on the page. The consonants are followed by "moves"-حَرَكَاْتٌ  [three Short vowels] facilitating the reader for smooth pursuit. And so serve the case endings on the boundaries of words.

Allah the Exalted has emphatically proclaimed and reiterated four times in exactly same words in four different Ayahs that the Grand Qur'aan is certainly rendered as facilitator for readers to learn, comprehend and conveniently retain in memory. Anti-Qur'aan conjectural and opinionated propaganda is equally wide-spread suggesting that it as difficult to learn and by conditioning its learning with acquiring of so called this and that number of "knowledge-s". Those who propagate that Qur'aan is difficult to learn and comprehend are guilty of contradicting the emphatic declaration of Allah the Exalted.

Let us simply forget and try to delete from our memory myths and wide-spread false propaganda which contradicts the above stated fact of simplicity in learning and comprehending text of Grand Qur'aan. Can we find a text in any language of the world; comprising of about 86,000 words, which is such that we might attain the skill to identify all its words as particles, nouns and verbs in just an hour? The answer is no. However, I can tell you one such text. It is of the Grand Qur'aan. We can learn to visually identify its nouns and verbs without consulting a dictionary in an hour or so by just memorizing a dozen particles. And in another short span of time we can acquire the skill to visually recognize effortlessly all its phrases: prepositional, possessive and adjectival, because the indicators are very prominent and simple for learning and retention in procedural - non declarative memory. And we know that recognizing words and clauses in context accelerates the reader's comprehension and costs less effort. This actually makes reading far more pleasurable because less work is required to understand the text.

Let me assure that the day we start understanding and perceiving the contents in our first or second language, it is a matter of weeks not months, we will always be in search of time to open and read Grand Qur'aan since we will find it inexhaustible. No reading of it is the final reading - no translation of it is the final and exhaustive translation; and no discussion ever runs it dry. This is one of the features that render a book great in timeline.

Since our approach to comprehend the discourse is to follow academic rules and principles, the grammar-translation method and the system of decoding 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome, We will try learning Grammar [Morphology and Syntax] following pedagogical-teaching strategy of Divine Discourse on need to know basis by taking help from "teach yourself" books. And later try understanding semantics [how meaning in language is created by the use and interrelationships of words, phrases, and sentences] gradually. The most encouraging and amazing particularity of the Discourse is that we will be able to visually recognize the words, phrases, and sentences too. This is what is termed as "Parsing - Syntactical analysis" of the text.

The text of languages is typically divided into three categories:

1. Word

2. Phrase

3. Sentence

Words are classified into different categories according to their use, function or purpose, termed as "parts of speech".  "Word" is defined in dictionaries: "A sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing or printing that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or of a combination of morphemes.". In Arabic, the Word is called-. ٱلْكَلِمَة It is defined as an expression formulated for a singular meaning. Those who opine that a word can have many meanings in a sentence are in error since it is against the definition of word. We live in the world of words. We first listen Words, thereby we copy-speak-articulate it. Listening facilitates reading the written words, whereby we attain ability to reproduce-transcribe it with our own hands. Word is divided into eight categories in English but only three in Arabic that are mutually exclusive and embrace all words in the language:

               حَرفٌ  (a) plural حروف -Particles:

This category is defined as those words that do not impart a meaning on their own. Roughly speaking, it is equivalent to what we know in English as prepositions, conjunctions, articles, interjections and other particles. Since they do not impart a meaning on their own, they are understood only when other words are mentioned along with them. In fact, their very purpose is to expose certain attributes in the words around them. Hence, any word that does not impart a meaning on its own accord; rather it helps expose attributes of other words, is a Particle. If this is not the case, then the word is either a Noun or a Verb.

             اِسمٌ  (b)          plural. أسماء Noun:

      This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on their own and do not need help of another word to explain its meanings. They do not afford a tense. This is equivalent to what we know in English as nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs. In default state, they are always in "Nominative" case, which is reflected by the vowel sign ـُُ  or the same sign doubled ـُـُ, on  the last consonant of the word.

           فعل  (c)          plural أفعال Verb:

     This category is defined as those words that impart a single meaning on  their own describing some work, action, activity or state and afford a tense, i.e. past, present or future. This is exactly what is known in English as Verbs.

    English language has eight speech parts: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition and interjection. Arabic has three since pronouns and adjective are categorized as nouns, and conjunction, preposition and interjection are part of Particles: حروف.

   The first word of Divine Discourse; matching a start codon in the gene of Messenger RNA, is: بـِ : an inseparable preposition which is always prefixed and renders its object-noun in genitive state. The apparent sign of genitive state is vowel sign [ـِ] underneath the last consonant of the word. This preposition enables us to visually recognize words as nouns without consulting a dictionary.

    Experts say that prepositions are difficult to define but are easy to understand. They, in Urdu and English, generally tell the "position" of people, or things in relation to where other people or things are located. They show relationship between objects in space where one thing is in relation to another; and they can show relationship in time when an event occurred in relation to another event. Moreover, in Arabic they can relate facts not affected by time and space, i.e. absolute facts or realities. In English also the prepositions function to link a noun with other words to give a sense of time, place, direction etc.

    Like English, in Arabic also the Prepositions are indeclinable words that introduce the object of a prepositional phrase. Indeclinable words are words that have only one possible form. Particles do not follow the template system and hence they do not have patterns. They are what they are and they must be memorized as they are. However, please relax since they are not much in number and initially just a dozen needs to be remembered. In semantic terms the preposition functions to illustrate a logical, temporal, or spatial relationship between the object of the prepositional phrase and the other components of the sentence.

    The Preposition: بـِ designates contiguity in its broadest sense. It has a wide range of uses including spatiotemporal, instrumental and manner adverbial explicitly identifiable in context. It is frequently used for connectivity, be it true or figurative; for accompaniment; and to make a verb transitive. It is used for [الاستعانة] resorting, recourse. [Just to have a glimpse of words with prefixed  preposition: بـِ visit**]

Arabic is a language of syllables. The First text Word: comprises of  two syllables; first syllable comprises a consonant, a vowel and consonant [C+V+C]; followed by another syllable comprising a consonant and vowel. This word, a prepositional phrase is spelled differently as:  in the text at four places [(1)56:74(2)56:96(3)69:52(4)96:01=4]. After preposition: بـِ  it has the addition of  ٱ, but the speaker will articulate and pronounce it in exactly identical manner as he pronounced two syllables of:  . The articulated sound of both the spellings is exactly the same for the auditory faculty of the listener. Presuming that these two differently spelled words were written for the first time in black and white in response to dictation by another person; why would the Scribe transcribe the identically articulated sound differently in the written text? Therefore, the very first word of the Grand Qur'aan read with another word of the same syllabic sound but spelled differently, with exactly identical meanings, is indicative of the fact that it was transcribed in writing firstly by the elevated Messenger of Allah the Exalted who also firstly verbally articulated it to his audience. Thereafter, it is copied and reproduced in time and space with different spellings at different locations of the text of Grand Qur'aan in accordance with the original text written by the right hand of the elevated Last Messenger of Allah the Exalted.

     : This phrase in isolation literally means: "beginning-activation-concomitance is with a name -code". Initiating any controlled process requires information. And the most fundamental fact about information is that it is itself preceded by the Prime Source Who is but the Living and holding Will. The Divine Discourse concatenates facts in perfect sequence and chronological order. Its first word vividly indicates at the outset about superb concatenation-consistence-contiguity and colligation in the contents of the Book in hand. This is the First scientific fact of the physical world. The creation and for created ones the initiation of the process of learning-knowledge is but the "code/name". The human memory and that of computer can save nothing without knowing or assigning a code/name to a thing-object-phenomenon.

Our knowledge is dependent upon the existence of matter and awareness of its name/code which verbally mirrors it through words comprising of letters, consonants and diacritics of a language making us cognizant of it. Cognizant is he who can verbally mirror the image of that thing for others. This being the ground reality, we cannot say with certainty regarding whether thought-idea-image-name-word mirroring the physical object is the first in existence, or the object mirrored by that thought/word was the first in existence. Grand Qur'aan has clarified for us in simple words that the idea, thought, Wish and the Will of a Living Being precedes the emergence of a physical reality. The idea, thought and perception of the thing precedes its taking physical existence. [The Word: it converts Abstract Realm into Physical Realm.]

: In Arabic, prepositional phrase is grammatically described: جار و مجرور/بِ حرف جر + اِسم مَجرُور and  حُرُوفُ الْجَرِّ mean Particles of attraction; Prepositions or Genitive Particles. The Root of this noun is "س م و".  : Name/code introduces for us the concept-field known as Epistemologylearning Knowledge: in Arabic. Grand Qur'aan will keep unfolding  the information about "Knowledge" in such simple manner that even without much of fatiguethat is experienced when we read about it starting with Sophist, Gorgias, Protogoras and onwards, we will keep journeying smoothly step by step knowing about it. Next time this word: relates it with imparting the Knowledge:

We will find in subsequent occurrences that additional information is communicated by linking it with new words-concepts-information and eventually we will be told through our guide lord Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the ultimate stage and the sublime purpose of pursuit of knowledge:

: If preposition: بـِ is truncated we are left with Noun: . However, Arabs do not begin a word with a vowel-less consonant. Therefore, this Noun in the middle of a sentence is written as: .

A noun is a word that functions as name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living beings, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. Peculiar features of nouns are:

    1- They verbally mirror the image or perception of an existing reality; a tangible, physical thing having dimensions, or an abstract idea/thought/perception. The primary meanings, perception and functions of a Noun as are prevalent in English Grammar and Composition are with little modifications also applicable to Nouns of Arabic; "The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. Adjective: nominal. Most nouns have both a singular and plural form, can be preceded by an article and/or one or more adjectives, and can serve as the head of a noun phrase". "A noun can function as a subject, direct object, indirect object, complement, appositive, or object of a preposition. In addition, nouns sometimes modify other nouns to form compound nouns".** .

      2- The information is attributed to a noun as subject/topic [مبتدأ] of initiating discussion/discourse/conversation. Similarly, noun is used for attribution to another word, it is then the predicate-[خبر]. The Noun which is either Subject [مبتدأ] or Predicate [خبر], it will always be in Nominative state-indicators ـُُ  or ـُـُ, .

     3. The Definite Article: is entered upon the Noun. This enables visual recognition of a Noun in the text of Qur'aan. Please glance the List of All Nouns in the Grand Qur'aan which are prefixed with Definite Article. Please orally repeat this peculiar feature about Nouns of Arabic a couple of times, whereby it will get entrenched in the Non Declarative memory of brain. Please remember that learning a Language is actually acquiring a skill which becomes easy when we do exercise like acquiring any other skill, say driving.

    4. The Noun may have " tanwīn (تنوين)" reflected by double short vowel signs at the end of the word [ــًــٍــٌ  tanwīn symbols] producing the sound of Nun-ن. This is yet another facility for visual recognition of Nouns in the text of Qur'aan. Just glance through the list [here] repeating orally this peculiar feature of Nouns for couple of times. It will enable its storage in non-declarative memory for ever, whereby we will effortlessly recognize such nouns which will enhance our reading proficiency.

    5. Yet another visual identification mark of a Noun is that it does not end with a Jezm, while a verb does. For example seeing these words - ending with a Jezm, we will instantly know that these are NOT nouns but are verbs.

   6. The genitive case reflected by vowel sign [ـِ .. -ٍ ] at the end of word is uniquely associated with noun.

According to their kinds, Arabic and English nouns can be logically classified into two kinds, i.e. (1) Proper, and (2) Common nouns.

Proceeding further after truncating preposition: بـِ  in the compound two phrases:     We are left with the Possessive Phrase: which occurs at four places [(1)6:118(6)6:119(3)6:121(4)22:40=4].

: These two words constitute the first grammatical unit [equivalent to a codon in a gene of Messenger RNA in genetics]. It comprises of a Prepositional Phrase + Possessive Phrase.  The learned grammarians lay the principle that a Prepositional Phrase in Arabic is neither the Subject nor the predicate of a sentence. It relates to either. Therefore, a verb-verbal noun is understood and conveniently estimated before this phrase. We need a citation for a statement. A written word or a statement is firstly spoken by someone; thereby it is reiterated in time and space. We know the Person who orally and in writing communicated: the Parlancethe Discourseverbal Message of Allah the Exalted that we are reading and trying to translate and comprehend in target language English. Therefore, the elided Verb before the statement of universal import that can most appropriately be estimated is: "Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the elevated Messenger of Allah the Exalted Pronounced that------". The structure of sentence is simple and is of declarative type.

Phrase: It is a string of words that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. A phrase is lower on the grammatical hierarchy than a clause. These are compounds, in Arabic الْمُرَكَّبَاتُ. When two or more words are joined they constitute a Phrase [مركب ناقص] or [مركب تام] a Sentence-جُمْلَةٌ.

The Possessive Phrase in Arabic is called: أَلإضَافَةُ ٱلْحَقِيقِيَّةُ  literally: annexation, addition, or attachment; Possessive/Relative Phrase-"the Construct"association of two nouns, one "possessing, belonging/having association-relationship" to the other. Such phrases are easily identifiable because of their distinct visual features:

*    The noun that is possessed comes first, and is called: مضاف

*     The noun that is the possessor comes second/after, and is called: مضاف إليه

*     The first and the second noun worry about their own gender and plurality.

*     If the second noun is definite, the first noun derives its definiteness from the second noun.

*    Since the first noun derives its definiteness from the second definite noun, therefore, in possessive phrase the first noun will never have definite article, and nor "nunation/تنوين ;

*   The نون which is the suffix for duality and masculine sound plurality will also drop.

*  The first noun in this relationship; whatever its grammatical state may be, which is determined by external factors, like is genitive here because of prefixed preposition, will always render the second noun in the genitive case.

Since: Allah/ مضاف إليه is the Proper Noun, therefore, the first noun of Possessive Phrase has automatically become definite/specific noun, denoting "the Name of the second Definite - Proper Noun". The Second Noun reflective of a Personality - Status - Title, the first noun/مضاف refers to the Personal Name of that Status Name. It is a common perception that "The Name" always denotes personal name; grants personal recognition of a Person-Authority-Sovereign, and never refers or is assigned to an adjective or metonym/attributive/adjectival names, notwithstanding how much a person may become popular and recognized by those attributive or nick names.  It is also a matter of common sense that the personalities of grandeur have a Title and Personal Name which can be substituted-interchanged, since both will lead towards - refer a Single Person.

: It is the Proper Noun reflecting the unique position, the Absolute, the Only Independent in all that existed/exists/will exist. This has been defined as: (2:163;4:171) the Solitary, the Only and Alone Iela'aha: The Sovereign, the Lord Who is uncritically admired, revered and feared.

This should never be translated by any word of other languages. It should be transcribed in the alphabet of other languages in the manner that a non-native produces the same-as near sound as is in the Arabic language. It is in English dictionaries spelled Allah that produces same sound as is in Arabic.

The most vivid historical fact mentioned in the Grand Qur'aan is that in time and space, irrespective of their languages, all the Elevated Messengers used this word: before their respective people. We find that the earliest people, even before the emergence of civilization named after Noah alai'his'slaam, knew and used: in their conversations [5:27-28], and the fact that He the Exalted is the Sustainer Lord of the Worlds-all that exists.

The Elite-Dominant segment of the Nation of Noah alai'his'slaam did the first greatest deception to their subjects-weaker segments and to posterior humanity when they sculpted statues; and by assigning them various hypothetically coined names declared these as various : "miscellaneous gods". It is how they innovatively introduced the hypothetical concept of various gods. This reflects craftiness and cunningness of the pseudo-intellectuals, the coteries of ruling elite, who derived a word from: in such manner that it may look different to avoid mutiny and straightaway rejection by ordinary majority of people. After they had done this deception; the message conveyed to the people in time and space is to get out of this deception and know that: is  . We MUST always call to maintain and reflect our distinction that we believe in: .

: The third and fourth word of Ayah constitute a true Adjectival Phrase termed in Arabic: النَّعْتُ الحَقِيقِيُّ. The features of nouns of such phrases are distinct from possessive phrases that render its visual recognition easy and simple:

*   The one being described must come first, and it is called مُوْصُوف/the one who is being described/portrayed. This noun in itself is termed non-descriptive words.

*   The description must come second, and that is called صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, qualitative portrayal of the mentioned noun. Such nouns are termed descriptive words.

*   One noun may have many successive adjectives.

*   Both the nouns [مُوْصُوف/صِفَة] must be same/correspond in gender [masculine or feminine]

*  Both the nouns [مُوْصُوف/صِفَة] must be same/correspond in number [singular, dual, plural]

* Both the nouns [مُوْصُوف/صِفَة] must be same/correspond in definiteness [definite or indefinite]

* Both the nouns [مُوْصُوف/صِفَة] must be same/correspond in grammatical case [nominative, accusative, or genitive]

Unlike other languages, like English and Urdu in which the adjective comes first-prioritized than the described one, Arabic is a language of truth and fact, the language of our guide lord Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam,  مُوْصُوف/the one who is described/portrayed is mentioned first since he is the First in Existence and it is always the: مُوْصُوف who has either inherently and intrinsically the mentioned  صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, or has acquired/adopted it.

: We are trying to learn Grammar [Morphology and Syntax] by following the teaching strategy of Grand Qur'aan on need to know basis. We have memorized that nouns in Arabic in their default state are always in nominative case [ ـُـُ  ـُ ] and whenever they are not as such in the text we must enquire the reason and find the agent influencing change of case ending. This phenomenon of variations in case ending is called grammatical inflection and is the heart of Arabic grammar. Experts say, "In Arabic grammar, we have this concept called grammatical inflection. It is the core of grammar and everything else revolves around it. Any discussion that the grammarians have is always rooted in grammatical inflection. Anything the grammarians talk about, they talk about only because it is related to grammatical inflection. Understand this concept helps know the Arabic language and failing to understand it is failing to understand the language. Arabic grammar IS grammatical inflection."***

The fact that the grammar of Arabic revolves around inflection renders learning Arabic of Qur'aan as easy as brains of children effortlessly learn the grammar of their native language merely by hearing and watching. Inflection in Arabic is just four signs at the end of words. We have already become familiar with these signs; nominative ـُ ; genitive [ـِ] and accusative ـَ ; or same when doubled [ــًــٍــٌ  tanwīn symbols]. The fourth sign peculiar to verbs is [جَزْم] a small sign [] like at the end of this verb .

The first two words comprising of Prepositional Phrase and Possessive Phrase    shift the fixation point of our gaze to the next fixation point where with 100% acuity we find the word: . The gaze signals to the brain that it is also in genitive case [ـِ]. This forces the brain to analyze and determine its reason as to why it is not in default state  ـُ . Since our brain had already analyzed the previous phrases, therefore, it rules out the possibility of it being genitive because of the influence of preposition or because of second noun of possessive phrase. Why is it then in genitive case?

We are familiar about the concept of "Apposition" in our native languages. "Apposition is the placing of a noun or noun phrase beside another noun and noun phrase, where it shares the same grammatical function and serves to identify the other in a different way. Words in apposition are called appositives. The appositive which gives additional information is called non-restrictive; in other cases, the appositive is an essential part of the expression and is called restrictive.
 

"Apposition can either be restrictive, or non-restrictive where the second element parenthetically modifies the first. In a non-restrictive appositive, the second element parenthetically modifies the first without changing its scope. Non-restrictive appositives are not crucial to the meaning of the sentence. In a restrictive appositive, the second element limits or clarifies the foregoing one in some crucial way. For example in the phrase "my friend Tariq", "Tariq" specifies to which friend the speaker is referring and is therefore restrictive. On the other hand, in the a non-restrictive appositive does not narrow down the subject, but rather provides additional information about the subject. In English, a non-restrictive appositive must be preceded or set off by commas, while a restrictive appositive is not set off by commas."***

In Arabic too, there are Equivalent Appositive [البَدَلُ] and Explicative Appositive [عطف البيان]. "The Equivalent Appositive is a word which has attributed to it whatever is attributed to its principle while the subordinate is intended for the attribution not its principle" [*** Page-111]. In Arabic, when a noun is influenced indirectly it is termed Subordinate [التَّابِعُ] because it follows that which precedes it in case ending [إِعْرَابُ]. The preceding word it mimics is called the: .مَتْبُوْع Apposition noun should agree with the preceding noun's case, gender and number; like: is here in genitive case as is the first Noun.

: With regard to nouns, the basic distinction in languages is common noun and proper noun. The perception of the contents of source text may be distorted extensively if it is not resolved about a noun as to whether it is a common noun or proper noun, and whether it is descriptive or non-descriptive.

Proper noun is a name of a particular, individual person, place, community, or thing who/which is usually unique; it has a singular reference. A common noun on the other hand is a name in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica; "a name is a word or group of words used to refer to an individual entity (real or imaginary)" (vol.24, p.733).

The name is the code that gives basic cognition of existence and presence of a thing and person. Hence, name is the introduction for apparent/initial cognition of a thing and person. Cognition of the code/name of a thing or person is the first step in gaining knowledge about the thing or person. Name of a thing or person gives it or him a vivid distinction from all other things and persons and makes it or him distinguished, identified, definite and isolated [معرفة]; and grants ability to others to identify, and describe/remember/recall and/or mention-refer it or him to others. The name/code serves as a basis/foundation for others to enquire and study about it to gain further knowledge.

Attributive names/adjectival descriptions give further information, insight and knowledge about the thing or person introduced by a Personal Name-Proper Noun. These are complimentary in nature and help acquaint others about the inner-self [بَاطِن] of the named object or person/being. Every person and thing/object has two aspects; the one evidently apparent [ظَاهر] notwithstanding whether or not it is in the range of focus of someone, and the other is the inner-self, hidden, infolded, not apparent but invisibly embedded therein: بَاطِن.

The evidently apparent [ظَاهر] is the reflection of the fact of existence, and its cognition and reference is by the Name. The pursuit-journey of knowledge is from cognition of existence/Name towards knowing and perceiving the inner-self [بَاطِن] of that which exists and its relationships and equations with all that exists. We cannot have the absolute knowledge of anything and person/being unless we know its/his inner-self [بَاطِن], after its cognition, introductory knowledge of its Name.

Once we know the inner-self, all that is secreted, hidden and its relationships with everything else, we know that thing and Person in near absolute sense. Thereupon, it or He becomes more visible and apparent than the shining Sun in a bright  day, even without being in visual sightthe [ظَاهر] aspect of Him. Therefore, we know Him/him with such conviction, which is the absolute-exalted end of the knowledge. This type of knowledge, with reference to personalities, can be attained only about two,  Allah, Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted; and Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salamthe mercy Personified, since theبَاطِن of both is quite extensively visible to us all around, and through the courtesy of Grand Qur'aan.

Personal names are never translated in any language of the world. Proper names must be transcribed in the alphabet of other languages in the manner that a non-native produces the same-as near sound as is in the original language. We fully know that the Exalted Personalities have recognition both by their Proper Name. Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam is the guide lord for humanity, he is advised to tell us:

We call/address persons by the status, or position held by him or calling  by his personal name. In between: and is: which means "or, alternate-interchangeable-appositively, either"; and thus it is reflected that both are the exclusive distinct Names of the Being Who is The Only Iela'aha: Sovereign Lord of the peoples.

Important to note and remember:  The Personal Name: is unique; exclusive; unprecedented; this has no parallel [19:65];  no dual, no plural, no feminine equivalent.  Personal Name that introduce and grant cognition of an existing personality, unlike attributive-adjectival names-descriptions, never have duality and plurality. Neither there is any process/phenomenon/rule in the Arabic language for  “feminization” or "masculinization" of proper nouns/names. Moreover, first two letters in the Proper Names: and should never be considered and equated with Definite Article: since it is the intrinsic and inherent part of the Names.

: Ar'Reh'maan: Unique personal name of Allah the Exalted

: Ar'Reh'maan: This unique personal name of Allah the Exalted has widely been discussed by scholars, Muslims, Jews and Christians included, for determining its meanings by considering it as an attribute of the Sustainer Lord of the Universes. This debate spreads over thousand pages.

Grand Qur'aan is perhaps the only book about which scholars, believing and non-believing, never adhered to otherwise well accepted norms of behaviour - academic discipline of transferring a book of one language to another language. Just one example suffices to prove this allegation. We have in academics means and methods to distinguish a Proper Noun - Personal Name in a lengthy text. None seems to have cared to resolve whether Ar'Reh'maan is the Proper Noun-Name of Allah the Exalted, despite the fact that it finds mention for fifty seven times in the text of Grand Qur'aan.

We will rely upon the Grand Qur'aan to let us know whether it is the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, or could it be stretched and considered as an Adjectival Name attributing a qualitative trait.

We find in Grand Qur'aan that it is fully declinable, in all cases, nominative, accusative and genitive.

Rules of Arabic language signify it as Proper Noun - Personal Name. Proper Noun is always the first element in Adjectival Phrase.  Proper Noun/Personal Name NEVER find a place at a secondary place as an adjective in the Adjectival Phrases. Neither in Grand Qur'aan nor in other literature one will find it as second noun in adjectival phrase.

In possessive phrases - أَلإضَافَةُ ٱلْحَقِيقِيَّةُ, the proper noun is never the first - مضاف, it is always the second noun - مضاف إليه.

Proper Noun has no dual or plural, it has no feminine parallel, while the adjectives in Arabic do have its dual and plural form and have a feminine form of same adjective.

Since: : Ar'Reh'maan is Proper Noun it has no dual and plural form, neither there is its feminine equivalent.

The fundamental simple features and grammar of Arabic language vividly reflect that: Ar'Reh'maan has no other denotative and connotative ascription except that of the Proper Name. The Grand Qur'aan unambiguously explains in various references and contexts that this is but Unique and Exclusively the Personal Name of Allah the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of all that exists.

Though no further argument is needed in support of it being Proper Noun, but finding that almost all the translations and exegeses have erroneously rendered it adjectival, we will further study its use by reference to collocation context for its recognition-classification as Proper Noun and NOT as adjective. A habitual word combination is called collocation.

(1) Creator of things is always identified and referred by Proper Name, be it an individual person or a company, organization. We do not refer a creator by an adjective because a listener can immediately ask for as to who is being referred since adjectival traits can be shared by many at a time. The complete perusal of Grand Qur'aan reveals that only the Names, Allah the Exalted and Personal Name Ar’Rehmaan refer the Creator of everything that exists:

(2) The Subject [عَبْد plural عباد] is identified only by the Proper Name of his Lord Allah - Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. The complete perusal of Grand Qur'aan reveals that Slaves-Servants-Allegiants-Subjects are declared only with reference to proper Names, Allah the Exalted and  Ar’Rehmaan:

 

 

In the days of gradual revelation of Grand Qur'aan the rational people paid more attention to the substance and avoided indulging in discourses and discussions about grammar and morphology etc. Moreover, such things are of interest and necessity for a non-native/non Arab. In addition, the claim in the Grand Qur'aan is that it is easy for comprehension and understanding of humanity irrespective of language barrier. It is thus evident that even without knowing the depth and niceties of language, grammar etc one can grasp the substance and essence of the message merely by acquaintance of Arabic. Therefore, without delving deep into the debate spread over thousands of pages, we plainly keep asking the Grand Qur'aan to make us understand whether: is the Personal Name of our Sustainer Lord or is it His Attributive Name reflecting His infinite mercifulness.

It is our common perception and approach that whenever we introduce or mention a slave/servant or subject we do not say, "he-so and so is slave or subject of "merciful ", "powerful " etc. On the contrary, we refer the Personal Name of his master/Lord. Similarly, the relationship between the Person and the thing is that of Creator and the created. Creator is the Lord [] of the created things and the created things are the slaves [] of their Creator. Both the words reflect a two-way relationship.

In the like manner of our perception and practice, Allah never referred about His slaves/created living persons [] with relation to His attributes. He the Exalted always calls them as: by Personal Name.

Grand Qur'aan is a discourse of Proven Facts; the First : allegiant mentioned in the Grand Qur'aan is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam. About 550-600 years before his corporeal appearance Easa alai'his'slaam had informed about him as the Only Messenger to appear after his natural death and mentioned at that point in time: "His name is Ahmad" [61:06]. Beginning is with the Personal name: of Allah the Exalted and immediately after beginning/creation is: "The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah"; and for the one who praises someone intensively and extensively it is said that his name is .

Grand Qur'aan is in absolute chronological sequence exposing facts relating to temporal and pre-temporal era. The perception and concept of: is not something that could exist in isolation. It can emerge only when there is an Object for it and another person of will and intellect to act as doer/subject of performing it. There has to be the Praised One and the Praiser/Admirer when: the Praise, the Admiration will become a reality. The First -the Slave-the Allegiant-the One at the service of Allah is Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam, the great creation.

The words: - can never appear as the first noun of possessive phrase - أَلإضَافَةُ ٱلْحَقِيقِيَّةُ with second noun which is adjective/descriptive word. That will be invalid phrase in Arabic. This fact also reconfirms that: Ar’Rehmaan is Proper Noun.

(3) Prostration-obeisance is before and for the Person, and not for his traits.

One pays obeisance, and gesture of extreme adoration and submission is made before and for the Person or object referred by Proper Noun, and not by adjectival names/traits. The concept of Obeisance and Prostration is embedded in Arabic Root: س ج د . The original, basic meanings are the feel of lowliness, humility, submissiveness by one for someone else, which is manifested by lowering of one's head in the state chin moving towards chest along with eyes going downwards, or bending oneself down. The basic perception unfolds that this is a relational word-it happens or takes existence only when there are two entities. Moreover, evidently it is not an abstract or theoretical proposition but a physical act; something expressed, conveyed, and submitted through body language instead of verbal expression.  This act signifies and demonstratively portrays-parallels one's thought of surrender and submission reflecting acceptance of his relative humble state and position as against the exalted, honoured, elevated stature, and glory of other. This gives us its initial perception and meanings as obeisance, homage, respectful, saluting  gesture and behaviour towards/for someone else.

The relational aspect, physical nature and the reflection of the relativity in stature, position and elevation of the subject and the one for whom this act is done is explained at first instance of use of this Root in the Qur'aan:

The relational aspect is conspicuously evident, that one is the performer and the other is the one for or before whom the act is performed. The sincere feel and passion, paralleled by the physical gesture of body parts bowing, reflects willful and affectionate acknowledgement of the greatness, grandeur and superiority of the one for or before whom one demonstrates it. The essence, or the inherent consideration for the performance of this act, at one's own inclination, before or for someone is to seek his attention, acknowledgement, and thereby become nearer to the exalted.

The act of Ieb'lees and his state of mind, when he demurred to comply with the command, further reflects the denotation of the act signified by this verb. He was obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority. What impression and message is conveyed, and is gathered by onlookers watching this physical gesture, body language? It is quite vividly disclosed by quoting the plea/so called logic of  Ieb'lees for holding himself back in paying obeisance for Adam alahissalam:

 Notwithstanding that Ieb'lees is perhaps the first pseudo-intellectual; his understanding of exposure and manifestation, which is caused by: "you pay obeisance", discloses the essence embedded in this bodily act-gesture-body language. It is visibly concrete exposure of feel and acceptance of relative humility, smallness, less importance, and inferiority in state, position and honour than the one whom obeisance is paid. He, in his own assessment, weighed himself as superior/better than the one whom he was asked to pay obeisance. Therefore, he did not find it befitting to pay obeisance to the one whom he thought inferior to his self. His support argument and "logic" for presuming himself superior, indicating that rather he is more deserving to be paid obeisance, was the base material of their respective creation. He did not become a reverent for the one whom Allah the Exalted dignified and honored upon him. This is reflective of his act: "he made his own self obsessed/puffed with pride of grandeur and superiority".

It thus conspicuously reveals that the state of mind, i.e. the feel precedes the gesture - its expression by body language. The Root has been used at other occurrences also where the relational field restricts its meanings to its basic-initial signification, i.e. feel of humbleness with head down on chin in humility posture.

The Root and the Word; on entering in the relational field when the Revered is the Only One-The Absolute-The Only Independent-The Self Subsisting-The Creator-The Supreme Exalted-Sovereign Sustainer Lord of the Universes, and the Reverent are all objects and living-all that exists in the created realm, denote meanings from beginning to its exhaustive-absolute limit. Beginning is the recognition of elevated stature, grandeur, honour, glory, that serves as stimuli for someone to submit in humility and praise, compelling him to compromise his self esteem by bending downwards for or before another Entity. The intensity of the recognition and feel will get reflected from respectful and submissive posture of lowering the head with chin going towards chest to the last exhaustive limit of bending, lowering and surrender reflected by the forehead placed for and before someone on Earth. Moreover, it reflects acceptance of one's limitations/limitedness as against the self-feel of grandeur and self-sufficiency.

Since this is a physical act, therefore, the cause or the feel, which is its stimuli, can either be sincere, affectionate, reverence oriented, or because of compulsion of coercive circumstances forcing one to surrender and bend in humility:

If we skim the Divine Discourse we will not find that the prostration collocates with any adjectival - epithetical word. Apart from Proper Noun Allah the Exalted, it is stated to prostrate for: :

(4)  One is mentioned by Personal Name who adorns the Throne/Seat of Sovereignty; and not by adjectives.

It is our common perception and a well-known practice that we mention the Name of the person who takes over and adorns the seat of power-sovereignty/throne. We do not mention him by adjectival traits and attributive names. Likewise, in Grand Qur'aan only the Proper Name, Allah and Ar'Reh'maan is mentioned with regard to adorning the Sublime Seat of Authority-Sovereignty Who is its Sustainer Lord. Moreover, it is beyond limits of seven skies of our Universe. This is above water.

(5) A person makes a promise. Promise-maker finds mention by title or personal name.

A promise, commitment, undertaking, and obligation are that of a person/being. The Title or Personal Name always refers him with reference to the promise made by him. We never refer a promise by the adjectival trait/attributive names of the undertaker of that promise and commitment.

Allah the Exalted has promised.

Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted has promised

The promise of Allah the Exalted.

(6)  An agreement, contract, covenant, pact is with reference to party's Title or Personal Name.

A contract, bond, covenant, in legal parlance, creates an obligation which is binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are the parties who have legal capacity to make a contract reflecting mutual assent. In general, contract may be oral or written. It is thus evident that the contracting parties shall find mention by respective Title or Personal Name. Its very nature prohibits that the reference of the parties shall not be by adjective/attributive names. In Arabic, the equivalent word is .

The attributive names of Allah the Exalted never find mention in the Divine Discourse with reference to semantic field of this word denoting something enjoined, solemn pledge, contract, obligation, binding commitment, covenant. Its mention is in relation only to Proper Nouns: and .

(7) Mention of Permission, Authorization, and Proclamation is always by the Title or Name of the authority.

The grant of permission, authorization and a notification, proclamation is by a person in authority. The permission, authorization, notification and proclamation find mention in writing only by reference to the Proper Name of the concerned authority. The semantic domain for permission, authorization, approval, announcement, declaration, proclamation the Root is " ء ذ ن" , words like , .

With the explicit permission/consent/authorization of Allah the Exalted.

(8) People relate a son [very as well adopted] with Personal Name of the one with whom they relate a son.

We relate a son to a Proper Name and not describe this relationship by adjectives/traits of person with whom we relate a son.

Take note, They the Elders-Religious elite of earlier people said; "Ar'Reh'maan has purposely adopted a son". [19:88]

We have noticed that the Divine Discourse is explicitly explicative. It was the lapse of exegetes who blindly followed and copied the erroneous thought of their forerunners George Sale and John Rodwell by rendering a Proper Noun in the very first Ayah of Divine Discourse as adjective.

The prerequisite to accurately and comprehensively perceive the perception and thought conveyed in Arabic text is to firstly know and determine the relation of each word with its preceding and subsequent word while determining its own position and role played in the sentence/text. One cannot comprehensively perceive the thought-idea conveyed therein merely by knowing the vocabulary of language. Some say about Arabic that we learn Arabic to read Arabic.

Syntactic parsing graph:

Adjectival Phrase

صِفَة

Adjectival description

بدل/ مُوْصُوف 

Equivalent Apposition-Head Noun-the Described

         

Possessive Phrase + Prepositional Phrase

جار و مجرور  +           الاضافةُ

Proper Noun-اسم علم

Noun-اسم مجرور

بـِ

Prep-حرف جر

مضاف إليه

مضاف

 

: The third and fourth word of Ayah constitute a true Adjectival Phrase termed in Arabic: النَّعْتُ الحَقِيقِيُّ; The Name of Allah the Exalted is Ar'Reh'maan. He is eternally the Fountain of Infinite Mercy.

:  The Fountain of Infinite Mercy. This is صِفَة/adjective, quality, trait, qualitative portrayal of the mentioned Proper Noun. It is Intensive Quasi Active participle: Definite; Masculine; Singular; genitive. Generally it is referred as اسم المبالغة/ Hyperbole; but we find and should remember that Grand Qur'aan is a statement of Proven Fact which is always void of any exaggeration in the negative sense/ perception of this word in Urdu and English.

Related with creation of physical world, the first trait of: introduced is: . Why this choice?

The Mercy, one will find, is reflected and manifested in every trait and thing; above all one will find the Umbrella of The Mercy of Allah- Ar'Reh'maan the Exalted. Moreover, it is reflective of the fact that creation is for determined purpose since creating things for playful purposes does not entail that one should prescribe for oneself to be ever merciful.

This is the First Ayah: Unitary Verbal Passage of seven chosen-selected-excepted:   from the Binary-Symmetrical-analogous Miscellany. It is numbered in text as (1). The Ayah that has “Hamzata Wasl-ٱ” in the beginning follows it: . In all other Surahs of the Grand Qur'aan, it is NOT the part of the text but is printed without assigning a number for the convenience, and to remind the readers presuming their majority as belonging to believers who are required to follow the example of the Messenger Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam.

In graphic syntactic presentation and grammatical parsing of this Ayah a dull sign for elided "Verb" is shown. In Arabic, a verb has a built in tense and the subject. Since it is a statement, therefore, the most appropriately presumed verb is: قَالَ , perfect verb; third person, masculine, singular. Therefore, it is mentioned in the beginning, "The elevated Messenger of Allah the Exalted pronounced", and following him in letter and spirit, now we begin reading by pronouncing it.

The last time occurrence of the word: in the middle of sentence shows us that the same advice-instruction was given to the Last Nabi Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam when he was assigned the responsibility of the Universal Messenger to convey and deliver this Book to the humanity exactly as was presented to him:

Thereat, the elevated Messenger Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam while opening the presented Book, pronounced;

Summary:

1. The first Ayah comprises of a simple elliptical sentence; semantically it is declarative expressing a fact that is not bound in time and space. It is as such even before the physical realm was made to take existence.

2. Its four words comprise of a preposition and four nouns. Pedagogical lesson is to first learn about prepositions and nouns and their mutual differences. It has all the three more common phrases in languages. The second pedagogical lesson is to learn identifying phrases in the Divine Discourse which can conveniently be distinguished visually.

3. All translations are erroneous that render the Proper Noun: as adjectival.


Academic evaluation of other translations of Grand Qur'aan

 

Quite many people have translated the text of Qur'aan for various motivations, considerations and intentions, good as well as bad, in timeline. Most of these are available on line. Thanks to computer and internet technology, it is now easy to see the majority of translations on one page. This blessing of technology has highlighted a dismal image of saddening effect. When we see many translations on one page we find more plagiarism than original work by the majority.

We will start this academic study in sequential order of the Qur'aan with firstly giving the translation by George Sales and Rodwell since both seem to have influence on later translations.


 

George Sale(London, 1734)  In the name of the most merciful God.

John Medows Rodwell: (London, 1861)  In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
 
Sahih International: In the name of Allah , the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Pickthall: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Yusuf Ali: In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Shakir: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Muhammad Sarwar: In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Mohsin Khan: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

Sher Ali [Qadiani] In the name of ALLAH, the Gracious, the Merciful.

We should first determine the accuracy or otherwise of the translated text:

1. Whether this English "sentence" is a complete sentence or is lacking in linkages.
2. If it is not a complete sentence, what will be the meanings or connotation of "In the name of God":
    (a) In behalf of;
    (b) By the authority of;
    (c) With appeal to; or
    (d)  Just a swearing
    (e) invocation: a calling upon Allah

The translated "sentence" is incomplete and suffers ambiguity. English grammar tells: A sentence is a group of words which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). A sentence contains or implies a predicate and a subject. There has to be a verb in it.

Translated text can be termed as a SENTENCE FRAGMENT. It fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself. It does not contain even one independent clause. It may locate something in time and place with a prepositional phrase or a series of such phrases, but it's still lacking a proper subject-verb relationship within an independent clause.

Hence Sale's and Rodwell's translation is patently incorrect. Since others have just copied-plagiarized, they neither seem to have given a thought nor seem to have revisited the Arabic text to parse it and then translate. Unfortunate!

The other major lapse in these translations is the lack of differentiating between a common noun and proper noun as we have already discussed in some detail.

 

Arabic is easy to learn and understand-the Grand Qur'aan

1

Prepositional Phrase: بـِ Inseparable preposition + Noun: singular; masculine; Genitive. (1)01:01(2)11:41(3)27:30=3  س م و Root                جار و مجرور = بِ حرف جر + اسم مجرور-واحد-مذكر

Progressive total 1

2

  Proper Name; Masculine; Genitive.  Recurrence: 829                                   لفظ الجلالة

لفظ الجلالة :مضاف إليه مجرور للتعظيم بالاضافة

3

Proper Name; Masculine; Genitive.                                                      اللہ تعالی کا اسم ذات

مُوْصُوف

4

 Hyperbolic Participle/Intensive Adjective on  فَعِيْلٌ  measure [رَحْمةٌ]: Definite; Masculine; Singular; genitive.                                              اسم المبالغة-معرفہ باللام-مجرور-واحد مذكر

4 "The Fountain of Infinite Mercy"

   Home  Introduction of Chapter: 1 Grammar of Arabic of Grand Qur'aan

 

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